De Hellenistische Monarchen en het ideale koningschap

Sam Van Overmeire
Persbericht

De Hellenistische Monarchen en het ideale koningschap

 

Stoere generaals, machtige tirannen en rechtvaardige koningen

 

            Hoe slaagt een leerkracht erin zijn gezag te vestigen? Hoe kunnen kleine, oude vrouwtjes een groep viriele pubers onder de knot houden? Dat lukt omdat ze duidelijk maken dat ze geen lawaai zullen tolereren in hun les, en wie niet luistert, zal hun toorn moeten trotseren. Terwijl duizenden studenten zo elk jaar leren gehoorzamen aan hun leerkrachten, probeert onze premier te demonstreren dat hij een capabel leider is, trouw aan zijn woord – in tegenstelling tot zijn voorgangers natuurlijk.

 

            Nihil nove sub sole: mensen proberen zich overal, al duizenden – zoniet miljoenen – jaren, op een bepaalde manier voor te stellen aan de rest van de mensheid. De grote leiders en despoten van de 20ste eeuw deden dat, net als de vorsten van de Nieuwe Tijden en middeleeuwen voor hen. Binnen Europa gaat veel van die “beeldvorming”, het construeren van een positief imago, terug op de Oudheid: de Romeinse keizers en – nog eerder – de Hellenistische koningen. Dat zijn de vorsten die in de Griekse wereld en het veroverde Perzische rijk de macht hielden na de dood van Alexander de Grote.

 

In mijn scriptie kwamen zij aan bod: hoe en waarom probeerden zij zich voor te stellen aan het volk waarover ze heersten? Natuurlijk konden niet al deze koningen worden bestudeerd. De Hellenistische vorsten in Klein-Azië, Egypte en het Midden-Oosten, die hun macht hadden verworven door na de dood van Alexander de Grote zijn rijk op te splitsen, zijn al uitgebreid onderzocht door historici. Maar ook in Sicilië, in de belangrijke stad Syracuse, doken plotseling heersers op die zich koning noemden. Die vorsten, en de manier waarop zij een imago construeerden, vormden het centrum van mijn scriptie.

 

Eerst werden de “Diadochen”, de opvolgers van Alexander de Grote, in het Oosten (van de Hellenistische wereld) bestudeerd. Die heersers bouwden op een heleboel manieren aan een positief beeld van hun heerschappij: ze stelden zich voor als machtige generaals, of rechtvaardige en genereuze weldoeners. Soms werden ze zelfs als goden aanbeden. Een duidelijk beeld van de beeldvorming bij die koningen hielp met het beter begrijpen van de Siciliaanse heersers, en diende tegelijkertijd als een vergelijkingskader. Het beperkte bronnenmateriaal werd met de hulp van die kennis geïnterpreteerd, en vervolgens werden de koningen in de twee bestudeerde regio’s vergeleken: waren er parallellen?

 

Uit dat onderzoek bleek dat er heel wat gelijkenissen waren tussen de koningen in het Sicilië en het Oosten. Beide groepen droegen bijvoorbeeld een diadeem, lieten zich op een zelfde manier afbeelden op hun munten en onderhielden soortgelijke contacten met de Griekse steden binnen en buiten hun rijk. Verschillen waren er ook, maar veel minder. Dat vormde bewijsmateriaal voor een stelling die aan het begin van de masterpaper geopperd werd: de heersers van Sicilië lieten zich inspireren door de Diadochen. Ze imiteerden de nieuwe koningen in het Oosten. 

 

Oppervlakkig is de enige groep voor wie deze scriptie belangrijk is, die van de (antieke) historici, specifiek zij die zich bezighouden met beeldvorming. Maar kennis van de geschiedenis heeft de neiging nuttig en interessant te zijn voor alle mensen, ongeacht leeftijd of beroep.  Mensen die de paper lezen, zouden zich enkele vragen moeten stellen: wat plaatsen wij op onze munten, en waarom doen we dat? Hoe proberen politici zich te presenteren? Welke media gebruiken ze daarvoor? Waarom schenken beroemde filmsterren zoveel geld aan liefdadigheid? Hoe proberen leerkrachten zich voor te stellen? Als rechtvaardig? De geschiedenis leert ons gelijkenissen en verschillen te zien, leert ons kritisch na te denken over de wereld om ons heen, en geeft ons zo inzicht in de mensheid. Dat maakt haar interessant voor het brede publiek.

Bibliografie

 

9. Bibliografie

 

9.1. Bronnen

9.1.1. Literair

 

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M. JUNIANUS IUSTINUS: Epitoma historiarum philippicarum Pompei Trogi

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CALLIMACHUS: ΚΑΛΛΙΜΑΧΟΥ ΥΜΝΟΙ en ΑΙΤΙΩΝ

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LIVIUS: Ab urbe condita

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LUCIANUS: ΦΑΛΑΡΙΣ en ΜΑΚΡΟΒΙΟΙ en ΠΕΡΙ ΤΟΥ ΜΗ ΠΑΙΔΙΩΣ ΠΙΣΤΕΥΕΙΝ ΔΙΑΒΟΛΗΙ en ΚΑΤΑΠΛΟΥΣ Η ΤΥΡΑΝΝΟΣ en ΠΡΟΣ ΤΟΝ ΑΠΑΙΔΕΥΤΟΝ ΚΑΙ ΠΟΛΛΑ ΒΙΒΛΙΑ ΩΝΟΥΜΕΝΟΝ en ΑΝΑΧΑΡΣΙΣ Η ΠΕΡΙ ΓΥΜΝΑΣΙΩΝ en ΜΕΝΙΠΠΟΣ Η ΝΕΚΥΟΜΑΝΤΕΙΑ en ΤΟΞΑΡΙΣ Η ΦΙΛΙΑ en ΝΕΚΡΙΚΟΙ ΔΙΑΛΟΓΟΙ en ΠΩΣ ΔΕΙ ΙΣΤΟΡΙΑΝ ΣΥΓΓΡΑΦΕΙΝ en ΖΕΥΞΙΣ Η ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΣ en ΑΠΟΛΟΓΙΑ en ΠΛΟΙΟΝ Η ΕΥΧΑΙ

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LYCOPHRON: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΑ

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PAUSANIAS: ΠΑΥΣΑΙΟΥ ΕΛΛΑΔΟΣ ΠΕΡΙΗΓΗΣΩΣ

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PLINIUS: Naturalis Historiae

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PLUTARCHUS: ΠΛΟΥΤΑΡΧΟΥ ΒΙΟΙ ΠΑΡΑΛΛΗΛΟΙ en ΤΩΝ ΕΠΤΑ ΣΟΦΩΝ ΣΥΜΠΟΣΙΟΝ

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- PERRIN (B.). Parallel Lives: Volume III. Cambridge (Massachusetts)/Londen, Harvard University Press/William Heinemann LTD, 1967, 441 p.

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POLYBIUS: ΠΟΛΥΒΙΟΥ ΙΣΤΟΡΙΩΝ

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- PATON (W.R.). The Histories: Volume IV. Cambridge (Massachusetts)/Londen, Harvard University Press/William Heinemann LTD, 1968, 576 p.

- PATON (W.R.). The Histories: Volume V. Cambridge (Massachusetts)/Londen, Harvard University Press/William Heinemann LTD, 1966, 585 p.

- PATON (W.R.). The Histories: Volume VI. Cambridge (Massachusetts)/Londen, Harvard University Press/William Heinemann LTD, 1966, 467 p.

 

PROPERTIUS: Elegiarum

- BUTLER (H.E.). Propertius. Cambridge (Massachusetts)/Londen, Harvard University Press/William Heinemann LTD, 1967, 362 p.

 

SILIUS ITALICUS: Punica

- DUFF (J.D.). Silus Italicus Punica: Volume I. Cambridge (Massachusetts)/Londen, Harvard University Press/William Heinemann LTD, 1961, 443 p.

- DUFF (J.D.). Silus Italicus Punica: Volume II. Cambridge (Massachusetts)/Londen, Harvard University Press/William Heinemann LTD, 1961, 499 p

 

SOPHOCLES: ΑΙΑΣ

- LLOYED-JONES (H.). Sophocles Volume II: Antigone, The Women of Trachis, Philoctetes, Oedipus at Colonus. Cambridge (Massachusetts)/Londen, Harvard University Press/William Heinemann LTD, 1967, 608 p.

- LLOYD-JONES (H.). Sophocles: Volume III: Fragments. Cambridge (Massachusetts)/Londen, Harvard University Press/William Heinemann LTD, 1996, 434 p.

 

STRABO: ΣΤΡΑΒΩΝΟΣ ΓΕΩΓΡΑΦΙΚΩΝ

- JONES (H.L.). Geography: Volume III. Cambridge (Massachusetts)/Londen, Harvard University Press/William Heinemann LTD, 1966, 408 p.

- JONES (H.L.). Geography: Volume IV. Cambridge (Massachusetts)/Londen, Harvard University Press/William Heinemann LTD, 1966, 465 p.

- JONES (H.L.). Geography: Volume VI. Cambridge (Massachusetts)/Londen, Harvard University Press/William Heinemann LTD, 1966, 397 p.

- JONES (H.L.). Geography: Volume VII. Cambridge (Massachusetts)/Londen, Harvard University Press/William Heinemann LTD, 1966, 373 p.

- JONES (H.L.). Geography: Volume VIII. Cambridge (Massachusetts)/Londen, Harvard University Press/William Heinemann LTD, 1966, 510 p.

 

THEOKRITUS: Idyllen

- GOW (A.S.F.). Theocritus: Volume I. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1965, 257 p.

 

THUKYDIDES: ΘΟΥΚΥΔΙΔΟΥ ΙΣΤΟΡΙΑΝ

- SMITH (C.F.). History of the Peloponnesian War: Volume I. Cambridge (Massachusetts)/Londen, Harvard University Press/William Heinemann LTD, 1965, 496 p.

- SMITH (C.F.). History of the Peloponnesian War: Volume III. Cambridge (Massachusetts)/Londen, Harvard University Press/William Heinemann LTD, 1965, 400 p.

