Scriptieprijs 2017

Cape Town F[r]ictions - Landscape as an ally of urban growth

Bruno Stevens Hannelore Fabri Elena Gogiberidze Joran Lombahe Gertie van den Bosch Laurens Vanden Eynde Brecht Vermeylen
Het werk vormt een referentiedocument voor de stedelijke groei van Afrikaanse steden, meer specifiek in het geval van Kaapstad. Het onderzoekt en toont de rol van stedelijk ontwerp en architectuur in één van de snelst groeiende steden in zuidelijk Afrika.

Kaapstad F[r]icties - landschap als protagonist voor urbane groei

Kaapstad F[r]icties - landschap als protagonist voor urbane groei

 

Hoe plannen voor sterk groeiende Afrikaanse steden? Welke rol is er weggelegd voor ruimtelijke planning en architectuur, binnen de dynamiek van de processen die de urbane groei drijven? Zijn de huidige stedenbouwkundige instrumenten, met het masterplan als de algemeen aanvaarde blauwdruk, nog wel gepast om antwoord te bieden?  De situatie in Kaapstad, Zuid Afrika, wordt als case study naar voren geschoven met als doel om dynamische systemen te bedenken die inspelen op het onplanbare. 

 

Momenteel worstelt Kaapstad met een stijgende demografische groei. Het weefsel van de stad wordt getekend door zijn geschiedenis van scheiding, ongelijkheid en ongecontroleerde inname van braakliggend land. Verscheidene initiatieven hebben reeds pogingen ondernomen om de problemen van de stad aan te pakken. Sommige pogingen waren hierin meer succesvol dan andere. De meeste aandacht ging hierbij voornamelijk naar het voorzien van gepaste woonaccommodatie. Hierdoor werd het overblijvende natuurlijke landschap vaak verder vergeten en ingenomen. Het urbane weefsel lijkt dan ook constant in strijd te zijn met de systemen van het natuurlijke landschap. Hierbij lijkt de urbaniteit doorgaans dominant, doch soms slaagt het natuurlijk landschap erin zijn plaats terug op te eisen. 

 

 

Niet stedelijk

 

Kaapstad kan worden beschouwd als niet-stedelijk. De stad groeide niet volgens een concentrisch model vanuit één nucleus, maar in plaats daarvan ontstonden nieuwe kernen steeds verder en verder weg. Zelden probeert men het bestaande stadsweefsel te densifiëren. Sociale heterogeniteit ontbreekt omdat alle sociale klassen uit elkaar worden getrokken in stedelijke eilanden, en zo kan Kaapstad beschouwd worden als een archipelago.  Sociale en functionele heterogeniteit is misschien wel één van de belangrijkste kenmerken van een stad. Omdat deze heterogeniteit ontbreekt in Kaapstad, kunnen we in dit geval misschien niet spreken van een stad. Dit contrasteert sterk met het beeld van Kaapstad als een mondiale stad. Deze stad wil voldoen aan het westerse model van een stad, maar Kaapstad kan niet worden vergeleken met een westerse stad. Het is een Afrikaanse stad met een heel sterk karakter en grote diversiteit. De stad moet opnieuw worden uitgevonden, met behulp van haar sterke punten van de aanwezige diversiteit en fricties. Het zou een modelstad voor Afrika kunnen worden, en misschien wel voor alle ontwikkelingssteden in de wereld.

 

F[r]icties

 

Hoe een stad functioneert blijkt vaak af te wijken van onze traditionele opvatting over stedelijke centra. Een stad is een plek waar een grote verscheidenheid van aspecten samenkomen en op elkaar inwerken. Deze heterogeniteit leidt uiteraard tot tweedracht tussen mensen en systemen door andere noden, wensen en ideeën. Het woord frictie bevat deze conflicten tussen zaken die verschillend worden gezien. Als plaatsen van diversiteit en interactie zijn steden natuurlijke incubators voor frictie. Kaapstad wordt gekarakteriseerd door een sterke frictie tussen zijn natuurlijke landschap en het urbane weefsel. In de stad is er sprake van frictie tussen verschillende urbane tegenstellingen die naast elkaar liggen: snel en traag, klein en groot, hard en zacht,… De fricties die we in Kaapstad zijn tegengekomen vormen voor ons het startpunt voor ficties. Het zijn vergeten plaatsen waar mogelijkheden en kansen liggen voor de toekomst van de stad. Er moet gebruik gemaakt worden van de sterke contrasten die overal aanwezig zijn, in plaats van ze als problemen te zien.  Door het natuurlijke landschap de nieuwe protagonist van de urbane groei te maken, ontstaat er een nieuwe kans om bestaande conflicterende elementen samen te brengen. De barrière tussen het natuurlijk landschap en het stedelijk weefsel willen we zo openbreken. Ons werk gaat dan ook juist over het nieuwe mogelijke samengaan van deze elementen. Dit moment waarop juist interessante nieuwe dingen gemaakt worden. Groot en klein, traag en snel, hard en zacht beginnen voordelen te ondervinden van elkaar.

