Beer for Men and Gods Brewing in Egypt under the Ptolemies and the Principate (323 BC – 284 AD)

Daan Smets
In mijn scriptie heb ik een reconstructie van het brouwproces van bier in Grieks-Romeins Egypte (323 voor Christus - 284 na Christus) gemaakt.

Bier voor mensen en goden: hoe brouwde men in Grieks-Romeins Egypte?

Bier als fundament van de menselijke beschaving

“And… and what is civilization if it isn’t people talking to each other over a goddamned beer?” Fayez said, then lolled his head back over his shoulder. “Am I right?” “Fuckin’ A,” Amos called back. – Pagina 9, Hoofdstuk 20: Elvi, Cibola Burn, boek 4 van The Expanse.

Hoewel dit  wijze citaat afkomstig is van een eerder uitstekende science fiction-roman in plaats van een groot historisch werk, getuigt het van de betekenis van bier als een cruciaal onderdeel van het sociale weefsel van de samenleving. Als een belangrijke katalysator in de ontwikkeling van beginnende sedentaire nederzettingen en ontluikende rijken, brengt het mensen samen en dient het als een belangrijke motor voor sociale interactie.

Een onaantastbare waarde in Egypte

De oude geschiedenis en samenleving van geen enkel land wordt meer bepaald door het belang van bier dan Egypte. Vanaf het begin van de landbouw in de Nijlvallei werd bier gemaakt van gerst en emmertarwe als een hoofdbestanddeel van de dagelijkse voeding. Zodra de sociale complexiteit zich ontwikkelde samen met de georganiseerde religie, werd het ook een object van religieuze rituelen en begrafenisplechtigheden. Doorheen de hele faraonische en Grieks-Romeinse geschiedenis van Egypte was bier een hoeksteen van cultuur en voeding, niet gehinderd door de dominantie van wijn in het Oude Nabije Oosten vanaf het Hellenistische tijdperk. Als het oudste consistente economische product van het land van de farao's verdient het maken ervan een onderzoek van gerst naar verpakking.

Bierproductie in Grieks-Romeins Egypte (323 voor Christus tot 284 na Christus) is een proces dat bouwt op millennia van traditie beginnend met het ontstaan van landbouw en de ontwikkeling van een hiërarchische samenleving in de Nijlvallei. Vrouwelijke en mannelijke brouwers produceerden bier in zowel huishoudelijke keukens als industriële brouwerijen met eigen maal- en fermentatieruimtes met behulp van fermentatiekruiken, opslagpotten en gistkannen. Door chemische analyses van bierresten uit het Oude Rijk door Delwen Samuel, de vergelijking met contemporaine parallellen gebaseerd op archeobotanisch en chemisch onderzoek van andere hoploze gebrouwen bieren en informatie uit papyri en fragmenten van antieke auteurs is het mogelijk om een mogelijk brouwproces vast te leggen. Deze interdisciplinariteit helpt om een zo waarheidsgetrouw mogelijk proces samen te stellen. Een bier in Grieks-Romeins Egypte had slechts drie ingrediënten nodig: graan (gerst of een mix gedomineerd door gerst), water en gist, een eencellige plant waarvan de gecultiveerde Saccharomyces cerevisiae-stam gecultiveerd geleverd werd in gistkannen.

image 1

Een artistieke illustratie van een brouwerij in Egypte.

De elegante eenvoud van het brouwproces

De essentiële stappen in het tweedelige brouwproces van graan zijn ten eerste het ontspruiten, fijnstampen, verzuren, koken, conversie en filtreren en ten tweede alcoholische fermentatie. Dit proces is grotendeels ongewijzigd gebleven sinds 3500 voor Christus, mits enkele kleine wijzigingen, met name de toevoeging van gecultiveerde gist. Eerst verzamelde de brouwer gepelde graantjes. Die werden uitgespreid en blootgesteld aan vocht om hen te laten ontspruiten om amylases te produceren. Na 5 tot 7 dagen werden de gerstgraantjes blootgesteld aan de zon of voorzichtig gedroogd (50 tot 60° Celsius) door warme lucht in een oven om het germinatieproces te beëindigen. Daarna werd het gemalen om mout te maken en gemengd met koud water.

Tegelijkertijd maakte men een tweede hoop gerst klaar. Deze was bereid met gemalen graan (ontspruit of gepeld graan) gekookt in water. Daarna vermengde men de twee groepen om saccharificatie te veroorzaken. Deze mix werd gespoeld met water en daarna perste men het brijachtige mengsel door een geweven mand of een meer geavanceerde metalen of stenen zeef, beiden geplaatst op een grote pot. Tot slot perste men het achtergebleven droesem in de zeef uit om achterblijvende vloeistof eruit te halen.

Alcoholische fermentatie was de laatste en meest cruciale stap in het brouwproces. In dit biologisch proces verkrijgt gist energie door de omzetting van suikers in ethanol en het bijproduct koolstofdioxide (CO2). Eerst werd fermentatie geïnitieerd in de gespoelde suiker- and zetmeelrijke vloeistof. Het gemoute graan in vrijstaand water werd vervolgens gefermenteerd door mogelijk gecultiveerde gist uit gistkannen, eventueel gevolgd door de onbewezen toevoeging van smaakstoffen zoals dadels.

Hier geeft het ontbonden gas het bier zijn carbonisatie en het creeërt de schuimkraag op het bier. Dit proces draagt eveneens bij aan de bewaring (enkele dagen tot maximaal 1 week) aangezien de druk van CO2 lucht en micro-organismen uit de kruik houdt. Nadat de fermentatie voltooid was, werden de vaten afgesloten met een kleischijf en modderpleister en de binnenkant werd mogelijk ingesmeerd voor ondoorlaatbaarheid. Consumptie vond vrijwel meteen plaats als plaats van het dagelijke eetmaal of een feestelijke aangelegenheid.

image 2

Schematische voorstelling van het brouwproces.

Het resultaat: verrassend licht en smaakvol

Het licht zoete brouwsel smaakte wellicht naar gemout gerst, met soms hints van emmerkoren, en mogelijk koriander en jeneverbes om de smaak te versterken. Het alcoholpercentage lag tussen dat van tafelbier en het stevigere abdijbier. Waarschijnlijk had het een lagere sterkte (2 tot 3 procent) voor dagelijks gebruik. De kleur was eerder donkerblond met een romige schuimkraag, al maakte men ook dondere bieren waarvan het recept onbekend is. Als deel van het dagelijkse en mogelijk te arme eetpatroon was het rijk aan vezels.

Zelf brouwen? Gewoon doen!

