A Gender-Sensitive Reflection on the Jurisprudence of the International Criminal Court

Eline Dewolf
Persbericht

GEZOCHT: Internationale genderrechtvaardigheid

Zou een Internationaal Strafhof internationale genderrechtvaardigheid kunnen bevorderen? Theoretisch gezien wel; in de praktijk is het veel genuanceerder. Hoewel het Internationaal Strafhof in Den Haag daders van grootschalig seksueel- en gendergebaseerd geweld kan bestraffen, denk aan massaverkrachtingen ten tijde van een conflict, werd er tot op vandaag nog niemand definitief veroordeeld hiervoor.

 

Hoge verwachtingen, teleurstellende uitkomsten

In 1998 was het zo ver. Het eerste internationale strafhof dat individuen kan bestraffen voor de meest ernstige misdaden werd opgericht, tot grote blijdschap van de internationale gemeenschap. De uitgebreide lijst met strafbare daden werd beschouwd als de meest vooruitstrevende ooit, vooral wat betreft de erkenning van grootschalig seksueel- en gendergebaseerd geweld. In het verleden bleven dergelijke misdaden vaak onbestraft. Zo focusten de oorlogstribunalen die werden opgericht na Wereldoorlog II enkel op moord en trivialiseerden ze alle andere vormen van geweld, ondanks het feit dat er voldoende bewijzen waren hiervoor. 

Deze scenario’s zouden zich in theorie niet meer kunnen voordoen sinds de oprichting van het Internationaal Strafhof. Of wel? Eline Dewolf (Master Conflict and Development Studies, UGent) onderzocht in het kader van haar masterproef vijf rechtszaken voor het Internationaal Strafhof en was enigszins teleurgesteld met het resultaat: “De rechters van het Internationaal Strafhof laten veel kansen onbenut om zo gendersensitief mogelijk te werk te gaan.” 

                            Scriptieprijs - Bijlage

 

Het Internationaal Strafhof in actie

In een juridische procedure draait alles rond het achterhalen van de waarheid, onder andere door slachtoffers en getuigen te laten deelnemen aan het juridisch proces. Omdat het vaak een grote stap is voor slachtoffers en getuigen om hun verhaal te doen, voorziet het Internationaal Strafhof in verschillende maatregelen om deze drempel te overbruggen: speciale bescherming voor getuigen, een gemeenschappelijke vertegenwoordiger voor de slachtoffers, ondersteuning door experten inzake seksueel- en gendergebaseerd geweld, en nog veel meer. Toch blijken de bewijzen vaak niet voldoende om een persoon te veroordelen voor zijn daden. 

“Dat een beschuldigde niet veroordeeld wordt, wil niet zeggen dat die persoon helemaal onschuldig is. Het wil zeggen dat de rechters van het Internationaal Strafhof niet genoeg bewijzen hadden om de persoon te veroordelen. En dit komt des te meer voor wanneer het seksueel- en gendergebaseerd geweld betreft”, legt Eline Dewolf uit.

Een tweede knelpunt is het gebrek aan flexibiliteit van de rechters het Internationaal Strafhof. In meerdere zaken resulteerde het gebrek aan flexibiliteit in een niet-veroordeling voor seksueel- en gendergebaseerd geweld. Het voorbeeld bij uitstek is de zaak van Lubanga, een voormalige Congolese politicus en militaire commandant. Lubanga werd veroordeeld omdat hij kinderen toeliet, en in vele gevallen dwong, om deel te nemen aan zijn militaire beweging. Veel kinderen werden omwille van deze misdaad blootgesteld aan seksueel geweld en andere vormen van onmenselijke behandeling. De meerderheid van de rechters van het Internationaal Strafhof vonden echter dat het te ver ging om Lubanga ook op basis van seksueel geweld en onmenselijke behandelingen te veroordelen.

 

Rechtvaardig recht?

Het onderzoek van Eline Dewolf toont aan dat een vooruitstrevend juridisch kader niet altijd leidt tot veranderingen in de praktijk. Ze gaat zelfs nog verder: “Wat zou er gebeuren als we het recht zelf in vraag stellen? Het recht is een weerspiegeling van de bestaande machtsverhoudingen tussen mensen en zegt veel over de samenleving waarin we leven. Wanneer een samenleving gekenmerkt wordt door genderongelijkheid zal dit hoe dan ook tot uiting komen op juridisch vlak.” Hiermee lanceert Eline Dewolf een oproep om op een bewuste manier te reflecteren over verdere stappen richting internationale genderrechtvaardigheid.

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliografie

Jurisprudence (in chronological order)

ICTY (1995). Prosecutor v. Dragan Nikoliç a/k/a “Jenki”, Case No. IT-94-2-R61, Review of Indictment Pursuant to Rule 61 of the Rules of Procedure and Evidence (Trial Chamber, October 20).

ICTR (1998). The Prosecutor v. Jean-Paul Akayesu, Case No. ICTR-96-4-T, Judgment (Trial Chamber I, September 2).

ICTY (2001). Prosecutor v. Dragoljub Kunarac, Radomir Kovaç and Zoran Vukoviç, Case No. IT-96-23-T & IT-96-23/1-T, Judgement (Trial Chamber, February 22).

ICC (2006). The Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, ICC Doc. ICC-01/04-01/06-2-tEN, Warrant of Arrest (Pre-Trial Chamber I, February 10).

ICC (2007). The Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, ICC Doc. ICC-01/04-01/06-803-tEN, Decision on the confirmation of charges (Pre-Trial Chamber I, January 29).

ICC (2007). The Prosecutor v. Bosco Ntaganda, ICC Doc. ICC-01/04-02/06-2-Corr-tENG-Red, Warrant of Arrest – Corrigendum (Pre-Trial Chamber I, March 7).

ICC (2007). The Prosecutor v. Germain Katanga, ICC Doc. ICC-01/04-01/07-1-tENG, Warrant of Arrest for Germain Katanga (Pre-Trial Chamber I, July 2).

ICC (2008). The Prosecutor v. Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo, ICC Doc. ICC-01/05-01/08-1-tENG-Corr, Warrant of Arrest for Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo (Pre-Trial Chamber III, May 23).

ICC (2008). The Prosecutor v. Germain Katanga and Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui, ICC Doc. ICC-01/04-01/07- 717, Decision on the confirmation of charges (Pre-Trial Chamber I, September 30).

ICC (2009). The Prosecutor v. Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo, ICC Doc. ICC-01/05-01/08-424, Decision Pursuant to Article 61(7)(a) and (b) of the Rome Statute on the Charges of the Prosecutor Against Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo (Pre-Trial Chamber II, June 15).

ICC (2012). The Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, ICC Doc. ICC-01/04-01/06-2842, Judgment pursuant to Article 74 of the Statute (Trial Chamber I, March 14).

Odio Benito, E. (2012). Separate and Dissenting Opinion of Judge Odio Benito. In ICC, The Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo (pp. 608-624), ICC Doc. ICC-01/04-01/06-2842, Judgment pursuant to Article 74 of the Statute (Trial Chamber I, March 14).

ICC (2012). The Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, ICC Doc. ICC-01/04-01/06-2901, Decision on Sentence pursuant to Article 76 of the Statute (Trial Chamber I, July 10).

ICC (2012). The Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, ICC Doc. ICC-01/04-01/06-2904, Decision establishing the principles and procedures to be applied to reparations (Trial Chamber I, August 7).

ICC (2012). The Prosecutor v. Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui, ICC Doc. ICC-01/04-02/12-3-tENG, Judgment pursuant to article 74 of the Statute (Trial Chamber II, December 18).

ICC (2014). The Prosecutor v. Germain Katanga, ICC Doc. ICC-01/04-01/07-3436, Judgment pursuant to article 74 of the Statute (Trial Chamber II, March 7).

ICC (2014). The Prosecutor v. Germain Katanga, ICC Doc. ICC-01/04-01/07-3484-tENG-Corr, Decision on Sentence pursuant to article 76 of the Statute (Trial Chamber II, May 23).

ICC (2014). The Prosecutor v. Bosco Ntaganda, ICC Doc. ICC-01/04-02/06-309, Decision Pursuant to Article 61(7)(a) and (b) of the Rome Statute on the Charges of the Prosecutor Against Bosco Ntaganda (Pre- Trial Chamber II, June 9).

ICC (2015). The Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, ICC Doc. ICC-01/04-01/06-3129, Judgment on the appeals against the “Decision establishing the principles and procedures to be applied to reparations” of 7 August 2012 (The Appeals Chamber, March 3).

ICC (2015). The Prosecutor v. Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui, ICC Doc. ICC-01/04-02/12-271-Corr, Judgment on the Prosecutor’s appeal against the decision of Trial Chamber II entitled “Judgment pursuant to article 74 of the Statute” (The Appeals Chamber, April 7).

ICC (2016). The Prosecutor v. Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo, ICC Doc. ICC-01/05-01/08-3343, Judgment pursuant to Article 74 of the Statute (Trial Chamber III, March 21).

ICC (2016). The Prosecutor v. Ahmad Al Faqi Al Mahdi, ICC-01/12-01/15-84-Red 24-03-2016, Decision on the confirmation of charges against Ahmad Al Faqi Al Mahdi (Pre-Trial Chamber I, March 24).

ICC (2016). The Prosecutor v. Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo, ICC Doc. ICC-01/05-01/08-3399, Decision on Sentence pursuant to Article 76 of the Statute (Trial Chamber III, June 21).

ICC (2017). The Prosecutor v. Germain Katanga, ICC Doc. ICC-01/04-01/07-3728-tENG, Order for Reparations pursuant to Article 75 of the Statute (Trial Chamber II, March 24).

ICC (2017). The Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, ICC Doc. ICC-01/04-01/06-3379-Red-Corr-tENG, Corrected version of the “Decision Setting the Size of the Reparations Award for which Thomas Lubanga Dyilo is Liable” (Trial Chamber II, December 21).

ICC (2018). The Prosecutor v. Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo, ICC Doc. ICC-01/05-01/08-3636-Red, Judgment on the appeal of Mr Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo against Trial Chamber III’s “Judgment pursuant to Article 74 of the Statute” (The Appeals Chamber, June 8).

ICC (2018). The Prosecutor v. Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo, ICC Doc. ICC-01/05-01/08-3653, Final decision on the reparations proceedings (Trial Chamber III, August 3).

ICC (2019). The Prosecutor v. Bosco Ntaganda, ICC Doc. ICC-01/04-02/06-2359, Judgment (Trial Chamber VI, July 8).

ICC (2019). The Prosecutor v. Bosco Ntaganda, ICC Doc. ICC-01/04-02/06-2442, Sentencing Judgment (Trial Chamber VI, November 7).

 

Bibliography

Askin, K. D. (2004). A Decade of the Development of Gender Crimes in International Courts and Tribunals: 1993 to 2003. Human Rights Brief, 11(3), 16-19.

Baaz, M. E., Stern, M. (2009). Why Do Soldiers Rape? Masculinity, Violence, and Sexuality in the Armed Forces in the Congo (DRC). International Studies Quarterly, 53(2), 495-518. doi: 10.1111/j.1468- 2478.2009.00543.x

Baer, J. A. (2008). Feminist Theory and the Law. Oxford Handbooks Online, 1-15. doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199208425.003.0025

Barnett, H. (1998). Introduction to Feminist Jurisprudence. Cavendish Publishing Limited. Bartlett, K. T. (1990). Feminist Legal Methods. Harvard Law Review, 103(4), 829-888.

Bassiouni, M. C. (2002). The New Mixed Models of International Criminal Justice. In M. C. Bassiouni, Introduction to International Criminal Law (pp. 545-581). Transnational Publishers.

Becker, M. (1999). Patriarchy and Inequality: Towards a Substantive Feminism. University of Chicago Legal Forum, 1999(1), 21-88.

Bedont, B., Martinez, K. H. (1999). Ending Impunity for Gender Crimes under the International Criminal Court. The Brown Journal of World Affairs, 6(1), 65-85.

Buss, D. E. (2007). The curious visibility of wartime rape: Gender and ethnicity in international criminal law. Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice, 25(1), 3-22.

Cain, A. P. (1988). Feminist Jurisprudence: Grounding the Theories. Berkeley Women's Law Journal, 4(2), 191-214.

Campbell, K. (2007). The Gender of Transitional Justice: Law, Sexual Violence and the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. International Journal of Transitional Justice, 1(3), 411-432. doi: 10.1093/ijtj/ijm033

Chappell, L. (2010). Gender and Judging at the International Criminal Court. Politics & Gender, 6(3), 484- 495. doi: 10.1017/s1743923x1000022x

Chappell, L. (2013). Conflicting Institutions and the Search for Gender Justice at the International Criminal Court. Political Research Quarterly, 67(1), 183-196. doi: 10.1177/1065912913507633

Chappell, L. (2014). “New,” “Old,” and “Nested” Institutions and Gender Justice Outcomes: A View from the International Criminal Court. Politics & Gender, 10, 572-564.

Chappell, L. (2016). The Politics of Gender Justice at the International Criminal Court: Legacies and Legitimacies. Oxford University Press.

Charlesworth, H., Chinkin, C., Wright, S. (1991). Feminist Approaches to International Law. The American Journal of International Law, 85(4), 613-645. doi: 10.2307/2203269

Chisholm, A., Tidy, J. (2017). Beyond the hegemonic in the study of militaries, masculinities, and war. Critical Military Studies, 3(2), 99-102. doi: 10.1080/23337486.2017.1328182

Cockburn, C. (2013). War and security, women and gender: an overview of the issues. Gender & Development, 21(3), 433-452. doi: 10.1080/13552074.2013.846632

Connell, R. W., Messerschmidt, J. W. (2005). Hegemonic Masculinity. Gender & Society, 19(6), 829-859. doi: 10.1177/0891243205278639

Convention (II) with Respect to the Laws and Customs of War on Land and its annex: Regulations concerning the Laws and Customs of War on Land (1899). Retrieved May 10, 2020, from https://ihl-data- bases.icrc.org/ihl/INTRO/150.

Convention (IV) respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land and its annex: Regulations concerning the Laws and Customs of War on Land (1907). Retrieved May 10, 2020 from https://ihl-data- bases.icrc.org/ihl/INTRO/195.

Copelon, R. (2000). Gender Crimes as War Crimes: Integrating Crimes against Women into International Criminal Law. McGill Law Journal, 46, 217-240.

Crenshaw, K. (1989). Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics. University of Chicago Legal Forum, 1989(1), 139-167.

D’Aoust, M-A. (2017). Sexual and Gender-based Violence in International Criminal Law: A Feminist Assessment of the Bemba Case. International Criminal Law Review, 17(1), 208-221. doi: 10.1163/15718123-01701006

Enloe, C. (2004). ‘Gender’ is not enough: the need for a feminist consciousness. International Affairs, 80(1), 95-97. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2346.2004.00370.x

Enloe, C. H. (2014). Bananas, beaches and bases: making feminist sense of international politics. University of California Press.

Esuruku, R. S. (2011). Beyond Masculinity: Gender, Conflict and Post-Conflict Reconstruction in Northern Uganda. Journal of Science & Sustainable Development, 4, 25-40.

Fineman, M. A. (2005). Feminist Legal Theory. Journal of Gender, Social Policy & the Law, 13(1), 13-23.

Gardam, J. G., Jarvis, M. J. (2001). Women, armed conflict, and international law. Kluwer Law International.

Gerring, J. (2004). What Is a Case Study and What Is It Good for? American Political Science Review, 98(2), 341-354. doi: 10.1017/s0003055404001182

Goldstein, L. F. (1992). Feminist Jurisprudence: The Difference Debate. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Goldstone, R. J., Dehon, E. A. (2003). Engendering Accountability: Gender Crimes Under International

Criminal Law. New England Journal of Public Policy, 19(1), 121-145.
Harris, A. (1990). Race and Essentialism in Feminist Legal Theory. Stanford Law Review, 42(3), 581-616.

Hutchings, K. (2007). Making Sense of Masculinity and War. Men and Masculinities, 10(4), 389-404. doi: 10.1177/1097184x07306740

ICC (2013a). Elements of Crime. Retrieved May 10, 2020, from https://www.icc-cpi.int/resource-li- brary/Documents/ElementsOfCrimesEng.pdf.

ICC (2013b). Rules of Procedures and Evidence. Retrieved May 10, 2020, from https://www.icc- cpi.int/iccdocs/pids/legal-texts/rulesprocedureevidenceeng.pdf.

ICC (2018). Regulations of the Court. Retrieved May 10, 2020, from https://www.icc- cpi.int/Publications/Regulations-of-the-Court.pdf.

ICC (2019). Strategic plan 2019-2021. Retrieved May 10, 2020, from https://www.icc-cpi.int/itemsDocu- ments/20190717-icc-strategic-plan-eng.pdf.

ICC Office of the Prosecutor (2014). Policy Paper on Sexual and Gender-Based Crimes. Retrieved May 10, 2020, from https://www.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/otp/OTP-Policy-Paper-on-Sexual-and-Gend…-- June-2014.pdf.

ICC Office of the Prosecutor (2019). Strategic Plan 2019 – 2021. Retrieved May 10, 2020, from https://www.icc-cpi.int/itemsDocuments/20190726-strategic-plan-eng.pdf.

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966). United Nations Treaty Series, 999(14668). Retrieved May 10, 2020, from https://treaties.un.org/doc/Treaties/1976/03/19760323%2006- 17%20AM/Ch_IV_04.pdf.

Mackinnon, C. A. (1983). Feminism, Marxism, Method, and the State: Towards Feminist Jurisprudence. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 8(4), 635-658. doi: 10.1086/494000

MacKinnon, C. A. (2006). Defining Rape Internationally: A Comment on Akayesu. Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, 44(3), 940-958.

MacKinnon, C. A. (2008). The ICTR’s Legacy on Sexual Violence. New England Journal of International and Comparative Law, 14(2), 101-110. Retrieved May 10, 2020, from https://www.icc- cpi.int/NR/rdonlyres/AF3FA255-B1D9-4FA4-992F- 56079A2DCC63/279736/ICCOTP20081027MacKinnon.pdf.

Moshan, B. S. (1998). Women, War, and Words: The Gender Component in the Permanent International Criminal Court’s Definition of Crimes Against Humanity. Fordham International Law Journal, 22(1), 152- 184.

Mouthaan, S. (2011). The Prosecution of Gender-based Crimes at the ICC: Challenges and Opportunities. International Criminal Law Review, 11(4), 775-802.

Myrttinen, H., Khattab, L., Naujoks, J. (2016). Re-thinking hegemonic masculinities in conflict-affected contexts. Critical Military Studies, 3(2), 103-119. doi: 10.1080/23337486.2016.1262658

Ni Aolain, F. (2001). Rethinking the Concept of Harm and Legal Categorizations of Sexual Violence During War. Theoretical Inquiries in Law, 1(2), 307-340. doi: 10.2202/1565-3404.1009

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (2008). Rule-of-Law Tools for Post- Conflict States: Maximizing the legacy of hybrid courts. Retrieved May 10, 2020, from https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/HybridCourts.pdf.

Ogg, K., Rimmer, S. H. (2019). Introduction to the Research Handbook on Feminist Engagement with Inter- national Law. In S. H. Rimmer, K. Ogg (Eds.), Research Handbook on Feminist Engagement with Interna- tional Law (pp. 1-16). Edward Elgar Publishing.

Oosterveld, V. (2005a). Gender-sensitive Justice and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda: Lessons Learned for the International Criminal Court. New England Journal of International and Comparative Law, 12(1), 119-134.

Oosterveld, V. (2005b). The Definition of Gender in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: Step Forward or Back for International Criminal Justice. Harvard Human Rights Journal, 18, 55-84.

Oosterveld, V. (2014). Constructive Ambiguity and the Meaning of “Gender” for the International Criminal Court. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 16(4), 563-580. doi: 10.1080/14616742.2014.950818

Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I) (1977). Official Records of the Diplomatic Conference on the Reaffirmation and Development of International Humanitarian Law applicable in Armed Conflicts, 1(3), 117-184. Retrieved May 10, 2020, from https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/applic/ihl/ihl.nsf/INTRO/470.

Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II) (1977). Official Records of the Diplomatic Conference on the Reaffirmation and Development of International Humanitarian Law applicable in Armed Conflicts, 1(3), 185-198. Retrieved May 10, 2020, from https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/applic/ihl/ihl.nsf/INTRO/475.

Ritchie, J., Lewis, J., Nicholls, C. M., & Ormston, R. (Eds.) (2013). Qualitative research practice: A guide for social science students and researchers. Sage.

Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (1998). United Nations Treaty Series, 2187(38544). Retrieved May 10, 2020, from https://www.icc-cpi.int/resource-library/Documents/RS-Eng.pdf.

SaCouto, S., Cleary, K. (2009). The Importance of Effective Investigation of Sexual Violence and Gender- based Crimes at the International Criminal Court. American University Journal of Gender, Social Policy & the Law, 17(2), 337-360.

SaCouto, S. (2012). Victim Participation at the International Criminal Court and the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia: Feminist Project. Michigan Journal of Gender Law, 18(2), 297-360.

Schulz, P. (2018). Displacement from gendered personhood: sexual violence and masculinities in northern Uganda. International Affairs, 94(5), 1101-1119. doi: 10.1093/ia/iiy146

Shabas, W. A. (2001). Creation of the Court. In W. A. Shabas, An Introduction to the International Criminal Court (pp. 1-20). Cambridge University Press.

Sløk-Andersen, B. (2018). Gender, War, and the Military. On the Complexities, Conceptualizations, and Lived Realities of Militarized Sociality. Women, Gender & Research, 27(2-3), 3-11.

Smith, P. (2010). Feminist Jurisprudence. In D. Patterson (Ed.), A Companion to Philosophy of Law and Legal Theory (2nd ed., pp. 290-298). Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

UN Economic and Social Council (1995). Expert group meeting on the development of guidelines for the integration of gender perspectives into human rights activities and programmes: Note by the Secretariat. UN Doc. E/CN.4/1996/105.

UN Economic and Social Council (1996). Integrating the human rights of women throughout the United Nations system: Report of the Secretary-General. UN Doc. E/CN.4/1997/40.

West, R. (2019). Introduction to the Research Handbook on Feminist Jurisprudence. In R. West, C. G. Bowman (Eds.), Research handbook on feminist jurisprudence (pp. 1-22). Edward Elgar Publishing.

Women’s Initiatives for Gender Justice (2018), Gender Report Card on the International Criminal Court. Retrieved May 10, 2020, from https://4genderjustice.org/ftp-files/publications/Gender-Report_design-…- WEB.pdf.

 

 

 

 

Universiteit of Hogeschool
Conflict and Development Studies
Publicatiejaar
2020
Promotor(en)
dr. Marlene Schäfers
Kernwoorden
Share this on: