Combined effects of heat and cadmium toxicity on Populus canadensis 'Robusta'

Marlies Christiaens
Opwarming aarde beschermt populier tegen bodemverontreiniging De opwarming van de aarde blijkt niet enkel negatieve effecten te hebben.

Combined effects of heat and cadmium toxicity on Populus canadensis 'Robusta'

Opwarming aarde beschermt populier tegen bodemverontreiniging

De opwarming van de aarde blijkt niet enkel negatieve effecten te hebben. Zo blijken populieren gekweekt in met cadmium verontreinigde potgrond hier beter tegen bestand te zijn wanneer ze onderworpen worden aan een hitteperiode.

In het kader van de masterthesis van Marlies Christiaens werd aan het Laboratorium voor Plantecologie, UGent, het gecombineerde effect van hitte en cadmium op de groei van populier onderzocht.

Naar aanleiding van de klimaatsrapporten gepubliceerd door het IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) en de daaruit voortgevloeide media-aandacht zijn de meeste mensen het er wel over eens dat de aarde opwarmt en de gevolgen daarvan stilaan zichtbaar worden in de wereld zoals het smelten van de ijskappen en natuurrampen. Waar evenwel veel minder mensen zich bewust van zijn, zijn de effecten die de stijgende temperaturen hebben op bomen, voornamelijk door de complexiteit en interactie met andere negatieve fenomenen zoals bijvoorbeeld bodemverontreiniging. 

Geïndustrialiseerde landen hebben vaak te kampen met te hoge concentraties aan zware metalen in de bodem, maar ook andere landen waar bijvoorbeeld mijnbouw aanwezig is lijden hieronder. Planten kunnen deze zware metalen, waaronder cadmium, opnemen vanuit de bodem en accumuleren in hun weefsel. Dit principe wordt aangewend om vervuilde terreinen langzaam te remediëren, ookwel fytoremediatie genoemd. Een boomsoort die daarvoor heel geschikt is omwille van zijn snelle groei is populier, maar omdat cadmium een niet-essentieel nutriënt is met toxische eigenschappen kan het veel schade aanrichten aan de plant.

Heat-shock proteins

Uit het onderzoek bleek inderdaad dat populieren blootgesteld aan cadmium het veel sneller voor bekeken hielden dan hun gezonde collega’s. De groei neemt vrij snel af en naar het einde van het groeiseizoen toe verademt de plant enkel nog suikers zonder er nieuwe bij te maken. Ook populieren die onderworpen worden aan hittetemperaturen doen het aanzienlijk slechter.

Als een populierboom verontreinigd met cadmium ook wordt blootgesteld aan hitte, zal hij minder stress hebben dan je zou verwachten, met andere woorden de stress is minder dan de stress van cadmium en hitte samen. Dit komt omdat de hoge temperaturen het schadelijke effect van cadmium deels teniet doen. De verklaring hiervoor kan gezocht worden bij een bepaald soort eiwitten waarvan de productie geïnduceerd wordt door zowel cadmium als hitte en zelfs als een algemene reactie op een breed gamma aan stressfactors dienst doet, zoals bijvoorbeeld ook droogte. De naam voor deze eiwitten, heat-shock proteins, dateert nog uit vroegere tijden en dient dus eigenlijk herzien te worden. Door het induceren van een hitteperiode zal de concentratie aan deze eiwitten sterk verhogen waarbij ze zich eerder gaan richten op de bescherming tegen cadmium van het fotosynthetisch apparaat van populier, dat instaat voor de groei, dan tegen hitte. Toch geven deze eiwitten geen complete bescherming waardoor de stress van hitte en cadmium samen steeds groter zal zijn dan een van beide apart.

Om nu te veronderstellen dat het dus eigenlijk weinig kwaad kan, vervuiling en klimaatsverandering, is toch wat kort door de bocht. Los van het positieve effect van stijgende temperaturen op het cadmiumeffect in planten zijn er ook negatieve effecten. Zo zal bodemverontreiniging meer mobiel worden waardoor saneringen nog moeilijker en kostelijker zullen worden. Dit onderzoek wil enkel meegeven dat planten zich nog wel eens goed zouden kunnen aanpassen aan de omstandigheden waarin wij hen gebracht hebben. Misschien wel beter dan de mens…

 

 

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Universiteit of Hogeschool
Master in de bio-ingenieurswetenschappen: milieutechnologie
Publicatiejaar
2012
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