 

Landschap als protagonist

 

Uitgaande van het landschap, kunnen we Kaapstad beter begrijpen vanuit drie karakteristieke figuren die we zelf hebben onderscheidden: Urban Cracks, Urban Crevices en Urban Rifts. Deze zijn respectievelijk, lange lineaire elementen, grote vlaktes en kleinere sequensen in het stedelijk weefsel. Het lezen van Kaapstad aan de hand van deze figuren vormt de basis van deze studio voor de benadering van het landschap als een bondgenoot voor urbane groei. De figuren worden systematisch behandeld op basis van een algemene beschrijving, gevolgd door een fictieve casestudy voor elke figuur. De casestudies zijn ontwerp projecten die het potentieel van de figuren aantonen. De fricties zelf worden geïnitieerd door spanningen van verschillende schalen, programma's, behoeften, intenties, snelheden , kleuren, dynamiek, ... Er is een dualiteit tussen de restruimte en de stedelijkheid die ons doet denken aan schizofrenie. Deze schizofrenie wordt gezien als iets negatiefs, waardoor de mogelijkheden die het met zich meebrengt, bijna bewust worden genegeerd. In plaats van deze fricties als iets negatief te zien en ze geïsoleerd te beschouwen, omhelzen we deze en zien we het potentieel, precies in de spanning ertussen. Het concept van een hybride structuur duikt op in een aantal ontwerpen. Deze hybriden zijn eerder een fictieve benadering, soms zelfs utopisch en met een blijk van een zekere naïviteit, maar zo wordt het potentieel van de fricties duidelijk. Enclaves moeten worden aangemoedigd om hun eigen karakter te ontwikkelen, en hun interactie moet worden bevorderd, zodat ze elkaar kunnen versterken. Door onze ontwerpen, trachten we deze creativiteit opnieuw te stimuleren. Door het voorstellen van ficties, tonen we hoe om te gaan met fricties. Met ons werk hopen we aan Kaapstad andere opties te tonen, zodat ze zichzelf kunnen inbeelden als een voorbeeldstad voor groeiende steden. Als een hybride stad van landschap en urbaniteit, waar landschap een protagonist vormt voor urbane groei.

 

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AdelanaI, S., XuII, Y., & VrbkaIII, P. (2010, July). A conceptual model for the development and management of the Cape Flats aquifer, South Africa. Retrieved May 21, 2016, from http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1816-795020…

 

Albonico, M., & Lone, P. (2010). Kliptown Explored (Panel 2). Retrieved May 27, 2016, from http://informalcity.co.za/kliptown-2

 

Bafana, B. (2016, April). Africa’s cities of the future | Africa Renewal Online. Retrieved May 20, 2016, from http://www.un.org/africarenewal/magazine/april-2016/africa’s-cities-future

 

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Images

 

All of the aerial images were created were obtained from Rosetta Fisher, GIS Analyst: Development Information and GIS

 

The following images were created by the authors based on GIS information, Census profiles (2011) and/or other information obtained from City of Cape Town Official website [https://www.capetown.gov.za/en/Pages/default.aspx

 

p. 40-41 Base map

p. 72-73 Occupation map

p. 88 Racial dotmap

p. 94 Landscape remnants

p. 104 Waste scheme from source to processing 

p. 106 Waste map

p. 116 Invasive species map

p. 125 Philippi horticultural area

p. 127 Agriculture map

p. 132-133 Watercourses and - bodies

p. 134-135 Sewer catchment areas

p. 136-137 Schematic representation of the waste water treatment works in Cape Town

p. 146 Water usage in Cape Town

p. 148-149 Water process from source to consumer

p. 163 temperatures and wind speeds in CT

p. 164 Flooding map

p. 166 Dam levels

p. 167 Sea level rise

p. 170 Geology map

p. 175 Topography map

p. 184 Vegetation map

p. 211 Axonometry

p. 217 Location map

p. 218-219 Historic evolution map

p. 220-221 Friction in speed map

p. 222 Langa situation map

p. 223 Langa situation map

p. 228-229 Nomansland map

p. 230-231 Enclaves map

p. 232-233 Water bodies along Settler’s Way

p. 235 transport accessibility

p. 236 crossings

p. 237 Resource flow scheme

p. 243 Aquifer map 

p. 246-247 Taxi rank map

p. 254-255 Situation plan informal settlements

p. 257 aerial map

p. 258 aerial history map

p. 267 Situation plan

p. 280-281 Langa Situation plan

p. 282-283 Langa situation plan

p. 284-285 aerial map Langa

p. 287 situation plan Langa

p. 289 axonometric Langa

p. 303 futurescape

p. 304 Axonometry

p. 312-313 Map impementation Khayelitsha

p. 318 Evolution of the Khayelitsha Area

p. 319 Map Khayelitsha

p. 320 Section through a crevice with surrounding tissue

p. 322-323 Map Harare

p. 326 Schematic representation of front- and backsides in the crevice

p. 328-329 Map pixels

p. 330-331 Pixel schemes

p. 342 Centralising big pixels

p. 346-347 Implementation axonometry

p. 362-363 Implementation axonometry

p. 367 Futurescape

p. 375 Kuils River corridor

p. 376-377 Evolution Kuils River

p.378 Remnants of the native vegetation

p.389 Urban growth

 

