Impact van Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certificering op de levering van ecosysteemdiensten in boslandschappen van zuid-centraal Chili: een case study in het Nahuelbuta landschap

Eva Toebat
Deze scriptie ontwikkelde en testte een methode voor onderzoek naar de ecologische effectiviteit van het FSC ('Forest Stewardship Council') keurmerk voor duurzaam bosbeheer en de resulterende producten. Het onderzoek geeft ook resultaten van een studiegebied in Chili en toont hierbij ecologische belang van het FSC label.

Duurzame bosbouw biedt extra voordelen

Ben je het FSC (‘Forest Stewardship Council’) label al eens tegengekomen in een boek of op een houtproduct? Dit wil zeggen dat het product afkomstig is van duurzaam beheerde bossen of plantages. Duurzame bosbouw houdt rekening met het economisch aspect, maar ook met het behoud van ecologische en sociale waarden. De visie is om aan de noden van zowel de huidige als toekomstige generatie te kunnen voorzien. Maar is het controlemechanisme van duurzaam bosbeheer effectief? Daar poogde dit onderzoek een antwoord op te geven

Het verdwijnen van grote bosoppervlaktes en het verlies van biodiversiteit zorgde in de jaren ’90 voor het ontstaan van certificering van duurzaam bosbeheer en resulterende producten. FSC was hierbij het eerste certificeringsmechanisme. Doorheen de 25 jaar dat FSC bestaat, gebeurde er reeds onderzoek naar de ecologische effecten ervan op het bossen, plantages en hun omgeving. Zo werd gekeken naar de invloed op het behoud en herstel van de biodiversiteit, koolstofopslag door de bomen, het behoud van natuurlijke leefgebieden voor soorten en de vermindering van ontbossing. Deze studies toonden aan hoe complex het onderzoeken van invloeden van deze certificering is, o.a. door de vele beïnvloedende factoren. Verder gebruikten deze studies een hele reeks verschillende onderzoeksmethoden, waardoor resultaten moeilijk met elkaar te vergelijken zijn. Conclusies over de ecologische impact van FSC certificering op bossen of plantages zijn dus nog niet eenduidig. 

Houtoogst in een gecertificeerde plantage

In dit onderzoek werd een onderzoeksmethode ontwikkeld voor de evaluatie van de ecologische impact van FSC certificering, meer bepaald op de levering van ecosysteemdiensten. Dit zijn de voordelen die mensen verkrijgen van ecosystemen. En een ecosysteem is het geheel van levende organismen en hun niet-levende omgeving, die met elkaar interageren. Zo kan een ‘gezond’ bosecosysteem bijvoorbeeld niet alleen hout of pulp voor papier leveren, maar ook een bron zijn van andere producten zoals bijvoorbeeld paddenstoelen, water zuiveren en bodem vasthouden zodat deze niet wegspoelt. Andere voorbeelden van potentiële ‘extra’ voordelen kunnen gaan van een woonplaats voor dieren tot een spirituele of recreatiewaarde voor mensen. De methode werd getest in een studiegebied in Chili, waaruit ook bruikbare inzichten voortvloeiden.

Chili is een smal, langgerekt land in Zuid-Amerika met diverse klimaten, van continentale steppeklimaten in het zuiden tot mediterrane klimaten en woestijnklimaten meer noordwaarts. Het is daarnaast een goede studieplaats i.v.m. bosbouw. Met zijn oppervlakte van ongeveer 3 miljoen hectare plantages met exotische boomsoorten is het één van de tien belangrijkste bosbouwproducenten ter wereld. Bovendien is er ongeveer 2 300 600 ha bos of plantage FSC gecertificeerd. Het belang om ecologische effecten van FSC certificering te onderzoeken in Chili is gekoppeld aan de spectaculaire natuur. Een voorbeeld daarvan is de Valdiviaanse ecoregio in het zuiden. Deze kan gezien worden als een eiland, begrensd door de natuurlijke barrières van het Andesgebergte, de Pacifische Oceaan en de Atacama woestijn. Door de afzondering van andere levende organismen heeft het gebied een spectaculaire biodiversiteit en komen hier soorten voor die nergens anders ter wereld voorkomen. Het bevat ook één van de vijf gematigde regenwouden in de wereld. Deze biodiversiteit wordt echter bedreigd door o.a. het kappen van inheemse bossen, bosbranden en het omzetten van deze bossen naar landbouw of plantages met niet-inheemse of exotische boomsoorten. De combinatie van de opmerkelijke biodiversiteit en de risicovolle bedreigingen maken dat het één van de 35 biodiversiteitshotspots ter wereld is en dus belangrijk om te beschermen. Een strategie van het WWF (Wereld Natuurfonds) hierbij is de vrijwillige FSC certificering van bosbouwbedrijven in combinatie met het monitoren van de sociale en ecologische effecten van deze certificering. 

Uitzicht op de natuur van Santuario el Cañi (Pucón)

De ontwikkelde methode bestaat uit verschillende stappen. Eerst wordt gekeken welke ecosysteemdiensten een mogelijk verband hebben met de principes en criteria van FSC certificering. Vervolgens helpt een enquête voor personen uit verschillende sectoren gerelateerd aan FSC certificering om de meest relevante ecosysteemdiensten voor het studiegebied te selecteren. In het geval van het Chileense studiegebied waren dat waterregulering, zoetwatervoorziening, bescherming van de biodiversiteit van planten en dieren en het vasthouden van bodem. Er werd voor elke dienst ook gevraagd naar de lengte van de nodige onderzoeksperiode om effecten te kunnen zien. Hierbij werd in Chili het belang van langdurige evaluatie onderstreept, maar invloeden op bijvoorbeeld zoetwatervoorziening of natuurlijke leefgebieden zouden al zichtbaar kunnen zijn binnen de tien jaar na het begin van certificering. Verder moesten ondervraagden aanwijzen welke diensten al dan niet samen kunnen voorkomen in het studiegebied. Hierbij hielden zij rekening met bijvoorbeeld bestaande interacties en ecologische processen. Hout- en pulpproductie zou bijvoorbeeld hand in hand kunnen gaan waterzuivering, klimaatregulering en het vasthouden van de bodem. Deze productie zou echter een negatieve invloed kunnen hebben op het behoud van biodiversiteit en natuurlijke leefgebieden van dieren en planten. 

In een volgende stap worden bestaande modellen gebruikt om natuurlijke ecosystemen te simuleren. Dit heeft als voordeel dat grotere gebieden en verschillende scenario’s bekeken kunnen worden, i.t.t. bij complete veldonderzoeken. Door lokale gegevens in te voeren, wordt het studiegebied als het ware nagebootst op de computer. Om deze gegevens te verzamelen worden satellietbeelden en Google Earth beelden bewerkt. Verder is het mogelijk om veldwerk te combineren met de raadpleging van experts, wetenschappelijke literatuur en openbaar beschikbare databanken. De modellen geven dan aan hoeveel van een ecosysteemdienst geleverd wordt, wat vervolgens zelfs omgezet kan worden naar een geldwaarde. Voorbeelden die in dit onderzoek getest werden zijn zoet water opbrengst, de mate van bodembescherming en de natuurlijke leefgebied kwaliteit. De laatste stap omvat een statistische analyse om effecten van andere invloeden uit te sluiten en dus te komen tot invloeden van FSC certificering. Ten slotte worden verschillende voorstellen gegeven om de methode te verbeteren en uit te breiden.

De combinatie van enquêtes met lokale gegevens en modellen leidde tot een methode die in volgende onderzoeken naar FSC effectiviteit gebruikt kan worden. Zo kunnen resultaten gemakkelijker vergeleken worden. Resultaten uit Chili toonden indicaties van positieve invloeden op bodembehoud, natuurlijke leefgebieden en zoetwatervoorziening. Let dus zeker op het FSC label bij jouw volgende aankoop van boeken, papier of houtproducten.

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Universiteit of Hogeschool
Bioscience engineering: Master of Agro- and Ecosystems Engineering
Publicatiejaar
2019
Promotor(en)
Ben Somers, Adison Altamirano
Kernwoorden
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