Enkele onderzoekers hebben reeds hun eigen bier gebrouwen aan de hand van een gereconstrueerd recept op basis van chemische analyses van graanresten in bierpotten. Dit soort experimenten is belangrijk om de samenwerking tussen de humane wetenschappen en de natuurwetenschappen te verstevigen en de toegevoegde waarde van dit soort interdisciplinariteit aan te tonen. Daarom zal ik deze zomer en herfst in samenspraak met mijn promotor en een doctoraatsstudent en met de ondersteuning van enkele bio-ingenieurs en bierexperten van de KU Leuven proberen het bovenstaande brouwproces zo getrouw mogelijk proberen na te bootsen om uiteindelijk een Egyptisch bier te bekomen. Schol!

Daan Smets, Masterstudent Master Geschiedenis van de Oudheid aan de KU Leuven.

Promotor: prof. dr. Katelijn Vandorpe.

Bibliografie

Primary sources

Literary sources (editions and/or translations)

AESCHYLUS, Suppliant Women, ed. trad. H. W. SMYTH, 2 volumes, Cambridge, MA and London, 1926. ARETAEUS CAPPADOX, Des causes et des signes des Maladies aiguës et chroniques Arétée de Cappadoce (Hautes études du monde gréco-romain, 27), ed. trad. R. T. H. LAENNEC, M. D. GRMEK and D. GOUREVITCH, Geneva, 2000.

ATHENAEUS, The Deiphnosophists, ed. trad. C.B. GULICK, 7 volumes, Cambridge, MA and London, 1961.

BAGNALL, R. S. and DEROW, P. eds., The Hellenistic Period. Historical Sources in Translation, Malden, MA and London, 2004. COLSON, F. H., Philo. With an English Translation, vol. IX, Cambridge and London, 1954.

DIODORUS, Library of History, Volume III. Books 4.59-8, ed. trad. C. H. OLDFATHER (Loeb Classical Library), 12 vols., Cambridge, MA, 1939.

HERODOTUS, Histories, ed. trad. A. D. GODLEY, Cambridge, MA, 1920. JACOBY, F., Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker, 15 vols., Berlin (later Leiden), 1923ff.

LATTE, K., HANSEN, P. A. and CUNNINGHAM, I. C. eds., Hesychii Alexandrini lexicon (Sammlung griechischer und lateinischer Grammatiker), 4 vols., Copenhagen and Berlin, 1953 – 2009. PLINY, Natural History, Volume IV: Books 12-16, ed. trad. H. RACKHAM (Loeb Classical Library), Cambridge, 1945.

THEOPHRASTUS, Enquiry into Plants, Volume I: Books 1-5, ed. trad. A. F. HORT (Loeb Classical Library), Cambridge, MA, 1916.

THEOPHRASTUS, De Causis Plantarum, Volume III: Books 5-6, ed. trad. B. EINARSON and G. K. K. LINK (Loeb Classical Library), Cambridge, MA, 1990.

Papyri & Inscriptions

‘BGU 1 2’, papyri.info (http://www.papyri.info/hgv/8961). Accessed on September 11, 2018. TM 8961 (http://www.trismegistos.org/text/8961). ‘O.Berl. 95’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/ddbdp/o.berl;;95). Accessed on November 18, 2018. TM 29935 (http://www.trismegistos.org/text/29935). ‘O.Berl. 96’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/ddbdp/o.berl;;96). Accessed on November 18, 2018. TM 29936 (http://www.trismegistos.org/text/29936).

