Openwervendag

 

The prosecution of speech-based terrorist offences: searching for the balance between national security interests and freedom of expression

Evelien Kapteijn den Bouwmeester
Deze thesis gaat in op de trend van overheden om bij het strafbaar stellen van publieke meningsuitingen als terroristische misdrijven de lat steeds lager te leggen. Hierbij wordt de balans getrokken tussen de verplichtingen om terrorisme te bestrijden en om het recht op vrije meningsuiting te respecteren. Er wordt geconcludeerd dat deze trend een ongerechtvaardigde impact heeft op het recht van vrije meningsuiting.

Het strafbaar stellen van verheerlijken van terrorisme: werkelijk een goed idee?

In België was het één van de publieke standpunten van de N-VA die de voorbije zomer veel aandacht kregen. Er moest een strafbepaling komen voor het sympathiseren met en het verheerlijken van terrorisme. Het idee van de uitbreiding van speech-based terrorist offences – m.a.w. het fenomeen van het strafbaar stellen van publieke uitspraken en meningsuitingen als terroristische misdrijven – is niet zeldzaam. Meerdere nationale overheden hebben de redenering dat het misdrijf van aanzetten tot terrorisme niet ver genoeg reikt om terrorisme “met de wortels uit te rukken”. Er zijn echter vele redenen om aan deze claim te twijfelen.

Overheden klagen vaak dat ze in deze materie tussen twee vuren staan, namelijk de bestrijding van terrorisme en het respecteren van het recht op vrije meningsuiting. Het is echter niet een kwestie van het een of het ander. Iedere (gangbare) rechtsregel die gewijd is aan het recht op vrije meningsuiting erkent dat dit recht beperkt mag worden, indien er aan bepaalde voorwaarden is voldaan. Hierbij moet ten eerste benadrukt worden dat antiterrorisme wetgeving bijzonder verregaand is. Dit is niet alleen op vlak van de bestraffing. Een overheid is bijvoorbeeld ook geneigd om in terrorisme zaken onderzoeksmaatregelen voor te schrijven met minimale beperkingen, zoals huiszoekingen en het afluisteren van communicatie. Verder kan je ook denken aan preventieve maatregelen van een hoger kaliber, zoals het blokkeren van websites en het verbieden van bijeenkomsten. Het is enkel gerechtvaardigd om zulke maatregelen te koppelen aan zeer ernstige misdrijven.

Hier kan men voor zorgen door de “testen” onder de vrijheid van meningsuiting te volgen. Een eerste essentiële test is de legaliteitsvoorwaarde. Dit betekent dat een speech-based terrorist offence moet beschreven zijn in duidelijke bewoordingen. Indien burgers niet op een redelijke manier kunnen inschatten welke meningsuitingen strafbaar zijn, bestaat er een gevaarlijke situatie voor de samenleving. Mensen zullen, uit schrik voor eventuele gevolgen, te hevig belemmerd worden in hun vrijheid van meningsuiting. Indien het misdrijf in precieze bewoordingen wordt uitgedrukt, is er nog de voorwaarde van noodzaak/ proportionaliteit. Deze voorwaarde verlangt dat het redelijk is om de omschreven meningsuiting aan te pakken met de antiterrorismemaatregel. Antiterrorismemaatregelen zijn zo verregaand omwille van het doel om geweld van zeer ernstige aard te voorkomen. Bijgevolg is het enkel gerechtvaardigd om meningsuitingen te bestraffen die een sterke band hebben met zulk geweld.

Het strafbaar stellen van het verheerlijken van en het sympathiseren met terrorisme, faalt onder beide voorwaarden. Immers zal men zich de vraag stellen of de publicatie die een verband maakt tussen de westerse interventies in het Midden-Oosten en het ontstaan van terroristische groeperingen, ook strafbaar zal zijn. Hetzelfde zal gebeuren met journalistiek die genuanceerd schrijft over de karakteristieken en de drijfveren van zulke groepen.