 

VITRUVIUS: De Architectura

- GRANGER (F.). Vitruvius: Volume II. Cambridge (Massachusetts)/Londen, Harvard University Press/William Heinemann LTD, 1970, 384 p.

 

XENOPHON: ΚΥΡΟΥ ΠΑΙΔΕΙΑ, ΑΠΟΜΝΗΜΟΝΕΥΜΑΤΑ, ΙΕΡΩΝ en ΚΥΡΟΥ  ΑΝΑΒΑΣΙΣ

- BROWNSON (C.L.). Xenophon Volume III: Anabasis. Cambridge (Massachusetts)/Londen, Harvard University Press/William Heinemann LTD, 1968, 672 p.

- MARCHANT (E.C.). Xenophon Volume IV: Memorabilia and Oeconomicus. Cambridge (Massachusetts)/Londen, Harvard University Press/William Heinemann LTD, 1968, 672 p.

- MILLER (W.). Xenophon Volume V: Cyropaedia I. Cambridge (Massachusetts)/Londen, Harvard University Press/William Heinemann LTD, 1968, 399 p.

- MILLER (W.). Xenophon Volume VI: Cyropaedia II. Cambridge (Massachusetts)/Londen, Harvard University Press/William Heinemann LTD, 1968, 477 p.

- MARCHANT (E.C.). Xenophon Volume VII: Scripta Minora. Cambridge (Massachusetts)/Londen, Harvard University Press/William Heinemann LTD, 1971, 515 p.

 

ZONARAS: ΕΠΙΤΟΜΗ ΙΣΤΟΡΙΩΝ

- CARY (E.). en FOSTER (H.B.). Cassius Dio Roman History: Volume  I. Cambridge (Massachusetts)/Londen, Harvard University Press/William Heinemann LTD, 1970, 449 p.

 

GREEK ANTHOLOGY

- PATON (W.R.). Greek Anthology: Volume I. Cambridge (Massachusetts)/Londen, Harvard University Press/William Heinemann LTD, 1960, 499 p.

 

LYRICA GRAECA

- EDMONDS (J.M.). Lyrica Graeca: Volume  II. Cambridge (Massachusetts)/Londen, Harvard University Press/ William Heinemann LTD, 1964, 475 p.

9.1.2. Epigrafisch

 

-        DITTENBERGER (W.)(ed.). Orientis Graeci inscriptiones selectae I. Hilsdesheim, George Olms, 1986, 658 p.

-        DITTENBERGER (W.)(ed.). Sylloge inscriptionum graecarum I. Hildesheim, George Olms, 1982, 780 p.

-        DITTENBERGER (W.)(ed.). Sylloge inscriptionum graecarum II. Hildesheim, George Olms, 1982, 627 p.

-        ROBERT (J.). en ROBERT (L.). Bulletin Epigraphique: Tombe III. Parijs, Société d’édition “Les Belles Lettres”, 1972, 679 p.

-        ROBERT (J.). en ROBERT (L.). Bulletin Epigraphique: Tombe IV. Parijs, Société d’édition “Les Belles Lettres”, 1972, 536 p.

-        ROBERT (J.). en ROBERT (L.). Bulletin Epigraphique: Tombe V. Parijs, Société d’édition “Les Belles Lettres”, 1972, 505 p.

-        KIRCHHOFF (A.). Inscriptiones graecae XIV. Berlijn, G. Reimer, 1890, 778 p.

-        BRINGMANN (K.) en VON STEUBER (H.). Schenkungen hellenistischer Herrscher an griechische Städte und Heiligtümer. 1: Zeugnisse und Kommentare. Berlijn, Akademie-Verl., 1995, IX-592 p.

-        BURSTEIN (S.M.)(ed.). The Hellenistic Age from the battle of Ipsos to the death of Kleopatra VII. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1985, 173 p.

-        WELLES (C.B.). Royal Correspondence in the Hellenistic Period. Rome, Bretschneider, 1966, 403 p.

9.1.3. Papyri

 

-        HUNT (A.S.) en EDGAR (C.C.). Select Papyri: Volume I. Cambridge (Massachusetts)/Londen, Harvard University Press/ William Heinemann LTD, 1959, 451 p.

-        HUNT (A.S.) en EDGAR (C.C.). Select Papyri: Volume II. Cambridge (Massachusetts)/Londen, Harvard University Press/ William Heinemann LTD, 1959, 605 p.

9.1.4. Numismatisch

 

-        ARMAGRANDE (V.). “Agathocle/Kore: Il problema dell’assimilazione del Basileus con una dea.” In: KLUGE (B.) en WEISSER (B.). XII Internationaler Numismatischen Kongress. Berlijn, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin - Preussischer Kulturbesitz Muenzkabinett, 2000, pp. 224-229

-        CARROCIO (B.). “Sulla cronologia e metrologia della monetazioni bronzee con ritratto di Ierone II di Siracusa.” In: KLUGE (B.) en WEISSER (B.). XII Internationaler Numismatischen Kongress. Berlijn, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin - Preussischer Kulturbesitz Muenzkabinett, 2000, pp. 261-266

-        CONSOLO LANGHER (S.N.). “Tradizione iconica e regalita. Immagini e leggende monetali nel monarcato ellenistico e nella Sicilia di Agatocle: significato ideologico e contributo alla ricostruzione storica.” In: CACCAMO CALTABIANO (M.), CASTRIZIO (D.) en PUGLISI (M.)(eds.). La tradizione iconica come fonte storica. Reggio Calabria, Falzea editore, 2004, pp. 335-346

-        FLEISHER (R.). “Hellenistic Royal Iconography on Coins.” In: BILDE (P.). Aspects of hellenistic kingship. Aarhus, Troels Engberg-Pedersen Aarhus university press, 1996, pp. 28-39

-        FRANKE (P.R.) en HIRMER (M.). Die Griechische Münze. München, Hirmer, 1964, 173 p.