‘O.Did. 443’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/ddbdp/o.did;;443). Accessed on December 24, 2018. TM 145004 (http://www.trismegistos.org/text/145004). 'O.Fay. 10’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/ddbdp/o.fay;;10). Accessed on December 17, 2018. TM 40855 (http://www.trismegistos.org/text/40855). ‘O. Fay. 11’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/ddbdp/o.fay;;11). Accessed on November 18, 2018. TM 40856 (http://www.trismegistos.org/text/40856). ‘O.Oslo 12’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/ddbdp/o.oslo;;12). Accessed on November 24, 2018. TM 40836 (http://www.trismegistos.org/text/40836). ‘P.Bon. I.S.A. 3 Recto e Verso’, Trismegistos (https://www.trismegistos.org/text/140538). ‘P.Cair. Zen. 2 59155’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/ddbdp/p.cair.zen;2;59155). Accessed on September 16, 2018. TM 803 (http://www.trismegistos.org/text/803). ‘P.Cair. Zen. 2 59199’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/ddbdp/p.cair.zen;2;59199). Accessed on September 10, 2018. TM 844 (http://www.trismegistos.org/text/844). ‘P.Cair. Zen. 2 59202’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/ddbdp/p.cair.zen;2;59202). Accessed on September 10, 2018. TM 847 (http://www.trismegistos.org/text/847). ‘P.Col. 4 69’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/ddbdp/p.col;4;69). Accessed on September 17, 2018. TM 1784 (http://www.trismegistos.org/text/1784). ‘P.Duk. inv. 975 R (b)‘, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/apis/duke.apis.33002334). Accessed on November 14, 2018. ‘P.Fay. 47’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/ddbdp/p.fay;;47). Accessed on November 22, 2018. TM 10896 (http://www.trismegistos.org/text/10896). ‘P.Hib. 1 107’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/ddbdp/p.hib;1;107). Accessed on November 14, 2018. TM 4594 (http://www.trismegistos.org/text/4594). ‘P.Hib. 1 139’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/ddbdp/sb;12;10783). Accessed on September 12, 2018. TM 4347 (http://www.trismegistos.org/text/4347). ‘P.Laur. 1 17’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/ddbdp/p.laur;1;17). Accessed on November 18, 2018. TM 24893 (http://www.trismegistos.org/text/24893). ‘P.Lond. 3 1177’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/ddbdp/p.lond;3;1177). Accessed on September 11, 2018. TM 29258 (http://www.trismegistos.org/text/29258). ‘P.Lond. 7 1976’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/ddbdp/p.lond;7;1976). Accessed on November 23, 2018. TM 1539 (http://www.trismegistos.org/text/1539). ‘P.Mich. 1 36’, papyri.info (http://www.papyri.info/ddbdp/p.mich;1;36). Accessed on September 12, 2018. TM 1936 (http://www.trismegistos.org/text/1936). ‘P.Mich. 2 123’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/ddbdp/p.mich;2;123). Accessed on September 11, 2018. TM 11967 & 11968 (http://www.trismegistos.org/text/11967 & http://www.trismegistos.org/text/11968). Daan Smets Beer for Men and Gods 15 ‘P. Michael. 36’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/ddbdp/p.michael;;36). Accessed on December 25, 2018. TM 33539 (http://www.trismegistos.org/text/33539). ‘P.Mil. 1 11’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/ddbdp/p.mil;1;11). Accessed on November 22, 2018. TM 11886 (http://www.trismegistos.org/text/11886). ‘P.Petr. 3 124’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/ddbdp/p.petr;3;124). Accessed on November 23, 2018. TM 7592 (http://www.trismegistos.org/text/7592). ‘P.Ryl. 2 127’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/ddbdp/p.ryl;2;127). Accessed on September 12, 2018. TM 12913 (http://www.trismegistos.org/text/12913). ‘P.Ryl. 4 57’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/ddbdp/p.ryl;4;571). Accessed on September 17, 2018. TM 2427 (http://www.trismegistos.org/text/2427). ‘PSI 15 1531’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/ddbdp/psi;15;1531). Accessed on December 25, 2018. TM 41814 (http://www.trismegistos.org/text/41814). ‘P.Stras. 6 501’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/ddbdp/p.stras;6;501). Accessed on November 22, 2018. TM 13381 (http://www.trismegistos.org/text/13381). ‘P.Tebt. 1 5’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/ddbdp/p.tebt;1;5). Accessed on November 23, 2018. TM 2938 (http://www.trismegistos.org/text/2938). 'P.Tebt. 1 40’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/ddbdp/p.tebt;1;40). Accessed on December 17, 2018. TM 3676 (http://www.trismegistos.org/text/3676). ‘P.Tebt. 2 375’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/ddbdp/p.tebt;2;375). Accessed on November 16, 2018. TM 13531 (http://www.trismegistos.org/text/13531). ‘P.Tebt. 2 401’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/ddbdp/p.tebt;2;401). Accessed on November 16, 2018. TM 13555 (http://www.trismegistos.org/text/13555). ‘P.Tebt. 3 2 894’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/ddbdp/p.tebt;3.2;894). Accessed on November 18, 2018. TM 5444 (http://www.trismegistos.org/text/5444). ‘P.Tebt. 3 701’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/ddbdp/p.tebt;3.1;701a). Accessed on September 12, 2018. TM 5313 (https://www.trismegistos.org/text/5313). ‘SB 14 11431’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/ddbdp/sb;14;11431). Accessed on December 25, 2018. TM 14447 (https://www.trismegistos.org/text/14447). ‘SB 14 11561’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/ddbdp/sb;14;11561). Accessed on November 18, 2018. TM 27486 (https://www.trismegistos.org/text/27486). ‘SB 16 12647’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/ddbdp/sb;16;12647). Accessed on December 25, 2018. TM 17443 (https://www.trismegistos.org/text/17443). ‘Taembes beer brewer from Talae’, Trismegistos Archives (https://www.trismegistos.org/archive/371). Accessed on September 12, 2018. ‘UPZ 1 10’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/ddbdp/upz;1;110). Accessed on September 11, 2018. TM 3502 (https://www.trismegistos.org/text/3502). Daan Smets Beer for Men and Gods 16 Search queries ‘βύνις’, TM Words (https://www.trismegistos.org/words/detail.php?lemma=βύνις&morph_type=noun). Accessed on December 24, 2018. ‘βυνοκ’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/search?STRING=(%CE%B2%CF%85%CE%BD%CE%BF%CE%BA )&no_caps=on&no_marks=on&target=text&DATE_MODE=LOOSE&DOCS_PER_P AGE=15). Accessed on December 25, 2018. ‘δίχωρα’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/search?STRING1=%CE%B4%CE%AF%CF%87%CF%89%CF%81 %CE%B1&target1=TEXT&no_caps1=on&no_marks1=on&page=1). Accessed on November 18, 2018. ‘ζύμη’, TM Words (https://www.trismegistos.org/words/detail.php?lemma=ζύμη&morph_type=noun). Accessed on December 23, 2018. ‘ζυμουργός’, TM Words (https://www.trismegistos.org/words/detail.php?lemma=ζυμουργός&morph_type=n oun). Accessed on December 23, 2018. 'ζυτηρὰ AND νιτρικὴ’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/search?STRING1=ζυτηρὰ¤AND; νιτρικὴ&target1=TEXT&no_caps1=on&no_marks1=on). Accessed on December 17, 2018. 'ζυτόποί’, papyrus.info (http://papyri.info/search?STRING=(ζυτοποι)&no_caps=on&no_marks=on&target= text&DATE_MODE=LOOSE&DOCS_PER_PAGE=15). Accessed on December 17, 2018. ‘κεράμιον’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/search?STRING1=%CE%BA%CE%B5%CF%81%CE%AC%CE%BC %CE%B9%CE%BF%CE%BD&target1=TEXT&no_caps1=on&no_marks1=on). Accessed on November 18, 2018. ‘κεράμιον AND οἴνου’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/search? STRING=(οἴνου)&no_caps=on&no_marks=on&target=text&DATE_MODE=LOOSE &DOCS_PER_PAGE=15&STRING1=κεράμιον&target1=TEXT&no_caps1=on&no_m arks1=on). Accessed on November 18, 2018. 'νιτρική’, TM Words (https://www.trismegistos.org/words/detail.php?lemma=νιτρική&morph_type=nou n). Accessed on December 23, 2018. Daan Smets Beer for Men and Gods 17 ‘παραζυτοποιΐα’, TM Words (https://www.trismegistos.org/words/detail.php?lemma=παραζυτοποιΐα&morph_ty pe=noun). Accessed on December 23, 2018. ‘φυράμ’, papyri.info (http://papyri.info/search?STRING=(%CF%86%CF%85%CF%81%CE%AC%CE%BC) &no_caps=on&no_marks=on&target=text&DATE_MODE=LOOSE&DOCS_PER_PA GE=15). Accessed on 21 May 2019.