Om de besproken voorwaarden te respecteren, moet een speech-based terrorist offence verlangen dat er een opzet is bij de spreker om terroristisch geweld te veroorzaken en dat de uitspraak de kans verhoogt dat zulk geweld plaatsvindt. Deze conclusie wijst erop dat men de lat best niet lager legt dan het aanzetten tot terrorisme. Landen die toch onder deze lat duiken, zullen voldoende voorbeelden kennen waarin de antiterrorismewetgeving haar doel voorbij schiet. In het Verenigd Koninkrijk werd onderzoeksjournalistiek in het kader van de Snowden affaire, dat serieuze wetsovertredingen door de overheid ontmaskerde, gekoppeld aan het begrip van terrorisme. In Frankrijk wordt een veroordeling van apologie du terrorisme uitgesproken op basis van het beledigende karakter van de meningsuiting. In Ethiopië wordt iedere vorm van kritiek op de overheid, zelfs indien deze louter vreedzaam is, veroordeeld als een terroristisch misdrijf.

Verder moet er ook getwijfeld worden of misdrijven zonder deze elementen nut hebben in de strijd tegen terrorisme. Er is een realistisch risico dat de echt gevaarlijke meningsuitingen ondergronds worden gedreven, waar ze moeilijk zijn om te controleren en waar ze met weinig tot geen tegenspraak worden geconfronteerd. Het uitbouwen van een counternarrative framework, namelijk de verspreiding van materiaal dat extremistische opvattingen tegenspreekt, werkt veel beter bij het uitrukken van terrorisme met de wortels. Een bijzonder krachtig voorbeeld hiervan is het werk van het International Center for the Study of Violent Extremism, dat korte statements en filmpjes verspreidt van interviews met IS-deserteurs. Zij verspreiden dit in chatrooms en onder hashtags van IS. Op het eerste zicht lijkt dit materiaal propaganda te zijn, waardoor de kans vergoot wordt dat sympathisanten van ISIS ermee geconfronteerd worden.

Om een (helaas beperkt) beeld te geven van de kracht van dit materiaal, is het passend om dit artikel af te sluiten met een statement van een vijftienjarige IS-deserteur. Hij richt het volgende tot alle jonge mensen in de wereld: “Ik zou hen vertellen om zich niet aan te sluiten bij dit regime, zij [IS] zijn geen moslims. Zij zijn de ongelovigen. Ze doden onschuldigen. Ze zijn niet daar voor de jihad. Zij zijn alleen daar voor geld. Diegene die zich bij hen aansluiten kunnen er niet gemakkelijk terug uitstappen. Ze spelen zichzelf voor als moslims, maar ze leren studenten  [jonge kinderen] hoe ze ontploffingen moeten uitvoeren en ze zeggen dat je dan naar het Paradijs zal gaan. Dit zijn allemaal leugens”.

Bibliografie

Treaties and protocols

Global framework

  • Charter of the United Nations, 24 October 1945, United Nations Treaty Series, Vol. 1, p. XVI.
  • Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft, signed at Tokyo on 14 September 1963.
  • International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 16 December 1966, UNTS, vol. 999, p. 171.
  • (First) Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 16 December 1966, UNTS, vol. 999, p. 171.
  • Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft, signed at the Hague on 16 December 1970.
  • Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation, signed at Montreal on 23 September 1971.
  • Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents, 14 December 1973, UNTS, vol. 1035, p. 167.
  • International Convention against the Taking of Hostages, 17 December 1979, UNTS, vol. 1316, p. 205.
  • Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, signed at Vienna on 3 March 1980, UNTS, vol. 1249, p. 13.
  • Protocol on the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of Violence at Airports Serving International Civil Aviation, supplementary to the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation, signed at Montreal on 24 February 1988.
  • Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation, done at Rome on 10 March 1988.
  • Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Fixed Platforms Located on the Continental Shelf, done at Rome on 10 March 1988.
  • Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives for the Purpose of Detection, signed at Montreal on 1 March 1991.
  • International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings, 15 December 1997, UNTS, vol. 2149, p.256.
  • International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism, 9 December 1999, UNTS, vol. 2178, p. 197.
  • International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, 13 April 2005, UNTS, vol. 2445, p. 89.

Council of Europe

  • European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, as amended by Protocols Nos. 11 and 14, 4 November 1950, Council of Europe Treaty Series  No. 005.
  • Council of Europe Convention on the Prevention of Terrorism, 16 May 2005, CETS No. 196.

European Union

  • Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, 1 December 2009, OJ.C. 26 October 2012, vol. 326, 391.

African framework

  • African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, 27 June 1981, Organisation of African Unity Documents CAB/LEG/67/3 rev. 5.
  • Organisation of African Unity Convention on the Prevention and Combating of Terrorism, 14 June 1999, OAU Doc. AHG/Dec. 132 (XXXV).

Resolutions, decisions and other documents of international organs

United Nations

  • United Nations General Assembly Resolution 217 (III) A, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted on 10 December 1948, UN Doc. A/RES/217(III) A.
  • United Nations Economic and Social Council, The Siracusa Principles on the Limitation and Derogation Provision in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 28 September 1984, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1985/4.
  • Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression, Report to the Commission on Human Rights: Civil and Political Rights, Including the Question of freedom of expression, 22 January 1999, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1999/64.
  • United Nations Security Council Resolution 1373, Threats to international peace and security caused by terrorist acts, adopted on 28 September 2001, UN Doc. S/RES/1373.
  • Human Rights Committee, General Comment No.29 on States of Emergency (article 4), 31 August 2001, UN Doc. CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.11.
  • Ad Hoc Committee Established by General Assembly Resolution 51/210 of 17 December 1996, Report to the General Assembly, 31 March – 2 April 2003, UN Doc. A/58/37
  • United Nations Security Council Resolution 1566, Threats to international peace and security caused by terrorist acts, adopted on 8 October 2004, UN Doc. S/RES/1566.
  • High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change Report, A more secure world: our shared responsibility, 2 December 2004, UN Doc. A/59/565.
  • United Nations Security Council Resolution 1624, Threats to international peace and security, adopted on 14 September 2005, UN Doc. S/RES/1624.
  • Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression, Report to the General Assembly on the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism, 16 August 2006.
  • United Nations General Assembly Resolution 60/288, The United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy, adopted on 8 September 2006, UN Doc. A/RES/60/288.
  • Human Rights Committee, General Comment No. 32 on Article 14: Right to equality before courts and tribunals and to a fair trial, 23 August 2007, UN Doc. CCPR/C/GC/32.
  • United Nations Secretary General, Report to the General Assembly: the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism, 28 August 2008, UN Doc. A/63/337.
  • Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression, Annual Report to the Human Rights Council, 20 April 2010, UN Doc. A/HRC/14/23.
  • Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism, Report to the Human Rights Council: Ten areas of best practices in countering terrorism, 22 December 2010, UN Doc. A/HRC/16/51.
  • Human Rights Committee, General Comment No. 34 on Article 19: Freedom of opinion and expression, adopted on 12 September 2011, UN Doc. CCPR/C/GC/34.
  • Human Rights Committee, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 40 of the Covenant: Concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee: Ethiopia, 25 July 2011, UN Doc. CCPR/C/ETH/CO/1.
  • Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate, Global Survey of the Implementation by Member States of Security Council Resolution 1624, 9 January 2012, UN Doc. S/2012/16.
  • United Nations Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review of Ethiopia, 7 July 2014, UN Doc. A/HRC/27/14.
  • Human Rights Committee, Concluding observations on the fifth periodic report of France, 21 July 2015, UN Doc. CCPR/C/FRA/CO/5.
  • Human Rights Committee, Concluding observations on the seventh periodic report of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, 21 July 2015, UN Doc. CCPR/C/GBR/CO/7.

Council of Europe

  • Explanatory Report to the Council of Europe Convention on the Prevention of Terrorism, 16 May 2005, CETS No. 196.
  • Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (OSCE/COE Expert Workshop on Preventing Terrorism: Fighting Incitement and Related Terrorist Activities), Background Paper on Human Rights Considerations in Combating Incitement to Terrorism and Related Offences, 19-20 October 2006.
  • Committee of Experts on Terrorism of the Council of Europe (CODEXTER), Freedom of Expression and Apologie du Terrorisme, 24-26 November 2008.
  • Secretariat General of the Council of Europe, Reservations and Declarations for Treaty No.005 - Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms: Declaration in a Note Verbale from the Permanent Representation of France, 24 November 2015.
  • Secretariat General of the Council of Europe, Reservations and Declarations for Treaty No.005 – Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms: Declaration in a Note Verbale from the Permanent Representation of France, 25 February 2016.
  • Secretariat General of the Council of Europe, Reservations and Declarations for Treaty No.005 – Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms: Declaration in a Note Verbale from the Permanent Representation of France, 25 May 2016.
  • Secretariat General of the Council of Europe, Reservations and Declarations for Treaty No.005 – Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms: Declaration in a Note Verbale from the Permanent Representation of France, 22 July 2016.

European Union

  • Framework Decision of the Council of the European Union 2002/475/JHA, 13 June 2002 on combating terrorism, OJ.L. 22 June 2002, vol. 164, 3.
  • Framework Decision of the Council of the European Union 2008/919/JHA, 28 November 2008 amending Framework Decision 2002/475/JHA on combating terrorism, OJ.L. 9 December 2008, vol. 330, 21.
  • List of Union acts adopted before the entry into of the Lisbon Treaty in the field of police cooperation and judicial cooperation in criminal matters which cease to apply to the United Kingdom as from 1 December 2014 pursuant to Article 10(4), second sentence, of the Protocol (No 36) on transitional provisions, O.J.C. 1 December 2014, vol. 430, 17.
  • European Commission, Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on the implementation of Council Framework Decision 2008/919/JHA of 28 November 2008 amending Framework Decision 2002/475/JHA on combating terrorism, 5 September 2014, COM (2014) 554 Final.
  • European Commission, Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on combating terrorism and replacing Council Framework Decision 2002/475/JHA on combating terrorism, COM (2015) 625 final.

African framework

  • African Union High-Level Inter-Governmental Meeting on the Prevention and Combating of Terrorism in Africa, Plan of Action of the African Union for the Prevention and Combating of Terrorism,  11-14 September 2002, Mtg/HLIG/Conv.Terror/Plan.(I).
  • African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights Resolution 62(XXXII)02, Resolution on the Adoption of the Declaration of Principles on Freedom of Expression in Africa, 17-23 October 2002, ACHPR/Res.62(XXXII)02.
  • African Peer Review Mechanism, Country Review Report No. 14: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, January 2011.
  • Assembly of the African Union, The African Model Anti-Terrorism Law, 30 June – 1 July 2011 (17th Ordinary Session).
  • African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights Resolution 218, Resolution on the Human Rights Situation in the Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, 2 May 2012.

National legislation, parliamentary proceedings, policy documents, etc.

Belgium

  • Criminal Code of 8 June 1867.
  • Wet 10 mei 2007 ter bestrijding van bepaalde vormen van discriminatie, Belgisch Staatsblad 30 mei 2007, 29016.
  • Voorstel van wet tot beteugeling van de verheerlijking van terrorisme, in het openbaar en op het internet, Parliamentary Proceedings Chamber of Representatives 2015-16, no. 54-1467/001.
  • Voorstel van wet tot bestraffing van het verheerlijken, schromelijk minimaliseren, pogen te rechtvaardigen of goedkeuren van terroristische misdrijven en van het uiten van blijdschap over deze misdrijven, Parliamentary Proceedings Chamber of Representatives 2015-16, no. 54-1483/001.

United Kingdom

  • Human Rights Act 1998.
  • Terrorism Act 2000.
  • The (British) prime minister’s statement on anti-terror measures, 5 August 2005, available at: http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2005/aug/05/uksecurity.terrorism1 [accessed 15/08/2016].
  • Terrorism Act 2006.
  • Joint Committee on Human Rights, The Council of Europe Convention on the Prevention of Terrorism: First Report of Session 2006-07, January 2007, 38 p.
  • Anderson, D., The Terrorism Acts in 2012: Report of the Independent Reviewer on the operation of the Terrorism Act 2000 and part 1 of the Terrorism Act 2006, July 2013, 143 p.
  • Anderson, D., The Terrorism Acts in 2013: Report of the Independent Reviewer on the operation of the Terrorism Act 2000 and part 1 of the Terrorism Act 2006, July 2014, 128 p.
  • Home Office, Examining Officers and Review Officers under Schedule 7 to the Terrorism Act: Code of Practice, March 2015, 49 p.

France

  • Déclaration des Droits de l’Homme et du Citoyen de 26 août 1789.
  • Penal Code of 1810.
  • Constitution of 4 October 1958.
  • Loi n° 2004-575 du 21 juin 2004 pour la confiance dans l’économie numérique.
  • Loi n° 2014-1353 du 13 novembre 2014 renforçant les dispositions relatives à la lutte contre le terrorisme (1).
  • Circulaire n° 2015/0213/A13 du 12 janvier 2015 concernant infractions commises à la suite des attentats terroristes commis les 7, 8, 9 janvier 2015.
  • Décret n° 2015-125 du 5 février 2015 relatif au blocage des sites provoquant à des actes de terrorisme ou en faisant l’apologie et des sites diffusant des images et représentations de mineurs à caractère pornographique.

Ethiopia

  • Proclamation of the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia No. 1/1995, Federal Negarit Gazeta 21 August 1995, 1.
  • Proclamation of the Criminal Code of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia No. 414/2004, Federal Negarit Gazeta 9 May 2005, 1.
  • Proclamation on Freedom of the Mass Media and Access to Information No. 590/2008, Federal Negarit Gazeta 4 December 2008, 4322.
  • Proclamation on Anti-Terrorism No. 652/2009, Federal Negarit Gazeta 28 August 2009, 4827.

Case law

Global framework

  • Human Rights Committee, J.R.T. and the W.G. Party v. Canada, Communication No. 104/1981, 6 April 1983, UN Doc. CCPR/C/18/D/104/1981.
  • Human Rights Committee, M.A. v. Italy, Communication No. 117/1981, 10 April 1984, UN Doc. Supp. No. 40 (A/39/40), 190.
  • Human Rights Committee, Albert Womah Mukong v. Cameroon, Communication No. 458/1991, 21 July 1994, UN Doc. CCPR/C/51/D/458/1991.
  • Human Rights Committee, Robert Faurisson v. France, Communication No. 550/1993, 19 July 1995, UN Doc. CCPR/C/58/D/550/1993.
  • Human Rights Committee, Johannes Maria De Groot v. The Netherlands, Communication No. 578/1994, 24 July 1995, UN Doc. CCPR/C/54/D/578/1994.
  • Human Rights Committee, Malcolm Ross v. Canada, Communication No. 736/1997, 18 October 2000, UN Doc. CCPR/C/70/D/736/1997.
  • Human Rights Committee, Keun-Tae Kim v. Republic of Korea, Communication No. 571/1994, 4 January 1999, UN Doc. CCPR/C/64/D/574/1994.
  • Human Rights Committee, Hak-Chul Shin v. Republic of Korea, Communication No. 926/2000, 16 March 2004, UN Doc. CCPR/C/80/D/926/2000.
  • Human Rights Committee, A.K. and A.R. v. Uzbekistan, Communication No. 1233/2003, 31 March 2009, UN Doc. CCPR/C/95/D/1233/2003.
  • Special Tribunal for Lebanon (Appeals Chamber), Ayash et Al., Case No. STL-11-01/I, Interlocutory Decision on the Applicable Law: Terrorism, Conspiracy, Homicide, Perpetration, Cumulative Charging, 16 February 2011.
  • Human Rights Committee, Nurbek Toktakunov v. Kyrgyzstan, Communication No. 1470/2006, 21 April 2011, UN Doc. CCPR/C/101/D/1470/2006.
  • Working Group on Arbitrary Detention, Opinions adopted by the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention at its sixty-firth session: No. 62/2012 (The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia), adopted on 21 November 2012, UN Doc. A/HRC/WGAD/2012/62.

European Court of Human Rights

  • European Court of Human Rights, Handyside v. United Kingdom, Application No. 5493/72, 7 December 1976.
  • European Court of Human Rights, Sunday Times v. United Kingdom, Application No. 6538/74, 26 April 1979.
  • European Court of Human Rights, Malone v. United Kingdom, Application No. 8691/79, 2 August 1984.
  • European Court of Human Rights, Zana v. Turkey, Application No. 18954/91, 25 November 1997.
  • European Court of Human Rights, Karataş v. Turkey, Application No. 23168/94, 8 July 1999.
  • European Court of Human Rights, Sürek and Özdemir v. Turkey, Application Nos. 23927/94 and 24277/94, 8 July 1999.
  • European Court of Human Rights, Sürek v. Turkey (No. 1), Application No. 26682/95, 8 July 1999.
  • European Court of Human Rights, Schimanek v. Austria, Application No. 32307/96, 1 February 2000.
  • European Court of Human Rights, Lopes Gomes da Silva v. Portugal, Application No. 37698/97, 28 September 2000.
  • European Court of Human Rights, Norwood v. UK, Application No. 23131/03, 16 November 2004.
  • European Court of Human Rights, Ždanoka v Latvia, Application No. 58278/00, 16 March 2006.
  • European Court of Human Rights, Leroy v. France, Application No. 36109/03, 2 October 2008.
  • European Court of Human Rights, Financial Times Ltd and Others v. United Kingdom, Application No. 821/03, 15 December 2009.
  • European Court of Human Rights, Sanoma Uitgevers BV v. Netherlands, Application No. 38224/03, 14 September 2010.
  • European Court of Human Rights, Gözel and Özer v. Turkey, Application Nos. 43453/04 and 31098/05, 6 July 2010.
  • European Court of Human Rights, Hizb Ut-Tahrir and others v. Germany, Application No. 31098/08, 12 June 2012.
  • European Court of Human Rights, Belek v. Turkey, Application Nos. 36827/06, 36828/06 and 36829/06, 20 November 2012.
  • European Court of Human Rights, Vona v. Hungary, Application No. 35943/10, 9 July 2013.
  • European Court of Human Rights, Belek and Velioğlu v. Turkey, Application No. 44227/04, 6 October 2015.

African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights

  • African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, Media Rights Agenda, Constitutional Rights Project v. Nigeria, Communication Nos. 105/93, 128/94, 130/94 and 152/96, 31 October 1998.          
  • African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, Constitutional Rights Project, Civil Liberties Organisation and Media Rights Agenda v. Nigeria, Communication Nos. 140/94, 141/94, 145/95, 5 November 1999.
  • African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, Malawi African Association, Amnesty International, Ms Sarr Diop, Union interafricaine des droits de l’Homme and RADDHO, Collectif des veuves et ayants-Droit, Association mauritanienne des droits de l’Homme v. Mauritania, Communication Nos. 54/91, 61/91, 96/93, 98/93,164/97, 196/97, 210/98, 11 May 2000.
  • African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, Liesbeth Zegveld and Mussie Ephrem v. Eritrea, Communication 250/02, 20 November 2003.
  • African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, Zimbabwe Lawyers for Human Rights & Associated Newspapers of Zimbabwe v. Zimbabwe, Communication No. 284/03, 3 April 2009.
  • African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, Scanlen & Holderness v. Zimbabwe, Communication No. 297/05, 3 April 2009.
  • African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, Kenneth Good v. Republic of Botswana, Communication No. 313/05, 26 May 2010.
  • African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights and INTERIGHTS v. Egypt, Communication No. 323/06, 16 December 2011.

African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights

  • African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights, Lohé Issa Konaté v. Burkina Faso, Application No. 004/2013, 5 December 2014.

United Kingdom

  • R v. Gul [2013] UKSC 64, [2013] 3 WLR 1207.
  • David Miranda v. the Secretary of State for the Home Department and the Commissioner of the Police of the Metropolis [2014] EWHC 255, [2014] 1 WLR 3140.
  • David Miranda v. Secretary of State for the Home Department and the Commissioner of the Police of the Metropolis [2016] EWCA Civ 6, [2016] 1 WLR 1505.

France

  • Tribunal de Grande Instance de Paris (16e chambre correctionnelle), 18 mars 2015, JurisData n° 2015-005323.
  • Cour de Cassation (Chambre Criminelle), 22 août 1912, Bull. crim. 1912 n° 464.