-        HOLLOWAY (R.R.). The Thirtheen-months coinage of Hieronymos of Syracuse. Berlijn, Walter De Gruyter, 1969, 44 p.

-        WALLACE (W.P.). “A Tyrant of Karystos.” In: ROBINSON (S.). Essays in Greek coinage. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1968, pp. 201-209

 

9.2. Wetenschappelijk Werken

9.2.1. Boeken

 

-        AALDERS (G.J.D.). Political thought in Hellenistic times. Amsterdam, Adolf M. Hakkert, 1975, 130 p.

-        AFRICA (T.W.). Science and the State in Greece and Rome. Londen/New York/Sydney, Wiley, 1968, 128 p.

-        ANDREWES (A.). The Greek tyrants. Londen, Hutchinson's University Library, 1956, 167 p.

-        ANSON (E.M.). Eumenes of Cardia: a Greek among Macedonians. Boston/Leiden, Brill Academie Publishers, 2004, 285 p.

-        APERGHIS (G.G.). The Seleukid Royal Economy. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2004, XV-361 p.

-        AUSTIN (M.M.) en VIDAL-NAQUET (P.). Economic & social history of ancient Greece: an introduction. Londen, Batsford Academic and Educational LTD, 1980, 397 p.

-        BADIAN (E.). “Marius.” In: HORNBLOWER (S.) en SPAWFORTH (A.)(eds.). The Oxford Classical Dictionary. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2003, p. 925

-        BELL (A.). Spectacular power in the Greek and Roman city. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2004, VI-289 p.

-        BELL (M.). "Centro e periferia nel regno siracusano di Ierone II." In: VALLET (G.). La Colonisation grecque en Méditerranée occidentale. Rome/Parijs, Ecole française de Rome/de Boccard, 1999, pp. 257-277

-        BELOCH (J.). Griechische Geschichte: Volume IV, 1. Strassburg, K. J. Trübner, 1925, 734 p.

-        BELOCH (J.). Griechische Geschichte: Volume IV, 2. Strassburg, K. J. Trübner, 1927, 700 p.

-        BERVE (H.). Die Herrschaft des Agathokles. München, Verlag der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1952, 77 p.

-        BERVE (H.). Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen I. München, Beck, 1967, 796 p.

-        BERVE (H.). Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen II. München, Beck, 1967, 509 p.

-        BERVE (H.). Herfsttij der Griekse Beschaving. Utrecht, Spectrum, 1963, 223 p.

-        BERVE (H.). König Hieron 2. München, Verlag der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1959, 99 p.

-        BEVAN (E.R.). The House of Seleucus. Chicago, Ares Publishers, 1985, 600 p.

-        BILLOWS (R.). “Cities.” In: ERSKINE (A.)(ed.). A companion to the Hellenistic world. Oxford, Blackwell, 2005, pp. 196-215

-        BILLOWS (R.A.). Antigonos the One-Eyed and the creation of the Hellenistic state. Ann Arbor, University microfilms international, 1990, XIX-515 p.

-        BILLOWS (R.A.). Kings and colonists: aspects of Macedonian Imperialism. Leiden/New York/Köln, E.J. Brill, 1995, 240 p.

-        BLOCH (M.). Les rois thaumaturges. Parijs, Gallimard, 1983, 541 p.

-        BOSWORTH (A.B.). “Hieronymus (1)” In: HORNBLOWER (S.) en SPAWFORTH (A.)(eds.). The Oxford Classical Dictionary. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2003, p. 706

-        BOSWORTH (A.B.). The legacy of Alexander. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2002, 307 p.

-        BRIANT (P.) en JOANNES (F.)(eds.). La transition entre l’empire achéménides et les royaumes hellénistique. Parijs, De Boccard, 2004, 475 p.

-        BRIANT (P.). Historie de l’Empire Perse. Parijs, Librairie Arthème Fayard, 1996, 1247 p.

