Onderzoek naar het valorisatiepotentieel van smeltloze recyclageprocessen: Een economische en ecologische analyse van aluminiumrecyclage via warmextrusie en vonkplasmasinteren.

Matthias Floru
De thesis onderzoekt en bevestigt dat smeltloze recyclage van aluminium verspaningsafval een markt kan vinden, de ecologische impact van aluminiumrecyclage sterk vermindert en interessant is vanuit bedrijfseconomisch oogpunt.

Smeltloos recycleren vergroent de aluminiumsector

Op het eerste zicht lijkt aluminium een ‘groen’ materiaal. Lichtgewicht aluminium zorgt ervoor dat auto’s en vliegtuigen minder verbruiken. Wat velen echter niet weten, is dat de productie van aluminium zeer veel energie kost. Een kilogram aluminium produceren kost zes keer zoveel energie als een kilogram staal produceren. Nog geen probleem, denken velen dan, jij en ik recycleren onze aluminium drankblikjes immers steevast in de PMD zak. Door het steeds opnieuw gebruiken van datzelfde aluminium hoeft er dus niet veel nieuw aluminium geproduceerd te worden. Maar ook dat is iets te kort door de bocht. Bij de recyclage gaat immers een deel van het aluminium onherroepelijk verloren omdat het oxideert tijdens het hersmelten. Onderzoekers hebben daar een oplossing voor bedacht, die technisch reeds mogelijk is: smeltloos recycleren. Deze thesis onderzoekt of smeltloos recycleren zowel vanuit economisch als ecologisch oogpunt zijn beloftes waar kan maken.

Vooral het smeltloos recycleren van aluminium verspaningsafval is veelbelovend. Dit verspaningsafval, afkomstig van bijvoorbeeld het draaien of frezen van auto-onderdelen, is een schrootfractie waarbij smeltverliezen aanzienlijk zijn. Het is licht en drijft bij het recycleren op het oppervlak van de smelt. Daar oxideert het en zo gaat 10 tot 25% van dat aluminium verloren. Bovendien is het een significante bron van aluminium afval. Gemiddeld is 25% van al het aluminium productieschroot in Europa verspaningsafval. In de vliegtuigbouw wordt zelfs tot 80% van al het gebruikte aluminium verspaand. Door het hersmelten van verspaningsafval gaat in Europa elk jaar meer dan tachtigduizend ton aluminium verloren, een verlies van meer dan 100 miljoen euro. Het wordt dus dringend tijd om de recyclage van verspaningsafval aan te pakken.

Smeltloos recycleren, de oplossing, bestaat uit het reinigen van de spanen die uit productie komen, het samenpersen van de spanen tot een precompact die reeds een dichtheid van 80-90% aluminium bezit en tenslotte het aluminium volledig consolideren en de lucht eruit persen door middel van extrusie of sintertechnieken. Technisch gezien leveren de technieken een volledig gerecycleerd aluminium met een zeer goede sterkte en stijfheid. De KU Leuven testte smeltloos recycleren via warmextrusie en vonkplasmasinteren uit op grote schaal, in samenwerking met een aantal industriële partners. Om te bepalen of we de technieken kunnen valoriseren, behandelt de thesis 3 grote vragen. Eerst bekijkt de thesis of er een potentiële vraag is naar aluminium producten gemaakt uit smeltloos gerecycleerd verspaningsafval. Vervolgens wordt de mogelijke vermindering in ecologische impact door het overschakelen van hersmelten naar smeltloos recycleren onder de loep genomen. Tenslotte onderzoekt de thesis of het ook vanuit bedrijfseconomisch oogpunt interessant is om aan smeltloze recyclage te doen.