(Chapters in) books

  • Bantekas, I. and Oette, L., International Human Rights: Law and Practice, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2013, 731 p.
  • Cram, I., Terror and the War on Dissent: Freedom of expression in the Age of Al-Qaeda, Heidelberg, Springer, 2009, 166 p.
  • Dhanapala, J., “The United Nations Response to 9/11” in Ranstorp, M. and Wilkinson, P. (eds.), Terrorism and Human Rights, London, Routledge, 2008, 9 - 15.
  • Doswald-Beck, L., Human Rights in Times of Conflict and Terrorism, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2011, 533 p.
  • Hare, I. and Weinstein, J. (eds.), Extreme speech and democracy, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2010, 647 p.
  • Oehmichen, A., Terrorism and Anti-Terror Legislation: The Terrorised Legislator? A comparison of counter-terrorism legislation and its implications on human rights in the legal systems of the United Kingdom, Spain, Germany and France, Antwerp, Intersentia, 2009, 439 p.
  • Masferrer, A. and Walker, C. (eds.), Counter-terrorism, human rights and the rule of law: crossing legal boundaries in defence of the state, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013, 342 p.
  • Saul, B. (ed.), Research Handbook on International Law and Terrorism, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014, 832 p.
  • Scheinin, M., “Limits to freedom of expression: lessons from counter-terrorism” in McGonagle, T. and Donders, Y. (eds.), The United Nations and Freedom of Expression and Information, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2015, 428 - 442.
  • Shelton, D. (ed.), Commitment and compliance: the role of non-binding norms in the international legal system, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2000, 560 p.
  • Skjerdal, T., “Why the Arab Spring never came to Ethiopia” in Mutsvairo, B. (ed.), Participatory Politics and Citizen Journalism in a Networked Africa: A Connected Continent, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, 77-89.
  • Sottiaux, S. Terrorism and the Limitation of Rights: The ECHR and the US Constitution, London, Hart Publishing, 2008, 472 p.
  • Speckhard, A. and Yayla, A.S., ISIS Defectors: Inside Stories of the Terrorist Caliphate, McLean, Advances Press, 2016, 372 p.

Reports                                                                       

Journal articles

  • Ambos, K., “Our terrorists, your terrorists? The United Nations Security Council urges states to combat “foreign terrorist fighters” but does not define “terrorism””, EJIL: Talk! 2014, available at: http://www.ejiltalk.org/our-terrorists-your-terrorists-the-united-natio… [accessed 15/08/2016].
  • ARTICLE 19, The Johannesburg Principles on National Security, Freedom of Expression and Access to Information”, Human Rights Quarterly 1998, Vol. 20, 1-11.
  • Brengarth, V., “L’apologie et la provocation au terrorism dans le Code penal – Étude critique et premier bilan”, La Semaine Juridique 2015, No. 39, 1688-1692.
  • Buyse, A., “Dangerous expression: the ECHR, violence and free speech”, International and Comparative Law Quarterly 2014, vol. 63, 491-503.
  • Coliver, S., “Commentary to: the Johannesburg Principles on National Security, Freedom of Expression and Access to Information”, Human Rights Quarterly 1998, Vol. 20, 12-80.
  • Elliot, C., “Terror in the press: how the U.K.’s threatened criminalization of the Guardian under the Terrorism Act 2000 would violate article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights, American University International Law Review 2015, Vol. 30(1), 101-139.
  • Ewi, M. and Aning, K., “Assessing the role of the African Union in preventing and combating terrorism in Africa”, African Security Review 2006, Vol. 15 (3), 32-46.
  • Gasser, H-P, “Acts of Terror, “Terrorism” and International Humanitarian Law”, International Review of the Red Cross 2002, No. 847, 547-570.
  • Ibbetson, D., “Recklessness restored”, The Cambridge Law Journal 2004, Vol. 63(1), 13-15.
  • Keller, H. and Sigron, M., “State Security v. Freedom of Expression: Legitimate Fight against Terrorism or Suppression of Political Opposition”, Human Rights Law Review 2010, Vol. 10 (1), 151-168.
  • Mbongo, P., “L’apologie du terrorisme: un cas-limite”, La Semaine Juridique: Edition Générale 2015, No. 13, 363.
  • Murray, D., “Freedom of expression, counter-terrorism and the internet in light of the UK Terrorist Act 2006 and the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights”, Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights 2009, Vol. 27 (3), 331-360.
  • Ronen, Y., “Incitement to terrorist acts and international law”, Leiden Journal of International Law 2010, Vol. 23 (3), 645-674.
  • Sottiaux, S., “Leroy v. France: apology of terrorism and the malaise of the European Court of Human Rights’ free speech jurisprudence”, European Human Rights Law Review 2009, Vol. 3, 415-427.

News columns, reports and releases [accessed 15/08/2016]

Other online sources [accessed 15/08/2016]

Universiteit of Hogeschool
Master in de Rechten, Major Strafrecht, Minor Publiekrecht
Publicatiejaar
2016
Promotor
Prof. Dr. Koen Lemmens & Prof. Dr. Jan Wouters