-        BRENNER (R.). “Agrarian Class Stucture and Economic Development in Pre-Industrial Europe.” In: ASTON (T.H.) en PHILIPIN (C.H.E.)(eds.). The Brenner Debate. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1985, pp. 10-63

-        BRINGMANN (K.). "Grain, timber and money: Hellenistic kings, finance, buildings and foundations in Greek cities." In: ARCHIBALD (Z.H.). Hellenistic economies. Londen, Routledge, 2000, pp. 205-214

-        BRINGMANN (K.). “The King as Benefactor: Some remarks on ideal kingship in the Age of Hellenism.” In: BULLOCH (A.), GRUEN (E.S.), LONG (A.A.) en STEWART (A.F.). Images and ideologies: self-definition in the Hellenistic world. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1993, pp. 7-24

-        BRINGMANN (K.). “Die Rolle der Königinnen, prinzen und vermittler.” In: CHRISTOL (M.) en MASSON (O.) (eds.). Actes du Xe congrès international d’épigraphie grecque et latine. Nimes, 4-9 octobre 1992. Parijs, Publications de la Sorbonne, 1997, pp. 169-174

-        BRYANT (J.M.). Moral Codes and Social structure in Ancient Greece. New York, State University of New York Press, 1996, 575 p.

-        BUGH (G.R.)(ed.). The Cambridge Companion to the Hellenistic World. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2006, 544 p.

-        BUGH (G.R.). “Hellenistic Military Developments.” In: BUGH (G.R.)(ed.). The Cambridge Companion to the Hellenistic World. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2006, pp. 265-294

-        CARTLEDGE (P.). “The Economy (Economies) of Ancient Greece.” In: SCHEIDEL (W.) en VON REDEN (S.). The Ancient Economy. Edinburgh, Edinburgh Press, pp. 11-32

-        CARY (M.) en HAARHOFF (T.J.). Life and Thought in the Greek and Roman World. Londen, Methuen & Co. LTD., 1946, 355 p.

-        CAVEN (B.). Dionysius I: war-lord of Sicily. New Haven/Londen, Yale University Press, 1990, 272 p.

-        CHANIOTIS (A.). “The Divinity of Hellenistic Rulers.” In: ERSKINE (A.)(ed.). A companion to the Hellenistic world. Oxford, Blackwell, 2005, pp. 431-445

-        CHANIOTIS (A.). War in the Hellenistic world : a social and cultural history. Malden MA, Blackwell Publishing, 2005, XXIII-308 p.

-        COOK (S.A.)(ed.). Cambridge Ancient History Volume VII: The Hellenistic monarchies and the rise of Rome. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1969,   987 p.

-        DAVIES (J.K.). “Hellenistic Economies.” In: BUGH (G.R.)(ed.). The Cambridge Companion to the Hellenistic World. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2006, pp. 73-92

-        DENCH (E.). “Beyond Greeks and Barbarians: Italy and Sicily in the Hellenistic Age.” In: ERSKINE (A.)(ed.). A companion to the Hellenistic world. Oxford, Blackwell, 2005, pp. 294-310

-        DMITRIEV (S.). City government in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2005, 428 p.

-        DUNBABIN (T.J.). The Western Greeks. Chicago, Ares Publishers Inc., 1979, 356 p.

-        ECKSTEIN (A.M.). Moral Vision in The Histories of Polybius. Berkeley/Londen/Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1995, 331 p.

-        ECKSTEIN (F.). “Inschriften.” In: KUNZE (E.). VI. Bericht über die Ausgrabungen in Olympia. Berlijn, Verlag Walter De Gruytard, 1958, pp. 205-225

-        EHRENBERG (V.) en RHODES (P.J.). “Tyranny.” In: HORNBLOWER (S.) en SPAWFORTH (A.)(eds.). The Oxford Classical Dictionary. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2003, p. 1568

-        FARNELL (L.R.). The cults of the Greek states: Volume I. Chicago, Ares Publishers, 1977, 422 p.

-        FINLEY (M.I.) en PLEKET (H.W.). Olympische Spelen in de Oudheid. Amsterdam, Athenaeum, 2004, 215 p.

-        FINLEY (M.I.). Politics in the Ancient World. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1983, 152 p.

-        FRASER (P.M.). Ptolemaic Alexandria Volume I: Text. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1972, 812 p.

-        GAUTHIER (P.). “Les cités hellenistiques.” In: HANSEN (M.H.). The Ancient Greek City-State. Symposium on the occasion of the 250th anniversary of The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters ... July, 1-4 1992. Kopenhagen, Munksgaard, 1993, pp. 211-231

-        GAUTHIER (P.). Les cités grecques et leurs bienfaiteurs. Parijs, De Boccard, 1985, 236 p.

-        GELZER (T.). “Transformations.” In: BULLOCH (A.), GRUEN (E.S.), LONG (A.A.) en STEWART (A.F.). Images and ideologies: self-definition in the Hellenistic world. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1993, pp. 130-151

-        GIOVANNINI (A.). "Offrandes et donations des souverains aux sanctuaires grecs." In: CHRISTOL (M.) en MASSON (O/) (eds.). Actes du Xe congrès international d’épigraphie grecque et latine. Nimes, 4-9 octobre 1992. Parijs, Publications de la Sorbonne, 1997, pp. 175-181

-        GRIMAL (P.). Hellenism and the Rise of Rome. New York, Delacorte Press, 1968, 418 p.

-        GRUEN (E.S). The Hellenistic World and the coming of Rome: Volume I. Berkeley, University of California, 1984, 356 p.

-        GRUEN (E.S.). Heritage and Hellenism. Londen, University of California Press, 1998, 335 p.