Wat blijkt nu? In de bouwsector, goed voor 22% van al het aluminiumgebruik in Europa, is er een enorme vraag naar lichte en sterke extrusieprofielen, wat precies overeenkomt met het resultaat van het smeltloos recycleren van aluminium spanen via warmextrusie. Voor de veelal esthetische toepassingen, bijvoorbeeld in raamprofielen, moet wel nog onderzocht worden hoe het nogal ruwe oppervlak van smeltloos gerecycleerd aluminium, veroorzaakt door het hoge oxidegehalte, nabehandeld kan worden tot een glad oppervlak. Lukt dit, dan boort smeltloos gerecycleerd aluminium een markt aan die de jaarlijkse Europese verspaningsafvalproductie meer dan driemaal overtreft. Dit betekent dat we potentieel naar een Europa zonder smeltverliezen op verspaningsafval kunnen evolueren.

Om de mogelijke vermindering in ecologische impact door het invoeren van smeltloos recycleren op een wetenschappelijke manier te kunnen onderbouwen werd in deze thesis een levenscyclusanalyse (LCA) uitgevoerd. Die vergelijkt de ecologische impact van smeltoos recycleren met die van recycleren via hersmelten door middel van een totale impactscore gebaseerd op factoren zoals klimaatopwarming, impact op biodiversiteit of uitputting van grondstoffen. De impact van smeltloze recyclage ligt in een voorzichtig scenario meer dan 60% lager dan de impact van recyclage via hersmelten. In een meer optimistisch scenario is die impact zelfs tot 82% lager. Kijken we naar broeikasgasuitstoot, die we willen verminderen om de klimaatopwarming tegen te gaan, dan ligt die ook ongeveer 60% lager in het voorzichtige scenario. Op Europees niveau betekent dit dat we de equivalente jaarlijkse CO2-uitstoot van 0,5 tot 1 miljoen auto’s kunnen vermijden door verspaningsafval smeltloos te gaan recycleren.

Tot slot, en misschien wel de belangrijkste vraag voor bedrijven die willen omschakelen naar het smeltloos recycleren van aluminium verspaningsafval, is er de vraag of er wel iets mee te verdienen valt. Kostgewijs werd de operationele kost van het recycleren via hersmelten vergeleken met de kost van smeltloos recycleren in 3 scenario’s: de ‘ambachtelijke’ testopstelling, batchgewijze productie met machines en een volautomatische productielijn. Hoewel de twee eerste scenario’s duurder zijn dan recyclage via hersmelten, is volautomatische smeltloze recyclage wel 15% goedkoper. De lagere kost is vooral te danken aan het vermijden van metaalverliezen.

De analyse van de thesis maakt duidelijk dat het de moeite waard is om een volautomatische productielijn te ontwikkelen voor smeltloze recyclage. De eerste stappen daarvoor zijn reeds gezet. Een Duits bedrijf kan de automatische reinigingslijn voor de spanen leveren. Stansz, een Nederlands bedrijf, gelooft dat het een automatische precompactiepers kan ontwikkelen. Het aluminiumrecyclagebedrijf E-Max produceerde in samenerking met de KU Leuven  een eerste smeltloos gerecycleerd profiel op zijn extrusiepersen. Een eerste klant heeft reeds interesse getoond voor de profielen.

Smeltloze recyclage heeft alles in zich om geadopteerd te worden door de Europese aluminiumindustrie. Er is een markt voor de resulterende extrusieprofielen en ecologisch gezien kan het enorm veel impact vermijden door de lagere broeikasgasuitstoot en het vermijden van aluminiumverliezen. De kost van deze techniek is lager dan de huidige technieken, mits het opzetten van een volautomatische lijn. De KU Leuven, samen met betrokken bedrijfspartners, zal nu verder gaan om de laatste technische problemen op te lossen en die voorgestelde volautomatische lijn waar te maken. Over enkele jaren zullen we met trots kunnen zeggen dat aluminium een steeds groener metaal wordt, en dit met dank aan de Belgen.

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Universiteit of Hogeschool
Master in de ingenieurswetenschappen werktuigkunde
Publicatiejaar
2016
Promotor(en)
Prof. dr. ir. Joost Duflou
Kernwoorden
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