Secundary literature Monographies & Commentaries ARTHUR, J., Ceramic ethnoarchaeology among the Gamo of southwestern Ethiopia, Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 2000. BAGNALL, R. S. and CRIBIORE, R., Women's Letters from Ancient Egypt, 300 BC-AD 800, Ann Arbor, MI, 2006. BERTHELOT, M. and RUELLE, C.-E. ed., Collection des anciens alchimistes grecs, vol. 2, Paris, 1888. BIGGS, R. D. and BRINKMAN, J. A. eds., Studies presented to A. Leo Oppenheim, Chicago, 1964. BOAK, A. E. R., Papyri from Tebtunis. Part I. [Michigan Papyri, Volume II.], Ann Arbor, 1933. BONNEAU, D., Le régime administratif de l'eau du Nil dans l'Egypte grecque, romaine et byzantine, Leiden, 1993. BOSTON, R., Beer and Skittles, London, 1976. CARNARVON and CARTER, H., Five Years Explorations‘ at Thebes, London and New York, NY, 1912. CARTER, H., The Tomb of Tutankhamun, vol. III, London, 1933. CHANTRAINE, P., Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque: histoire des mots, 2 vols., Paris, 1968 – 1980. CHAUSSERIE-LAPRÉE, J., Martigues. Terre gauloise. Entre Celtique et Méditerranée, Paris, 2005. CIALOWICZ, K. M., Les têtes de massues des périodes prédynastique et archaïque dans la Vallée du Nil (Prace Archeologiczne Zeszyt, 41), Krakow, 1989. CLARK, J. W. ed., The Observances in use at the Augustinian Priory of S. Giles and S. Andrew at Bamwell, Cambridgeshire, Cambridge, 1897. CLARYSSE, W. and VANDORPE, K., Zénon, un homme d'affaires grec à l'ombre des pyramides(Ancorae: Steunpunt voor Studie en Onderwijs, 14), Louvain, 1995 [translation of Zenon, een Grieks manager in de schaduw van de piramiden, Leuven, 1990]. COREY, J. S. A., Cibola Burn – Book 4 of The Expanse, Croydon, 2015. DARBY, W. J., GHALIOUNGUI, P. and GRIVETTI, L., Food: The gift of Osiris, New York, 1977. DAVIS, W., The canonical tradition in ancient Egyptian art, Cambridge, 1990. DESSEL, J. P. and JOFFE, A. H., Intersocietal interaction and the emergence of social complexity in ‘‘core’’ and ‘‘periphery’’: Egypt and the southern Levant in the fourth and third millennia B.C., s. l., s. d. DINELEY, M., Barley, Malt and ale in the Neolithic (BAR International Series, 1213), Oxford, 2004. DRENKAHN, R. Die Handwerker und ihre Tätigkeiten im Alten Ägypten (Ägyptologische Abhandlungen, 31), Wiesbaden, 1976. DZIERZBICKA, D., Wine in Graeco-Roman Egypt, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Warsaw, Faculty of History – Institute of Archaeology, Warsaw, 2011. FINDLAY, W. P. K., Modern Brewing Technology, London, 1971. GASTINEAU, C. F., DARBY, W. J. and TURNER, T. B. eds., Fermented food beverages in nutrition, New York, 1979. GELLER, J. R., Predynastic beer production at Hierakonpolis, Ph.D. dissertation, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, 1992. GRENFELL, B. P., HUNT, A. S. and GOODSPEED, E. J., The Tebtunis papyri. Part II, London and New York, 1907. GRIEVE, M., A Modern Herbal, 2 vols., New York, NY, 1959. GRIMAL, N. and MENU, B. eds., Le Commerce en Egypte ancienne (Bulletin d’Égyptologie, 121), Kairo, 1998. HARRAUER, H. ed., Corpus Papyrorum Raineri XIII, griechische Texte IX (= CPR XIII), Vienna, 1987. HART, W.H. and LYONS, P.A. eds., Cartularium Monasterii Rameseia, I, 1884, London. HART, W.H. and LYONS, P.A. eds., Cartularium Monasterii Rameseia, II, 1886, London. HARTMAN, L. H. and OPPENHEIM, A. L., On beer and brewing techniques in ancient Mesopotamia (Journal of the American Oriental Society suppl. 10), 1950. HORNSEY, I. S., A history of beer and brewing, Cambridge, 2003. JANSSEN, J., Commodity Prices from the Ramessid Period, Leiden, 1975. JASNOW, R. and WIDMER, G. eds., Illuminating Osiris: Egyptological studies in honor of Mark Smith, Atlanta, 2017. JEREMIAS, J. J., Gerusalemme al tempo di Gesù. (Ricerche di storia economica e sociale per il periodo neotestamentario) (trad. of Jerusalem zur Zeit Jesu. Eine kulturgeschichtliche Untersuchung zur neutestamentlichen Zeitgeschichte, Göttingen, 1962), Rome, 1989. Daan Smets Beer for Men and Gods 19 JOFFE, A. H., Settlement and society in the Early Bronze I and II of the southern Levant: Complementarity and contradiction in a small-scale complex society (Monographs in Mediterranean Archaeology, 4), Sheffield, 1993. JOHNSON, A. C., An Economic Survey of Ancient Rome: Roman Egypt to the Reign of Diocletian., Baltimore and London, 1936. KEMP, B. J., Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a civilization, 2nd edition, London, 2006. LAENNEC, R. T. H. and GRMEK, M. D., Aretée de Cappadoce: Des causes et des signes des maladies aiguës et chroniques, Geneva and Paris, 2000. LAMBERT, J. B., Traces of the Past. Unraveling the Secrets of Archaeology through Chemistry, Reading, MA, 1997. LUCAS, A. and HARRIS, J. R., Ancient Egyptian Materials and Industries, 4th edition, London, 1962. LUST, J. B., The Herb Book, Sini Valley, CA, 1974. LUTZ, H. F., Viticulture and Brewing in the Ancient Orient, New York, 1922. MACKRETH, D. F., Orton Hall Farm: A Roman and Early Saxon Farmstead (East Anglian Archaeology, 76), Manchester, 1996. MCGOVERN, P. E., FLEMING, S. J. and KATZ, S. H. eds., The Origins and Ancient History of Wine, Philadelphia, 1996. MCGOVERN, P. E., Uncorking the Past: The Quest for Wine, Beer and Other Alcoholic Beverages, London, 2009. MILANO, L. ed., Drinking in Ancient Societies: History and Culture of Drinks in the Ancient Near East (Bere e bevende nel Vicino Oriente antico). Papers of a Symposium Held in Rome, May 17-19, 1990, Padua, 1994. MONTET, P. Everyday life in Egypt, A. R. MAXWELL-HYSLOP and M. S. DROWER transl., London, 1958. NELSON, M., Beer in Greco-Roman Antiquity, Ph.D. dissertation, The University of British Columbia, The Faculty of Graduate Studies, Department of Classical, Near Eastern, and Religious Studies, Vancouver, BC, 2001. NEUBURGER, A., The Technical Arts and Sciences of the Ancients, H. L. BROSE transl., New York, 1930. NICHOLSON, P. T. and SHAW, I. eds., Ancient Egyptian materials and technology, Cambridge, 2000. NOUR ELDIN, S., Biological studies on bouza, M.Sc. Thesis, Fouad I University, Cairo, 1947. NOUT, M. J. R., Aspects of the manufacture and consumption of Kenyan traditional fermented beverages, PhD Thesis, Agricultural University, Wageningen, 1981. PALME, B. ed., Akten des 23. Internationalen Papyrologenkongresses, Wien, 22.