-        GRUEN (L.). “Hellenistic Kingship: Introduction.” In: BULLOCH (A.), GRUEN (E.S.), LONG (A.A.) en STEWART (A.F.). Images and ideologies: self-definition in the Hellenistic world. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1993, pp. 3-6

-        GRUEN (E.S.). “Greeks and non-Greeks.” In: BUGH (G.R.)(ed.). The Cambridge Companion to the Hellenistic World. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2006, pp. 295-314

-        HABICHT (C.). “Die Rolle Der Köninge Gegenüber Städten Und Bonden.” In: CHRISTOL (M.) en MASSON (O/) (eds.). Actes du Xe congrès international d’épigraphie grecque et latine. Nimes, 4-9 octobre 1992. Parijs, Publications de la Sorbonne, 1997, pp. 161-168

-        HAAKE (M.). “Agathokles und Hieron II. Zwei basileis in hellenistischer Zeit und die Frage ihrer Nachfolge.” In: TRONCOSO (V.A.)(ed.). Diadochos teis Basileias: la figura del sucesor en la realeza helenistica. Madrid, Universiteit van Madrid, 2005, pp. 153-175

-        HABICHT (C.). Athens from Alexander to Antony. Londen/Cambridge (Massachusetts), Harvard University Press, 1997, 406 p.

-        HABICHT (C.). Gottmenschentum und Griechische städte. München, C.H. Beck’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1970, 290 p.

-        HABICHT (C.). Pausanias’ Guide to Ancient Greece. Londen, University of California Press, 1985, XV-207 p.

-        HAHM (D.E.). “Polybius’ applied political theory.” In: LAKS (A.) en SCHOFIELD (M.). Justice and generosity: studies in Hellenistic social and political philosophy: Proceedings of the Sixth Symposium Hellenisticum. Cambridge (Massachusetts), Harvard University Press, 1995, 304 p.

-        HAMMOND (M.). The city in the ancient world. Cambridge (Massachusetts), Harvard University Press, 1972, 617 p.

-        HOLLEAUX (M.). Etudes d'épigraphie et d'histoire grecques Tome I. Parijs, De Boccard, 1968, 462 p.

-        HOLLOWAY (R.R.). The archaeology of ancient Sicily. Londen, Routledge, 1991, 211 p.

-        HOLM (A.). Geschichte Siziliens im Altertum: Volume I. Aalen, Scientia, 1979 (1898), 454 p.

-        HOLM (A.). Geschichte Siziliens im Altertum: Volume  II. Aalen, Scientia, 1979 (1898), 506 p.

-        HOLM (A.). Geschichte Siziliens im Altertum: Volume  III. Aalen, Scientia, 1979 (1898), 787 p.

-        HORNBLOWER (S.). “Hellenism, Hellinization.” In: HORNBLOWER (S.) en SPAWFORTH (A.)(eds.). The Oxford Classical Dictionary. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 677-679

-        HUNTER (R.). “Literature and its Contexts.” In: ERSKINE (A.)(ed.). A companion to the Hellenistic world. Oxford, Blackwell, 2005, pp. 477-493

-        HUNTER (R.). Theocritus and the archaeology of Greek poetry. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1996, 207 p.

-        JAMESON (M.H.). “Sicily and Magna Graecia, cults and mythology.” In: HORNBLOWER (S.) en SPAWFORTH (A.)(eds.). The Oxford Classical Dictionary. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2003, p. 1403

-        JONES (A.H.M.). The Greek city from Alexander to Justinian. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1979, 393 p.

-        JOUGUET (P.). Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic World. Chicago, Ares Publishers, 1985, 464 p.

-        KARLSSON (L.). Fortification towers and masonary techniques in the Hegemony of Syracuse. Stockholm, Publications from the Swedish Institute in Rome (4° 49), 1993, 130 p.  

-        KEYSER (P.T.) en IRBY-MASSIE (G.). “Science, medicine and technology.” In: BUGH (G.R.)(ed.). The Cambridge Companion to the Hellenistic World. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2006, pp. 241-264

-        KLOFT (H.). Ideologie und Herrschaft in der Antike. Darmstadt, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1979, 515 p.

-        KNOX (A.D.). Herodas: the mimes and fragments. New York, Arno Press, 1979,   465 p.

-        KOENEN (L.). “The Ptolemaic King as a Religious Figure.” In: BULLOCH (A.), GRUEN (E.S.), LONG (A.A.) en STEWART (A.F.). Images and ideologies: self-definition in the Hellenistic world. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1993,   pp. 25-115

-        KOESTER (H.). Pergamon: Citadel of the Gods. Harrisburg Pennsylvania, Trinity Press International, 1998, 443 p.

-        LANZA (D.). Le tyran et son public. Parijs, Belin, 1997, 269 p.

-        LEHMER (C.). Syrakus unter Agathokles und Hieron II. Frankfurt, Verlag Antike, 2005, 254 p.

-        LEWIS (S.). “The tyrant’s myth.” In: SMITH (C.) en SERRATI (J.). Sicily from Aeneas to Augustus. Edinburgh, Edinburgh Press, 2000, pp. 97-133

-        LIDDELL (H.G.), SCOTT (R.) en JONES (H.S.). A Greek-English Lexicon. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1843, 2042 p.

-        LINTOTT (A.). Violence, Civil Strife and Revolution in the Classical City. Baltimore, John Hopkins University Press, 1982, 289 p.

-        LUND (H.S.). Lysimachus: a study in early Hellenistic kingship. Londen, Routledge, 2001, 287 p.

-        MA (J.). “Kings.” In: ERSKINE (A.)(ed.). A companion to the Hellenistic world. Oxford, Blackwell, 2005, pp. 177-195

-        MA (J.). Antiochos III and the Cities of Western Asia Minor. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1999, XVII-403 p.

-        MACIVER (D.R.). Greek cities in Italy and Sicily. Amsterdam, Adolf M. Hakkert, 1968, 226 p.

-        McDOWELL (D.M.). The law in Classical Athens. Londen, Thames and Hudson, 1978, 280 p.

-        MCGLEW (J.F.). Tyranny and political culture in ancient Greece. Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1993, VII-234 p.

-        MOMIGLIANO (A.), WOODHEAD (A.G.) en WILSON (R.J.A.). “Sicily.” In: HORNBLOWER (S.) en SPAWFORTH (A.)(eds.). The Oxford Classical Dictionary. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 1401-1403

-        MOMMSEN (T.). Romeinse Geschiedenis II. Hasselt, Heideland-Hasselt, 1959 (1902), 464 p.

-        MOOREN (L.). “The nature of the Hellenistic Monarchy.” In: VAN ‘T DACK (E.), VAN DESSEL (P.) en VAN GUCHT (W.). Egypt and the Hellenistic world proceedings of the international colloquium, Leuven, 24-26 May 1982. Lovanii, [s.n.], 1983, pp. 205-240

-        MOSSE (C.). La tyrannie dans la Grèce antique. Parijs, PUF, 1969, 214 p.

-        NILSSON (M.P.). A history of Greek Religion. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1967, 316 p.

-        NISSETH (F.). The poems of Callimachus. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2001, LV-350 p.

-        OAKLEY (F.). Kingship: the politics of Enchantment. Malden, Blackwell Publishing, 2006, 193 p.

-        POLACCO (L.). "Théâtre, société, organisation de l’état." In: Théâtre et spectacles dans l'antiquité: actes du Colloque de Strasbourg, 5-7 novembre 1981 Leiden, E.J. Brill, 1983, pp. 5-15

-        PORTELLI (A.). “What makes oral history different.” In: PERKS (R.) en THOMSON (A.). The Oral History Reader. Londen/New York, Routledge, 2006, pp. 32-42

-        ROSTOVTSEFF (M.I.). Historie économique et sociale du Monde Hellenistique. Parijs, Robert Laffont, 1989, 1430 p.

-        SANCHEZ DE LA TORRE (A.). La tyrannie dans la Grèce antique. Bordeaux, Bière, 1999, 250 p.

-        SCHAAF (H.). Untersuchungen zu Gebäudestiftungen in hellenistischer Zeit. Köln, Böhlau, 1992, 148 p.

-        SCHULLER (W.). Politische Theorie und Praxis im Altertum. Darmstadt, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1998, X-310 p.

-        SERRATI (J.). “Garrisons and Grain: Sicily between the Punic Wars.” In: SMITH (C.) en SERRATI (J.). Sicily from Aeneas to Augustus. Edinburgh, Edinburgh Press, 2000, pp. 115-133

-        SHIPLEY (G.). The Greek world after Alexander 323-30 BC. Londen, Routledge, 2000, XXXI-568 p.

-        SMITH (R.R.R.). Hellenistic Royal Portraits. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1988, 196 p.

-        SMITH (R.R.R.). “Kings and Philosophers.” In: BULLOCH (A.), GRUEN (E.S.), LONG (A.A.) en STEWART (A.F.). Images and ideologies: self-definition in the Hellenistic world. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1993, pp. 202-211

-        STEWART (A.). Faces of Power: Alexander’s Image in Hellenistic Politics. Oxford, University of California Press, 1993, 507 p.

-        STEWART (A.). “Hellenistic Art.” In: BUGH (G.R.)(ed.). The Cambridge Companion to the Hellenistic World. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2006, pp. 158-185

-        VAN OVERMEIRE (S.). ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ ‘ΙΕΡΩΝ: Hieron II van Syracuse en Evergetisme. VUB, Onuitgegeven Bachelorpaper, 2006-2007, 51 p.

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-        WALBANK (F.W.). A historical commentary on Polybius: Volume I. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1970, 775 p.

-        WALBANK (F.W.). A historical commentary on Polybius: Volume II. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1967, 682 p.

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-        WALBANK (F.). “Response to part one.” In: BULLOCH (A.), GRUEN (E.S.), LONG (A.A.) en STEWART (A.F.). Images and ideologies: self-definition in the Hellenistic world. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1993, pp. 116-124

-        WEBER (M.). “The Concept of Legitimate Order.” In: EISENSTADT (S.N.). Max Weber: On charisma and institution building. Londen, University of Chicago Press, 1968, pp. 11-17

-        WEBER (M.). “The Nature of Charismatic Authority and its Routinization.” In: EISENSTADT (S.N.). Max Weber: On charisma and institution building. Londen, University of Chicago Press, 1968, pp. 48-65

-        WEBER (M.). “The Pure Types of Legitimate Authority.” In: EISENSTADT (S.N.). Max Weber: On charisma and institution building. Londen, University of Chicago Press, 1968, pp. 46-47

-        WEBER (M.). “The Sociology of Charismatic Authority.” In: EISENSTADT (S.N.). Max Weber: On charisma and institution building. Londen, University of Chicago Press, 1968, pp. 18-27

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9.2.2. Artikels

 

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-        BADIAN (E.). “Alexander the Great between two thrones and Heaven: variations on an old theme.” In: SMALL (A.) en FISHWICK (D.). Subject and ruler: the cult of the ruling power in classical antiquity. Ann Arbor, JRA, 1996, pp. 11-26

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-        BIEBER (M.). “The Portraits of Alexander.” In: Greece & Rome, 1965, Vol. 12, N° 2, pp. 183-188

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-        BIXLER (R.H.). “Sibling Incest in the Royal Families of Egypt, Peru, and Hawaii.” In: The Journal of Sex Research, 1982, Vol. 18, N° 3, pp. 264-281

-        BONANNO (A.). “Paris, Pelops, Hieron II or a Roman flamen?" In: Mélanges de l’Ecole française de Rome. Antiquité, 1979, Vol. 91, pp. 343-353

-        BOSWORTH (B.). “Augustus, the Res Gestae and Hellenistic Theories of Apotheosis.” In: Journal of Roman Studies, 1999, Vol. 89, pp. 1-18

-        BURY (J.B.). “The Constitutional Position of Gelon and Hiero. Some New Light from Bacchylides.” In: The Classical Review, 1899, Vol. 13, N° 2, pp. 98-99

-        CHANIOTIS (A.). “Theatricality beyond the theater.” In: Pallas, 1997, Vol. 47, pp. 219-259

-        DANZIG (G.). “The Political Character of Aristotelian Reciprocity.” In: Classical Philology, 2000, Vol. 95, pp. 399-424

-        ERSKINE (A.). “Culture and Power in Ptolemaic Egypt: The Museum and Library of Alexandria.” In: Greece & Rome, 1995, Vol. 42, N° 1, pp. 38-48

-        ERSKINE (A.). “Life after Death: Alexandria and the Body of Alexander.” In: Greece & Rome, 2002, Vol. 49, N° 2, pp. 163-179

-        FARBER (J.J.). “The Cyropaedia and Hellenistic Kingship.” In: The American Journal of Philology, 1979, Vol. 100, N° 4, pp. 497-514

-        FERGUSON (W.S.). “Legalized Absolutism en Route from Greece to Rome.” In: The American Historical Review, 1912, Vol. 18, N° 1, pp. 29-47

-        FERGUSON (W.S.). “The Premature Deification of Eumenes II.” In: Classical Philology, 1906, Vol. 1, N° 3, pp. 231-234

-        FREDRICKSMEYER (E.A.). “The Origin of Alexander's Royal Insignia.” In: Transactions of the American Philological Association (1974-), 1997, Vol. 127, pp. 97-109

-        GRAY (V.J.). “Xenophon’s Hiero and the meeting of the wise man and tyrant in Greek literature.” In: Classical Quarterly, 1986, Vol. 36, pp. 115-123

-        HADLEY (R.A.). “Royal Propaganda of Seleucus I and Lysimachus.” In: The Journal of Hellenic Studies, 1974, Vol. 94, pp. 50-65

-        HAMMONS (N.G.L.). “Arms and the King: The Insignia of Alexander the Great.” In: Phoenix, 1989, Vol. 43, N° 3, pp. 217-224

-        HARRELL (S.E.). "King or private citizen : fifth-century Sicilian tyrants at Olympia and Delphi." In: Mnemosyne, 2002, Ser. 4, Vol. 55 (4), pp. 439-464

-        HAUBEN (H.). “A royal toast in 302 v.C.” In: Ancient Society, 1974, 5, pp. 105-117

-        HOFFMANN (H.). “Antecedents of the Great Altar at Pergamon.” In: The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, 1952, Vol. 11, N° 3, pp. 1-5

-        KRALLI (I.). "Athens and the Hellenistic Kings (338-261 B.C.): the language of the decrees." In: Classical Quarterly, 2000, N.S. 50 (1)

-        KENNELL (N.M.). “Herodes Atticus and the Rhetoric of Tyranny.” In: Classical Philology, 1997, Vol. 92, pp. 346-362

-        KOONCE (K.). "Agalma and Eikon". In: The American Journal of Philology, 1988, Vol. 109, N° 1, pp. 108-110

-        LATTEY (C.). “The Diadochi and the Rise of King-Worship.” In: The English Historical Review, 1917, Vol. 32, N° 127, pp. 321-334

-        LEWIS (N.). “Dio Chrysostom’s tyrant of Syria.” In: Classical Philology, 1949, pp. 32-33

-        MA (J.).