The following images were created by the authors based on various sources

 

p. 97 Housing scheme was created by authors based on multiple articles from bibliography

p. 90 Apartheid city planning is an image of Schoonraad (2004) obtained from South Africa City Planning: a study in post-1994 national planning legislation (Kay D., 2011)

p. 172-173 Geological section was created by the authors based on images of Peter Southwood obtained from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Geological_section_ofthe_Cape_P… 

p. 173 Section evolution was created by the authors based on images from “The Rocks and Mountains of Cape Town” by John S. Compton (2004)

p. 174 Coastal line was created by the authors based on Figure 60 in “The Rocks and Mountains of Cape Town” by John S. Compton (2004)

p. 176 Aquifer recharge sources was created by the authors based on Figure 8 from “Cape Flats aquifer and False Bay - opportunities to change” by R. Hay, D. McGibbon, F. Botha  and K. Riemann

p. 177 aquifer map was created by the authors based on Figure 6 from Cape Flats aquifer and False Bay - opportunities to change by R. Hay, D. McGibbon2, F. Botha  and K. Riemann

p. 181 artificial recharge aquifer was created by the authors based on

p. 186 floral kingdoms was created by the authors based on information from “Table Mountain - A Natural Wonder” by Glen Moll retrieved from http://gsndev.org/archives/webs/capetown/kingdom.htm 

p. 168 Flooding graveyard pond was created by the authors based on information from “Report on flooding in the informal settlement, ‘The Graveyard Pond’, Philippi, Cape Town, 2010 – 2011”

 

 

The following images were created by the authors based on information from “The role of cities in Africa’s rise” obtained from https://www.kpmg.com/Africa/en/IssuesAndInsights/Articles-Publications/… 

 

p. 70 Prediction of the population in Africa

p. 71 Most populted african cities

p. 77 Cape Town attracts people from all over the world

p. 190 Visitors according to country

p. 191 Most visited african countries

p. 192 Purpose of visit

p. 193 Tourism activities

 

 

The following images were retrieved from various sources:

 

p. 78-81

http://www.projetsdepaysage.fr/fr/landscape_as_guiding_element_in_the_d…

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_van_Riebeeck#/media/File:Jan_van_Rieb…

 

http://www.academicroom.com/topics/history-netherlands-holland

 

http://www.onsetimages.com/english/SouthAfrica/city/HoutBay/Museum/hbm_…

 

http://spreekbeurten.info/nelson-mandela.html

 

http://www.paginavermelha.org/noticias/131210-o-legado-de-nelson-mandel…

 

    http://the-white-wolfs.de.tl/The-Great-Trek.htm

 

p. 119 https://docs.google.com/document/d/1445E5bT3YsgnYiy02XwqSml2Z7Sy6upGnRr… 

 

p.122-123 

https://twitter.com/originalkaffir/status/592653966879645697

 

http://www.susanziehl.com/book.html

 

http://www.digitalcollections.lib.uct.ac.za/islandora/object/islandora%…

 

http://www.stellenboschheritage.co.za/stellenbosch/information

 

https://dreamlife.wordpress.com/2013/04/03/cape-town-through-the-years/

 

http://etienneoosthuizen.photoshelter.com/image/I0000mrxzm5nv9tg

 

http://www.thepaintboxgarden.com/2015/05/

 

p. 143 

http://www.zandvleitrust.org.za/art-ZIMP%20history%20aerial%20photos.ht…

 

http://blog.dhec.co.za/2011/04/history-of-the-cape-flats-vleis-part-v-s…

 

p. 144 - 145 

https://sites.google.com/site/mareascott/news/Table-mountain-news/the-w…

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molteno_Dam

 

http://www.goodhopeadventures.com/tunnel-tours

 

http://www.notesfromthecape.com/2016/04/table-mountain-dams.html

 

p. 262-263 

http://www.groundup.org.za/article/barcelona-residents-throw-poo-n2

 

 

p. 269 

http://www.arcspace.com/features/urban-think-tank/empower-shack/

Universiteit of Hogeschool
Master in de ingenieurswetenschappen: Architectuur
Publicatiejaar
2016
Promotor
Viviana d'Auria
Kernwoorden