—28. Juli 2001 (Papyrologica Vindobonensia 1), Vienna, 2007. Daan Smets Beer for Men and Gods 20 PARTINGTON, J. R., Origins and Development of Applied Chemistry, London, 1935. PEET, T. E. and LOAT, W. L. S., The Cemeteries of Abydos. Part III. 1912-1913, London, 1913. PEET, T. E. and WOOLLEY, C. L., The City of Akhenaten, London, 1923. PEREMANS, W. and VAN'T DACK, E., Prosopographia Ptolemaica, vol. V: Le commerce et l’industrie; le transport sur terre et la flotte; la domesticité (= Studia Hellenistica. Band 13), Louvain, 1963. PESTMAN, P. W., The New Papyrological Primer, Leiden, 1990. PRÉAUX, C., L’économie royale des Lagides, Brussels, 1939. PREISIGKE, F., Wörterbuch der griechischen Papyrusurkunden, 3 vols., Berlin, 1925 – 1931. PY, M., Les gaulois du Midi. De la fin de l'Âge du Bronze à la conquête romaine, Paris, 1993. RASMUSSEN, S. C., The Quest for Aqua Vitae: The History and Chemistry of Alcohol from Antiquity to the Middle Ages, New York, NY, 2014. RATHBONE, D., Economic Rationalism and Rural Society in Third-Century A.D. Egypt, Cambridge, 1991. REIL, T., Beiträge zur Kenntnis des Gewerbes im hellenistischen Ägypten, Borna and Leipzig, 1913. RICHARDS, A., Egypt's Agricultural Development, 1800-1980: Technical and Social Change, Boulder, 1982. ROSTOVTZEFF, M., A large estate in Egypt in the third century B. C. A Study In Economic History (University Of Wisconsin Studies In The Social Sciences And History, 6), Madison, 1922. ROSTOVTZEFF, M., A large estate in Egypt in the third century B. C. (Studia Historica, 52), Rome, 1967. ROWLANDSON, J. ed., Women and society in Greek and Roman Egypt: A sourcebook, Cambridge, 1998. SAFRAI, S., STERN, M., FLUSSER, D. and VAN UNNIK, W. C. eds., The Jewish People in the First Century Historical Geography, Political History, Social, Cultural and Religious Life and Institutions, I, Assen and Philadelphia, 1974 SALZMANN, L.F., Building in England down to 1540, a Documentary History, Oxford, 1967. SAMUEL, A. E., From Athens to Alexandria: Hellenism and Social Goals in Ptolemaic Egypt (Studia Hellenistica 26), Louvain, 1983. SAMUEL, D. H. ed., Proceedings of the Twelfth International Congress of Papyrology (American Studies in Papyrology, 7), Toronto, 1970. SCHNEBEL, M., Die Landwirtschaft im hellenistischen Ägypten (Münchener Beitrage fur Papyrusforschung und antiken Rechtsgeschichte, 7), München, 1925. Daan Smets Beer for Men and Gods 21 SCHÜRER, E., History of the Jewish people at the time of Jesus Christ (175 BC – 135 A.D.), II, Edinburgh, 1986 SHAW, I. ed., The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, Oxford, 2000. SINGER, C., HOLMYARD, E. J., HALL, A. R. and WILLIAMS, T. I. eds., A History of Technology, vol. 2, New York, NY and London, 1956. SMITH, G., Beer: A history of suds and civilization from Mesopotamia to microbreweries, New York, 1995. SPENCER, J. F. T. and SPENCER, D. M. ed., Yeast Technology, Berlin, 1990. STEINDORFF, G., Das Grab des Ti, Leipzig, 1913. STEINKRAUS, K. ed., Handbook of indigenous fermented foods, 2nd edition, New York, 1996. TAUBENSCHLAG, R., The Law of Greco-Roman Egypt in the Light of the Papyri: 332 B.C.- 640 A.D., 2nd edition, Warsaw, 1955. TUBB, R. S., European Brewery Convention on Brewer’s Yeast (Monograph XII), Nürnberg, 1987. TZEDAKIS, Y. and MARTLEW, H. eds., Minoans and Mycenaeans: Flavours of their Time, Athens, 1999. UCKO, P. J. and DIMBLEBY, G. W. eds., The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals, London, 1969. WALLACE, S. L., Taxation in Egypt from Augustus to Diocletian, Princeton, 1938. WHITE, J. L., Light from ancient letters, Philadelphia, 1986. WILCKEN, U., Griechische Ostraka aus Ägypten und Nubien, Leipzig and Berlin, 1899. WILKINS, J., HARVEY, D. and DOBSON, M. eds., Food in Antiquity, Exeter, 1995. WINLOCK, H. E., The tomb of Queen Meryet-Amun at Thebes, New York, NY, 1932. Articles APPLEBAUM, S., ‘The Social and Economic Status of the Jews in the Diaspora,’ S. SAFRAI, M. STERN, D. FLUSSER and W. C. VAN UNNIK eds., The Jewish People in the First Century Historical Geography, Political History, Social, Cultural and Religious Life and Institutions, I, Assen and Philadelphia, 1974, 701 – 727. ARTHUR, J. W., ‘Brewing beer: status, wealth and ceramic use alteration among the Gamo of south-western Ethiopia’, World Archaeology, 34 (2003), 516 – 528. ATACADOR-RAMOS, M. et al., ‘Indigenous foods in which ethanol is a major product’ in K. STEINKRAUS ed., Handbook of indigenous fermented foods, 2nd edition, New York, 1996, 363 – 508. AOUIZERAT, T., GUTMAN, I., PAZ, Y., MAEIR, A. M., GADOT, Y., GELMAN, D., SZITENBERG, A., DRORI, E., PINKUS, A, SCHOEMANN, M., KAPLAN, R., BEN-GEDALYA, T., COPPENHAGEN-GLAZER, S., REICH, E., SARAGOVI, A., LIPSCHITS, O., KLUTSTEIN, M. Daan Smets Beer for Men and Gods 22 and HAZAN, R., ‘Isolation and characterization of live yeast cells from ancient vessels as a tool in bioarchaeology’, mBio, 10 (2019); 1 – 21. BARD, K. A., ‘The Egyptian Predynastic: A Review of the Evidence’, Journal of Field Archaeology, 21 (1994), 265 – 288. BIWER, M. E. and VANDERWARKER, A. M., ‘Paleoethnobotany and Ancient Alcohol Production: A Mini-Review’, Ethnobiology Letters, 6 (2015), 28 – 31. BONNEAU, D., ‘L'administration de l'irrigation dans les grands domaines en Egypte au VIe siecle de n.e.’ in D. H. SAMUEL ed., Proceedings of the Twelfth International Congress of Papyrology (American Studies in Papyrology, 7), Toronto, 1970, 45 – 62. BOUBY, L., BOISSINOT, P. and MARINVAL, P., ‘Never Mind the Bottle. Archaeobotanical Evidence of Beer-brewing in Mediterranean France and the Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages During the 5th Century BC’, Human Ecology, 39 (2011), 351 – 360. BRAIDWOOD, R. J., J. D. SAUER, H. HELBAEK, P. C. MANGELSDORF, CUTLER, H. C., COON, C. S., LINTON, R., STEWARD, J. and A. L. OPPENHEIM, ‘Did man once live on beer alone?’, American Anthropologist, 55 (1953), 515 – 526. CAVALIERI, D., MCGOVERN, P. E., HARTL, D. L., MORTIMER, R. and POLSINELLI, M., ‘Evidence for S. cerevisiae Fermentation in Ancient Wine’, Journal of Molecular Evolution, 57 (2003), 226 – 232. CHAZAN, M. and LEHNER, M., ‘An ancient analogy: Pot-baked bread in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia’, Paléorient, 16 (1990), 21 – 35. CIVIL, M., ‘A hymn to the Beer Goddess and a drinking song’, in R. D. BIGGS and J. A. BRINKMAN eds., Studies presented to A. Leo Oppenheim, Chicago, 1964, 67 – 89. CLARYSSE, W., ‘The Financial Problems of the Beer-Seller Ameneus.’, Enchoria, 16 (1988), 11 – 21. CLARYSSE, W., ‘The Archive Of Taembes, A Female Brewer In The Heracleopolite Nome’, Ancient Society, 37 (2007), 89 – 95. CLARYSSE, W., ‘Egyptian Bankers and Bank Receipts in Hellenistic and Early Roman Egypt’, in K. VERBOVEN, K. VANDORPE and V. CHANKOWSKI eds., Pistoi dia tèn technèn. Bankers, Loans and Archives in the Ancient World. Studies in Honour of R. Bogaert (Studia Hellenistica 44), Leuven, 2008. CLÈRE, J. J., ‘Un monument de la religion populaire de l’époque ramesside’, Revue d’Egyprologie, 27 (1975), 70 – 77; Pls. 4. CRAWFORD, D. J., ‘Food: Tradition and Change in Hellenistic Egypt’, World Archaeology, 11 (1979), 136 – 146. DAIBER, K. H., ‘Enzyme inhibition by polyphenols of sorghum grain and malt’, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 26 (1975), 1399 – 1411. DAVIS, W., ‘Artists and patrons in predynastic and early dynastic Egypt’, Studien zur Daan Smets Beer for Men and Gods 23 Altägyptischen Kultur, 10 (1983), 119 – 140. DIETLER, M., ‘Alcohol: Anthropological/Archaeological Perspectives’, Annual Review of Anthropology, 35 (2006), 229 – 249. DIXON, D. M., ‘A note on cereals in ancient Egypt’ in P. J. UCKO and G. W. DIMBLEBY eds., The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals, London, 1969, 131 – 142. DORNEMANN, R. H., ‘The Late Bronze Age Pottery Tradition at Tell Hadidi, Syria’, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 241 (1981), 29 – 47. DYER, T. A. and NOVELLIE, L., ‘Kaffircorn malting and brewing studies. XVI. The distribution and activity of α- and β-amylases in germinating kaffircorn’, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 17 (1966), 449 – 456 and Chemical abstracts, 65 (1966), 11301c. ELMAGHRABI, M. G., ‘Three Receipts for Beer Tax from Hibeh’, Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 186 (2013), 237 – 243. ENDRÖDI, J., ‘Figurative discourse and communication in the emerging state of Egypt’, Gottinger Miszellen, 125 (1991), 21 – 36. EVANS, T. V., ‘The Optative at PMichZen 36. 3’, Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 179 (2011), 218 – 220. EYRE, C. J., ‘The Water Regime for Orchards and Plantations in Pharaonic Egypt’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 80 (1994), 57 – 80. EYRE, C. J., ‘Peasants and "Modern" Leasing Strategies in Ancient Egypt’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 40 (1997), 367 – 390. FORBES, C. A., ‘Beer: A Sober Account’, The Classical Journal, 46 (1951), 281 – 285; 300. FORBES, R. J., ‘Food and Drink’ in C. SINGER, E. J. HOLMYARD, A. R. HALL and T. I. WILLIAMS eds., A History of Technology, vol. 2, New York, NY and London, 1956, 103 – 146. FRIEDMAN, R. F., FRIEDMAN, R. F., MAISH, A., FAHMY, A. G., DARNELL, J. C. and JOHNSON, E. D., ‘Preliminary Report on Field Work at Hierakonpolis: 1996-1998’, Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, 36 (1999), 1 – 35. GATES, M.-H., ‘Dialogues between Ancient near Eastern Texts and the Archaeological Record: Test Cases from Bronze Age Syria’, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 270 (1988), 63 – 91. GELLER, J. R., ‘Recent Excavations at Hierakonpolis and their Relevance to Predynastic Pyrotechnology and Settlement’, Societés Urbaines en Egypte et au Soudan. Cahiers de recherches de l'Institut de Papyrologie et d'Egyptologie de Lille, 11 (1989), 41 – 52. GELLER, J. R., ‘From prehistory to history: Beer in Egypt,’ in R. FRIEDMAN and B. ADAMS eds., The followers of Horus: Studies dedicated to Michael Allen Hoffman, Oxford, 1992, 19 - 26. Daan Smets Beer for Men and Gods 24 GELLER, J. R., ‘Bread and beer in fourth-millennium Egypt’, Food and Foodways, 5 (1993), 255 – 267. GHALIOUNGUI, P., ‘Fermented beverages in antiquity’ in C. F. GASTINEAU, W. J. DARBY and T. B. TURNER eds., Fermented food beverages in nutrition, New York, 1979, 4 – 19. GILLILAND, R. B., ‘Classification and Selection of Yeast Strains’ in W. P. K. FINDLAY, Modern Brewing Technology, London, 1971, 108 – 128. GLASER, G., ‘Re-creating Antique Beers’, All About Beer, 22 (2001), 28 – 31; 70 – 71. GRÜSS, J., ‘Saccharomyces Winlocki, die Hefe aus den Pharaonengräbern’, Tageszeitüng für Braüerei, 27 (1929), 275 – 278, 517, 679 – 682. GUY, J.G., 'Roman circular lead tanks in Britain', Britannia, 12 (1981), 271 – 276. HANSON, A. E., ‘P.Mich. inv. 1434: Receipts for syntaximon and Beer Tax’, Bulletin of the American Society of Papyrologists, 19 (1982), 47 – 60. HARTMAN, L. F. and OPPENHEIM, A. L., ‘On beer and brewing techniques in ancient Mesopotamia’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, suppl. 10 (1950). HAYDEN, B., CANUEL, N. and SHANSE, J., ‘What Was Brewing in the Natufian? An Archaeological Assessment of Brewing Technology in the Epipaleolithic’, Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 20 (2013), 102 – 150. HEICHELHEIM, F. M., ‘Monopole’, Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, 16 (1933), 147 – 199. HOMAN, M. M., ‘Beer Production by Throwing Bread into Water: A New Interpretation of Qoh. XI 1-2’, Vetus Testamentum, 52 (2002), 275 – 278. HOMAN, M. M., ‘Beer and Its Drinkers: An Ancient near Eastern Love Story’, Near Eastern Archaeology, 67 (2004), 84 – 95. JANSSEN, J. J. ‘Absence from work by the Necropolis workmen of Thebes’, Studien zur Altägyptische Kultur, 8 (1980), 127 – 150. JENNINGS, J., ANTROBUS, K. L., ATENCIO, S. J., GLAVICH, E., JOHNSON, R., LOFFLER, G. and LUU, C., ‘“Drinking Beer in a Blissful Mood” Alcohol Production, Operational Chains, and Feasting in the Ancient World’, Current Anthropology, 46 (2005), 275 - 303. JOFFE, A. H., ‘Alcohol and Social Complexity in Ancient Western Asia’, Current Anthropology, 39 (1998), 297 – 322. JOHNSTON, J. R., ‘Brewing and Distilling Yeasts’ in J. F. T. SPENCER and D. M. SPENCER ed., Yeast Technology, Berlin, 1990, 55 – 104. JØRGENSEN, O. B., ‘Barley Malt alpha-Glucosidase. VI. Localization and Development during Barley Germination.’, Acta Chemica Scandinavica, 19 (1965), 1014 – 1015. JUSTER, J., Les Juifs dans l’empire romain. Leur condition juridique, économique et sociale, Paris, 1914. Daan Smets Beer for Men and Gods 25 KAPLONY-HECKEL, U., 'Das tägliche Brot. 'q "Brot, Ration" auf demotischen Erment-Ostraka', N. GRIMAL und B. MENU eds., Le Commerce en Egypte ancienne (Bulletin d’Égyptologie, 121), Kairo, 1998, 209 – 240. KATZ, S. H. and MAYTAG, F., ‘Brewing an ancient beer’, Archaeology 44 (1991), 25 – 31. LANSING, A., ‘An Exchange of Egyptian Objects’, The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, 32 (1937), 285 – 286. LARSEN, H., ‘Miscellanae on baking in the Middle Kingdom’, Acta Archaelogica, 7 (1936), 51 – 57.

LAUBENHEIMER, F., OUZOULIAS, P. and VAN OSSEL, P., ‘La bière en Gaule. Sa fabrication, les mots pour le dire, les vestiges archéologiques: première approche’, Revue Archéologique de Picardie, 1 – 2 (2003), 47 – 63. LEGRAS, J. L., MERDINOGLU, D., CORNUET, J. M. and KARST F., ‘Bread, beer and wine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae diversity reflect human history’, Molecular Ecology, 16 (2007), 2091 – 2102. LEITZ, C., ‘Das Menu-Lied: eine Anleitung zum Bierbrauen für Hathor in 18 Schritten’, R. JASNOW and G. WIDMER eds., Illuminating Osiris: Egyptological studies in honor of Mark Smith, Atlanta, 2017, 221 – 237. LESKO, L. H., ‘Egyptian wine production during the New Kingdom’, P. E. MCGOVERN, S. J. FLEMING and S. H. KATZ eds., The Origins and Ancient History of Wine, Philadelphia, 1996, 215 – 230. LUCAS, A. and HARRIS, J. R., ‘Alcoholic Beverages and Sugar’, LUCAS, A. and HARRIS, J. R., Ancient Egyptian Materials and Industries, 4th edition, London, 1962. MAKSOUD, S. A., EL HADIDI, M. N. and AMER, W. M., ‘Beer from the Early Dynasties (3500- 3400 cal. B.C.) of Upper Egypt Detected by Archaeochemical Methods’, Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 3 (1994), 219 – 224. MARCINIAK, M. L., ‘Filters, Strainers And Siphons In Production And Drinking Of Wine And Beer In Ancient Egypt’, Addiction Research, 2 (1995), 241 – 250. MCGOVERN, P. E., GLUSKER, D. L., MOREAU, R. A., NUÑEZ, A., BECK, C. W., SIMPSON, E., BUTRYM, E. D., EXNER, L. J. and STOUT, E. C., ‘A Funerary Feast for King Midas’, Nature, 402 (1999), 863 – 864. MILLER, R. L., ‘Counting Calories in Egyptian Ration Texts’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 34 (1991), 257 – 269. MORCOS, S. R., HEGAZI, S. M. and EL-DAMHOUGY, S. T., ‘Fermented Foods of Common Use in Egypt. II. The Chemical Composition of bouza and its Ingredients’, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 24 (1973), 1157 – 1161. MOSELEY, M. E., NASH, D. J., WILLIAMS, P. R., DEFRANCE, S., MIRANDA, A. and RUALES, M., ‘Burning Down the Brewery: Establishing and Evacuating an Ancient Imperial Daan Smets Beer for Men and Gods 26 Colony at Cerro Baúl, Peru’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102 (2005), 17264 – 17271. MUKHERJEE, V., RADECKA, D., AERTS, G., VERSTREPEN, K. J., LIEVENS, B. and THEVELEIN, J. M., ‘Phenotypic landscape of non-conventional yeast species for different stress tolerance traits desirable in bioethanol fermentation’, Biotechnology for Biofuels, 10 (2017), 1 – 19. Accessed at https://doi.org/10.1186/S13068-017-0899-5 on 23 May 2019. MULLINS, R. A., ‘A Corpus of Eighteenth Dynasty Egyptian-style Pottery from Beth Shean’ in A. M. MAEIR and P. DE MIROSCHEDJI eds., I Will Speak the Riddle of Ancient Times: Archaeological and Historical Studies in Honor of Amihai Mazar on the Occasion of his Sixtieth Birthday, Winona Lake, IN, 2002. MURATA, K., IKEHATA, H. and MIYAMOTO, T., ‘Studies on the Nutritional Value of Tempeh’, Journal of Food Science, 32 (1967), 580 – 586. MURRAY, M. A., ‘Ancient Egyptian materials and technology’ in P. T. NICHOLSON and I. SHAW eds., Ancient Egyptian materials and technology, Cambridge, 2000, 505 – 536. NELSON, C. A., ‘A Receipt for Beer Tax’, Chronique d’Égypte, 51 (1976), 121 – 129. NELSON, M., ‘ζυτουργει̑ον: A Scholarly Ghost Word’, Mnemosyne, Fourth Series, 54 (2001), 721 – 723. NELSON, M., ‘Did Ancient Greeks Drink Beer?’, Phoenix, 68 (2014), 27 – 46. NOVELLIE, L. ‘Kaffircorn malting and brewing studies. V. Occurrence of β-amylase in kaffircorn malts’, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 11 (1960), 457 – 471. NOVELLIE, L. ‘Kaffircorn malting and brewing studies. XI. Effect of malting conditions on the diastatic power of kaffircorn malt’, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 13 (1962), 115 – 120. NOVELLIE, L. ‘Bantu beer: food or beverage?’, Food Industry, South Africa, 16 (1963), 28. NOVELLIE, L. ‘Bantu beer-popular drink in South Africa’, Brewer and Distiller International, 1 (1966), 27 – 31. NOVELLIE, L. ‘Kaffircorn malting and brewing studies. XIV. Mashing with kaffircorn malt. Factors affecting sugar production’, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 17 (1966), 354 – 361. NOVELLIE, L., ‘Kaffir beer brewing, ancient art and modern industry’, Wallerstein Laboratory Communications, 31 (1968), 17 – 29. NOVELLIE, L., ‘Beverages from sorghum and millets’, Proceedings of the International Association for Cereal Chemistry Symposium, 1976, 73 – 77. NOVELLIE, L. and SCHUTTE, R. J., ‘Kaffircorn malting and brewing studies. X. The susceptibility of sorghum starch to amylolysis’, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 12 (1961), 552 – 559. Daan Smets Beer for Men and Gods 27 OLCK, F., ‘Bier’, Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, 3 (1899), 457 – 464. ORLOVE, B. and SCHMIDT, E., ‘Swallowing Their Pride: Indigenous and Industrial Beer in Peru and Bolivia’, Theory and Society, 24 (1995), 271 – 298. PAIN, S., ‘Greek Grog’, New Scientist, 164 (1999), 54 – 57. PASSONI DELL'ACQUA, A., ‘P.Bon. I.S.A. 3 Recto e Verso: conto di distribuzione di birra ed altri beni con onomastica (tardo tolemaico/prima età romana)’, B. PALME ed., Akten des 23. Internationalen Papyrologenkongresses, Wien, 22.—28. Juli 2001 (Papyrologica Vindobonensia 1), Vienna, 2007, 513 – 524. PECK, H. T., ‘Cervesia, cervisia or cerevisia’, Harper’s Dictionary of Classical Literature and Antiquities, New York, NY, 1965, 321. PLATT, B. S., ‘Biological ennoblement: Improvement of the nutritive value of foods and dietary regimens by biological agencies’, Food Technology, 18 (1964), 662 – 670. PLATT, B. S. and WEBB, R. A., ‘Fermentation and human nutrition’, Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 4 (1946), 132 – 140. REGULSKI, I., ‘The Beginning of Hieratic Writing in Egypt’, Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur, 38 (2009), 259 – 274. SAMUEL, D., ‘Ancient Egyptian Cereal Processing: Beyond the Artistic Record’, Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 3 (1993), 276 – 283. SAMUEL, D., ‘A new look at bread and beer’, Egyptian Archaeology 4 (1994), 9 – 11. SAMUEL, D. and BOLT, P., ‘Rediscovering ancient Egyptian beer’, Brewers’ Guardian, 124 (1995), 26 – 31. SAMUEL, D., ‘Archaeology of ancient Egyptian beer’, Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists, 54 (1996), 3 – 12. SAMUEL, D., ‘Investigation of Ancient Egyptian Baking and Brewing Methods by Correlative Microscopy’, Science, 273 (1996), 488 – 490. SAMUEL, D., ‘Bread Making and Social Interactions at the Amarna Workmen's Village, Egypt’, World Archaeology, 31 (1999), 121 – 144. SAMUEL, D., ‘Brewing and baking’, in P. T. NICHOLSON and I. SHAW eds., Ancient Egyptian materials and technology, Cambridge, 2000, 537 – 576. SCAIFE, A. R., ‘Accounts for Taxes on Beer and Natron: P.Austin inv. 34’, Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 71 (1988), 105 – 109. SCHWARTZ, H. M., ‘Kaffircorn malting and brewing studies. I. The kaffir beer brewing industry in South Africa’, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 7 (1956), 101 – 105. SEEHER, J., ‘Maadi, eine prädynastische Kulturgruppe zwischen Oberägypten und Palästina’, Praehistorische Zeitschrift, 65 (1990), 123 – 156. Daan Smets Beer for Men and Gods 28 SEEHER, J., ‘Gedanken zur Rolle Unterägyptens bei der Herausbildung des Pharaonenreiches’, Mitteilungen der Deutschen Archäologischen Institut, Abteilung Kairo, 47 (1991), 313 – 318. SHUMAKER, J. W., ‘Two Papyri From The McCormick Theological Seminary’, The Bulletin of the American Society of Papyrologists, 7 (1970), 39 – 44. SPALINGER, A., ‘Dates In Ancient Egypt’, Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur, 15 (1988), 255 – 276. STEINKRAUS, K. H., VAN VEEN, A. G. and THIEBEAU, D. B., ‘Studies on Idli- and Indian fermented black gram rice food’, Food Technology, 21 (1967), 110 – 113. STEINKRAUS, K. H. ed., Handbook of indigenous fermented foods. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, New York, 1996. STOL, M. ‘Beer in Neo-Babylonian Times’, MILANO, L. ed., Drinking in Ancient Societies: History and Culture of Drinks in the Ancient Near East (Bere e bevende nel Vicino Oriente Antico). Papers of a Symposium Held in Rome, May 17-19, 1990, Padua, 1994. SWIFT, F. R., ‘Examination of Ancient Egyptian Bread and Beer’, Microchemical Journal, 11 (1966), 216 – 222. TEGEGNE, Y., ‘Work’, Ethopian Ethnological Society Bulletin, 7 (1957). THOMPSON, D. J., ‘Food for Ptolemaic Temple Workers’, in J. WILKINS, D. HARVEY and M. DOBSON eds., Food in Antiquity, Exeter, 1995, 316 – 325. THOMPSON, H. A., ‘Syrian Wheat in Hellenistic Egypt’, Archiv für Papyrusforschung, 9 (1930), 7 – 13. VAN DER VEEN, M., ‘Charred Grain Assemblages from Roman-Period Corn Driers in Britain’, Archaeological Journal, 146 (1989), 302 – 319. VAN DER WALT, J. P., ‘Kaffircorn malting and brewing studies. II. Studies on the microbiology of kaffir beer’, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 7 (1956), 105 – 113. VAN MINNEN, P., ‘Lentils from Pelusium: A Note on Vergil’s Georgics 1, 228’, Mnemosyne, 44 (1991), 167 – 170. VAN MINNEN, P., ‘Agriculture and the 'Taxes-and-Trade' Model in Roman Egypt’, Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 133 (2000), 205 – 220. VENIT, M. S., ‘The Painted Tomb from Wardian and the Antiquity of the Saqiya’, Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, 26 (1989), 219 – 222. VOGEL, S. and GOBEZIE, A., ‘Ethiopian tej’, Symposium on Indigenous Fermented Foods, 1977. WATSON, T. G., ‘Inhibition of microbial fermentations by sorghum grain and malt’, Journal of Applied Microbiology, 38 (1975), 133 – 142. WATSON, T. G. and NOVELLIE, L., ‘Extraction of Sorgum vulgare and Hordeum vulgare aglucosidase’, Phytochemistry, 13 (1974), 1037 – 1041. Daan Smets Beer for Men and Gods 29 WILLIAMS, N., ‘How the Ancient Egyptians Brewed Beer’, Science, 273 (1996), 432.

Universiteit of Hogeschool
Master Geschiedenis van de Oudheid
Publicatiejaar
2019
Promotor(en)
Prof. Dr. Katelijn Vandorpe
Kernwoorden
Share this on: