Allocation of biomass from production sites to bioenergy plants in Flanders: The role of multimodal transportation networks

Junhui Jiang Annelies De Meyer Jos Van Orshoven
 Allocation of biomass from production sites to bioenergy plants in FlandersThe role of multimodal transportation networksBy Junhui Jiang, Annelies De Meyer, Jos Van OrshovenTo reduce human dependency on limited fossil fuel and to mitigate climate change, increasing attention is attributed to the development of the bioenergy sector. Besides, the development of the bioenergy sector also favours social and economic objectives by among others creating jobs and increasing farmers’ incomes.

Allocation of biomass from production sites to bioenergy plants in Flanders: The role of multimodal transportation networks


Allocation of biomass from production sites to bioenergy plants in Flanders

The role of multimodal transportation networks

By Junhui Jiang, Annelies De Meyer, Jos Van Orshoven

To reduce human dependency on limited fossil fuel and to mitigate climate change, increasing attention is attributed to the development of the bioenergy sector. Besides, the development of the bioenergy sector also favours social and economic objectives by among others creating jobs and increasing farmers’ incomes. Although a variety of policy initiatives from global, national and local levels are launched to promote the development of the bioenergy sector, a sustainable development is hampered by high logistics costs, particularly related to the handling and transportation of biomass to the conversion facility. Therefore, increasing research attention must go to the optimisation of the biomass-for-bioenergy supply chain. This master thesis research frames in an overall research effort regarding the “Spatio-temporal location-allocation modelling for the energetic valorisation of biomass”, which comprises an intelligent use of a complete biomass supply network to maximise the energy output, to maximise the economic profit and/or to minimise the total greenhouse gas emissions of the chain.

This master thesis intended to answer three research questions (related to the three research objectives). Firstly, the research investigated how to build a consistent multimodal transportation network based on different unimodal transportation networks considering restrictions and attributes related to energy consumption, economic costs and CO2-emissions during the delivery of biomass to the conversion facilities. Secondly, the research explored whether and how this developed multimodal transportation network can be used to optimise the allocation of biomass to the conversion facilities in the biomass-for-bioenergy supply chain considering single and multiple objectives. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was performed to study how the allocation of biomass to the conversion facilities changes by varying the definition of the multimodal transportation network or the parameters of the location-allocation analysis. To perform this sensitivity analysis, relevant data were collected for Flanders (case study area) from existing datasets and literature research, and were processed using ArcGIS software as well as MATLAB software.

Eventually, a multimodal transportation network in Flanders was successfully built based on three unimodal transportation networks (road network, railway network and navigable waterway network). The key attributes (energy consumption, economic costs and CO2-emissions) were calculated from published data and the restrictions (drive direction and vehicle type) were also attached through Visual Basic scripting. This multimodal transportation network was the basis for location-allocation analysis in which the allocation of biomass from the biomass production sites to the conversion facilities was optimised considering single (primarily for minimum energy consumption) and multiple criteria (i.e., minimise a combination value of energy consumption, economic cost and CO2-emissions). Based on an analysis of the sensitivity of a number of characteristics of the multimodal transportation network, it was found that in all scenarios road transport is the major transportation mode. When transshipment costs were not considered, minimal energy was consumed for transport. However, when transshipment costs were incorporated, rail and waterway transport were no longer included in the result. Therefore, scenarios were analysed for a derived network in which the transportation segment lengths were artificially magnified. Analysis of these scenarios indicated that the contribution of waterway transportation was gradually increasing with the scale factor but nevertheless remained low while the contribution of railway transportation remained limited to 2%. Furthermore, the scenario analysis showed that the energy consumption, CO2-emissions, time use and total cost were not proportional to the distance travelled since the share of the three transportation modes was important. From scenarios using a network scaled with factor 10 for distance and assuming that the capacity of the conversion plants for processing the considered biomass ranges from 100% to 1.5%, it could be concluded that the lower the available capacity, the more energy must be consumed to transport the biomass to the most appropriate conversion plants. Furthermore, the tri-modal network always led to the lowest amount of energy consumed in comparison with a unimodal road network or with bimodal networks (road-rail or road-water). Finally the scenario analysis indicated that when the three criteria were optimised simultaneously rather than the single energy consumption criterion, energy consumption for transport approached very closely the minimal value and was lower than in the cases in which CO2-emissions or economic costs were minimised.

Two hints are provided for further research. The first one is to study the allocation of biomass to bioenergy conversion facilities taking the whole supply chain into account, including e.g., collection, pre-processing and storage. The other is to further examine the factors that affect the performance of multi-modal transportation with a view to make the best possible use of available multimodal infrastructures. 






AngloINFO. (2013). Speed limits, road classifications and breakdown recovery.Angloinfor, the global expat network. Belgium. Retrieved, May, 2013, from:

Antizar-ladislao, B., & Thrrion-Gomez, J. L. (2008). Second-generation biofuels and local bioenergy systems. Biofuels, Bioproducts & Biorefining, 455–469. doi:10.1002/bbb

Arampatzis, G., Kiranoudis, C. T., Scaloubacas, P., & Assimacopoulos, D. (2004). A GIS-based decision support system for planning urban transportation policies. European Journal of Operational Research, 152(2), 465–475. doi:10.1016/S0377-2217(03)00037-7

Banse, M., van Meijl, H., Tabeau, A., Woltjer, G., Hellmann, F., & Verburg, P. H. (2011). Impact of EU biofuel policies on world agricultural production and land use. Biomass and Bioenergy, 35(6), 2385–2390. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2010.09.001

BBI international. (2013). The conference and expo. International biomass conference and expo:…

BERC. (2009). Grass Energy: The basics of production, processing, and combustion of grasses for energy. Biomass Energy Resource Center.

Bervoets, K. (2008). Nieuwe perspectieven voor beheerresten. Natuurpunt.

Beuthe, M., Degrandsart, F., Geerts, J.-F., & Jourquin, B. (2002). External costs of the Belgian interurban freight traffic: a network analysis of their internalisation. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 7(4), 285–301. doi:10.1016/S1361-9209(01)00025-6

Beuthe, M., Jourquin, B., Geerts, J.-F., & Koul à Ndjang’ Ha, C. (2001). Freight transportation demand elasticities: a geographic multimodal transportation network analysis. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 37(4), 253–266. doi:10.1016/S1366-5545(00)00022-3

Bielli, M., Boulmakoul, A., & Mouncif, H. (2006). Object modeling and path computation for multimodal travel systems. European Journal of Operational Research, 175(3), 1705–1730. doi:10.1016/j.ejor.2005.02.036

Biomass Energy Centre. (2011). What is biomass. Retrieved, May, 2013, from:,15049&_dad…

Börjesson, P. I. I. (1996). ENERGY ANALYSIS OF BIOMASS PRODUCTION TRANSPORTATION. Biomass and Bioenergy. Vol.11, No.4,pp. 305-318.

Carolan, J. E., Dale, B. E., & Joshi, S. V. (2007). Technical and Financial Feasibility Analysis of Distributed Bioprocessing Using Regional Biomass Pre-Processing Centers. Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization, 5.

CER Calculations. (n.d.). CO2 transshipment. Retrieved, April, 2013, from online:

          Cheng, J. (2010). Introduction. In J. Cheng, Biomass to renewable energy process. CRC Press. pp. 1-6.

Commission, E. (2010). Communication from the commission to the European parliament, the council, the European economic and committee and the committee of the regions.

Cornelissen, S., Koper, M., & Deng, Y. Y. (2012). The role of bioenergy in a fully sustainable global energy system. Biomass and Bioenergy, 41, 21–33. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2011.12.049

De Meyer, A., Cattrysse, D., Snoeck, M., Van Orshoven, J. (2012). Generic data model to represent the biomass-to-bioenergy supply chain logistics. International Conference of Agricultural Engineering, CIGR-AgEng2012, pp. 1-6.

Demirbas, A. (2002). Gaseous products from biomass by pyrolysis and gasification : effects of catalyst on hydrogen yield, 43, 897–909.

Densham, P. J., & Rushton, G. (1991). Designing and Implementing Strategies for Solving Large Location-Allocation Problems with Heuristic Methods Department of Geography.

Eastman, J. R., Fulk, M., & Toledano, J. (1993). The GIS Handbook. Health education research, 28(3). doi:10.1093/her/cyt032

ECOFYS. (2011). Belgium: overall assessment. Ecofys.

Elisa, M., Kati, K., & Ambra, G. (2009). Case studies on bioenergy policy and law : options for sustainability. Food and agricultural organization of the US.

Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. (2010). Biomass Harvesting & Collection. U.S. Department of energy.

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2012). Flanders. Retrieved from Encyclopedia Britannica Online Academic Edition:

EPA. (2009). What is Bioenergy ? State Bioenergy Primer. pp. 7–24.

EREC. (2011). Mapping Renewable Energy Pathways towards 2020. European Renewable Energy.

  ESRI,2012. Algorithms used by Network Analyst.ArcGIS Resource Center. Available online at… (5/11/2013)

 European Commission. (2012a). The EU climate and energy package. Retrieved April, 2013, from: Climate Action:

European Comission. (2012b). Progress towards 2020 targets: the European Semester. Retrieved April, 2013, from: Climate action:

Esteban, L. S., & Carrasco, J. E. (2011). Biomass resources and costs: Assessment in different EU countries. Biomass and Bioenergy, 35, S21–S30. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2011.03.045

FAO. (2012). FAO's view on bioenergy. Retrieved from: Food and agriculture organization of United States:

Fischer, G., & Schrattenholzer, L. (2001). Global bioenergy potentials through 2050. Biomass and bienergy. pp.151-159.

Flanders Investment & Trade. (2008). The Logistics Industry in Flanders. Flanders Investment & Trade, Government of Flanders-Belgium.

Forest Commission. (2012). Transporting biomass. Retrieved April, 2013, from:,17307&_dad…

Frank, R. C. (2007). Traditional versus modern applications of bioenergy. In The Biomass Assessment Handbook (pp. 11-12).

GBEP. (2007). Bioenergy : Facts and Figures. Biofuel Production and the Threat to South Africa’s Food Securit.

GBEP. (2011). The global bioenergy partnership sustainability indicators for bioenergy. Global Bioenergy Partnership.

Gold, S., & Seuring, S. (2011). Supply chain and logistics issues of bio-energy production. Journal of Cleaner Production, 19(1), 32–42. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2010.08.009

Hall, D. O., Rosillo-Calle, F., & De Groot, P. (1992). Biomass energy: Lessons from case studies in developing countries.

Herman Klein Teeselink. (2007).Workshop Bioenergie cluster Oost-Nederland-Waterschappen Overijssel. HOST. Bioenergy Installations.

Hoefnagels, R., & Junginger, M. (2011). Long Term Potentials and Costs of RES Part II : The Role of International Biomass Trade. Intelligent energy Europe.

Holm Nielsen, J. B., Oleskowicz-Popiel, P., & Al Seadi, T. (2007). Energy crop potentials for bioenergy in EU-27, 7–11.

Hongwattanakul, P., & Phruksaphanrat, B. (2012). Fuzzy facility location-allocation for biomass transformation plant of the central region of Thailand, 4, 228–237.

Hoogwijk, M., Faaij, A., van den Broek, R., Berndes, G., Gielen, D., & Turkenburg, W. (2003). Exploration of the ranges of the global potential of biomass for energy. Biomass and Bioenergy, 25(2), 119–133. doi:10.1016/S0961-9534(02)00191-5

Iakovou, E., Karagiannidis, a, Vlachos, D., Toka, a, & Malamakis, a. (2010). Waste biomass-to-energy supply chain management: a critical synthesis. Waste management (New York, N.Y.), 30(10), 1860–70. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2010.02.030

IEA. (2009). International Energy Agency. Biomass and Bioenergy.

IEEP. (2010). The role of bioenergy in the National Renewable Energy Action Plans : a first identification of issues and uncertainties. Institute for European environmental policy.

          Infrabel. (2011). Terminals_tot_corr_A_lijstEV. Infrabel.

International transport forum. (2011a). PERMISSIBLE MAXIMUM WEIGHTS OF TRUCKS IN EUROPE ( in tonnes ). Retrieved, April, 2013, from:

International transport forum. (2011b). Permissible maximum dimensions of trucks in europe. Retrieved, April, 2013, from:

IPCC. (2011). IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation Summary for Policymakers, 5–8.

IUVA. (2010). Venice port authority business case-new EU freight corridors in the area of the central Europe. SoNorA, 1–33.

Jang, B. W.-L., Gläser, R., Liu, C., & Dong, M. (2010). Bioenergy revisited: Key factors in global potentials of bioenergy. Energy & Environmental Science, 3(3), 253. doi:10.1039/c003390c

Johnson, F. X. (2012). The transition from traditional to modern bioenergy. Bioenergy Policy Principles workshop Oxford.

Junginger, M., van Dam, J., Zarrilli, S., Ali Mohamed, F., Marchal, D., & Faaij, A. (2011). Opportunities and barriers for international bioenergy trade. Energy Policy, 39(4), 2028–2042. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2011.01.040

Kaditi, E. a. (2009). Bio-energy policies in a global context. Journal of Cleaner Production, 17, S4–S8. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2008.08.023

Kautto, N., Arasto, a., Sijm, J., & Peck, P. (2012). Interaction of the EU ETS and national climate policy instruments – Impact on biomass use. Biomass and Bioenergy, 38, 117–127. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2011.02.002

KoppejanJaap, & Van LooSjaak. (2012). Storage, handling and transport systems. The Handbook of Biomass Combustion and Co-firing. pp. 3-26,3-27,3-30.

Kraemer, R. A., & Schlegel, S. (2007). European Union Policy on Bioenergy. Economic Policy Program, 1–4.

Ma, J., Scott, N., Degloria, S., & Lembo, A. (2005). Siting analysis of farm-based centralized anaerobic digester systems for distributed generation using GIS. Biomass and Bioenergy, 28(6), 591–600. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2004.12.003

Maes, D., & Van Dyck, H. (2001). Butterfly diversity loss in Flanders ( north Belgium ): Europe  ’ s worst case scenario?. Biological Conservation. pp. 263-276.

Maes, T., Ramaekers, K., Caris, A., Bellemans, T., & Janssens, G. K. (2009). Innovative freight transportation framework for Flanders. Hasselt University.


Mandloi, D., & Thill, J. (2010). Geospatial Analysis and Modelling of Urban Structure and Dynamics. (B. Jiang & X. Yao, Eds.), 99, 197–220. doi:10.1007/978-90-481-8572-6.

Mansikkasalo, A. (2012). Changes in European forest raw material trade: Consequences of implementing the RES2020 Directive. Biomass and Bioenergy, 37, 150–160. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2011.12.018

Marchal, D., & Ryckmans, Y. (2006). EUBIONET II Current situation and future trends in biomass fuel trade in Europe: Efficient trading of biomass fuels and analysis of fuel supply chains and business models for market actors by networking. IEA Bioenergy.

McKendry, P. (2002a). Energy production from biomass (Part 1): Overview of biomass. Bioresource technology, 83(1), 37–46. Retrieved from

McKendry, P. (2002b). Energy production from biomass (Part 3): Gasification technologies. Bioresource technology, 83(1), 55–63. Retrieved from

McKendry, P. (2002c). Energy production from biomass (Part 2): Conversion technologies. Bioresource technology, 83(1), 47–54. Retrieved from

Mestdagh, I., Sleutel, S., Lootens, P., Cleemput, O. Van, & Carlier, L. (2005). Soil organic carbon stocks in verges and urban areas of Flanders , Belgium, (September 2004), 151–156.

Milieurapport Vlaanderen. (2010). Milieurapport Vlaanderen MIRA Achtergronddocument.

Möller, B. (2003). Least-cost allocation strategies for wood fuel supply for distributed generation in Denmark – a geographical study. International Journal of Sustainable Energy, 23(4), 187–197. doi:10.1080/01425910412331290751

Neutens, T., Farber, S., Delafontaine, M., & Boussauw, K. (2012). Spatial variation in the potential for social interaction: A case study in Flanders (Belgium). Computers, Environment and Urban Systems. doi:10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2012.06.007

OECD. (2007). Infrastructure to 2030: mapping policy for electricity, water and transport (Vol. 2).

ODE-Vlaanderen. (2012).Vergisting: Omzetten van biomassa in een energierijk gas. ODE Vlaanderen.

Panichelli, L., & Gnansounou, E. (2008). GIS-based approach for defining bioenergy facilities location: A case study in Northern Spain based on marginal delivery costs and resources competition between facilities. Biomass and Bioenergy, 32(4), 289–300. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2007.10.008

Parikka, M. (2004). Global biomass fuel resources. Biomass and Bioenergy, 27(6), 613–620. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2003.07.005

Parker, N., Tittmann, P., Hart, Q., Nelson, R., Skog, K., Schmidt, A., Gray, E., et al. (2010). Development of a biorefinery optimized biofuel supply curve for the Western United States. Biomass and Bioenergy, 34(11), 1597–1607. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2010.06.007

Perpina, C., Alfonso, D., Pereznavarro, a, Penalvo, E., Vargas, C., & Cardenas, R. (2009). Methodology based on Geographic Information Systems for biomass logistics and transport optimisation. Renewable Energy, 34(3), 555–565. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2008.05.047

Pongrácz, E. (n.d.). Biomass and waste-to-energy technologies. Micro Energy to Rural Enterprise.

Promotie Binnenvaart Vlaanderen. (2011a). Binnenvaartcontainerterminals in Vlaanderen. Retrieved from

Promotie Binnenvaart Vlaanderen. (2011b). Nieuwe laad- en losinstallaties op de Vlaamse waterwegen. Retrieved from

Ranta, T. (2005). Logging residues from regeneration fellings for biofuel production–a GIS-based availability analysis in Finland. Biomass and Bioenergy, 28(2), 171–182. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2004.08.010

Rentizelas, A. a., Tolis, A. J., & Tatsiopoulos, I. P. (2009). Logistics issues of biomass: The storage problem and the multi-biomass supply chain. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13(4), 887–894. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2008.01.003

Responsible Care, E. & C. (2011). Guidelines for Measuring and Managing CO 2 Emission from Freight Transport Operations, (1).

ReVelle, C. S., & Eiselt, H. a. (2005). Location analysis: A synthesis and survey. European Journal of Operational Research, 165(1), 1–19. doi:10.1016/j.ejor.2003.11.032

Rich, J. (2009). Freight transport trends for 2020 , 2030 , and 2050. European Commission-DG TREN TH Research Framework Programme.

RodrigueJean-Paul. (2013). THE GEOGRAPHY OF TRANSPORT SYSTEMS. Retrieved from:

Rui, S. (2006). Train weight,speed,density relations and operation efficiency of railway. The World Transportation.

Ryckmans, Y. (2007). Biomass sustainability certification in Belgium, 1–17.

Sadi Mesgari, M., Javad Valadan Zoej, M., Karimi, M., Beheshtifar, S., (2006). Data integration using fuzzy logic model application in: power-plant sitting. Retrieved, May, 2013, from:

Schwaiger, H., Tuerk, A., Pena, N., Sijm, J., Arrasto, A., & Kettner, C. (2012). The future European Emission Trading Scheme and its impact on biomass use. Biomass and Bioenergy, 38, 102–108. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2011.07.005

Searcy, E., Flynn, P., Ghafoori, E., & Kumar, A. (2007). The relative cost of biomass energy transport. Applied biochemistry and biotechnology, 137-140(1-12), 639–52. doi:10.1007/s12010-007-9085-8

SGC. (2012).Basic data on biogas. SGC. ISBN: 978-91-85207-10-7

Shi, X., Elmore, A., Li, X., Gorence, N. J., Jin, H., Zhang, X., & Wang, F. (2008). Using spatial information technologies to select sites for biomass power plants: A case study in Guangdong Province, China. Biomass and Bioenergy, 32(1), 35–43. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2007.06.008

Sokhansanj, S., & Turhollow, A. F. (2004). Biomass densification-cubing operations and costs for corn stover, 20(4), 495–500.

Solomon, S., Plattner, G.-K., Knutti, R., & Friedlingstein, P. (2009). Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(6), 1704–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.0812721106

Sultana, A., & Kumar, A. (2011). Optimal configuration and combination of multiple lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks delivery to a biorefinery. Bioresource technology, 102(21), 9947–56. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2011.07.119

Sultana, A., & Kumar, A. (2012). Optimal siting and size of bioenergy facilities using geographic information system. Applied Energy, 94, 192–201. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.01.052

Suurs, R. (2002). Long distance bioenergy logistics An assessment of costs and energy Long distance bioenergy logistics Author :

Suurs, R. a. a., & Hekkert, M. P. (2009). Competition between first and second generation technologies: Lessons from the formation of a biofuels innovation system in the Netherlands. Energy, 34(5), 669–679. doi:10.1016/

Tele Atlas North America. (2003). Tele Atlas MultiNet TM Version 3 . 3 Data Specification.

Thill, J.-C. (2000). Geographic information systems for transportation in perspective. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 8(1-6), 3–12. doi:10.1016/S0968-090X(00)00029-2

Tilman, D., Hill, J., & Lehman, C. (2006). Carbon-negative biofuels from low-input high-diversity grassland biomass. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5805), 1598–600. doi:10.1126/science.1133306

Tittmann, P. W., Parker, N. C., Hart, Q. J., & Jenkins, B. M. (2010). A spatially explicit techno-economic model of bioenergy and biofuels production in California. Journal of Transport Geography, 18(6), 715–728. doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2010.06.005

U.S. Department of energy. (2004). Biomass Program Harvesting and Collection of Biomass Feedstock Interface R & D. Energy efficiency and renewable energy.

UN-ENERGY. (2007). Sustainable Bioenergy: A Framework for Decision Makers.

van Dam, J., Faaij, a. P. C., Lewandowski, I., & Fischer, G. (2007). Biomass production potentials in Central and Eastern Europe under different scenarios. Biomass and Bioenergy, 31(6), 345–366. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2006.10.001

Van Stappen, F., Marchal, D., Ryckmans, Y., Crehay, R., & Schenkel, Y. (2003). Green certificates mechanisms in Belgium: a useful instrument to mitigate GHG emissions.

Vandermeulen, V., Prins, W., Nolte, S., & Van Huylenbroeck, G. (2011). How to measure the size of a bio-based economy: Evidence from Flanders. Biomass and Bioenergy, 35(10), 4368–4375. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2011.08.007

Veal, M. W. (2010). Biomass logistics. In J. Cheng, Biomass to renewable energy process. CRC Press. pp. 71-133.

Verbruggen, A. (2009). Performance evaluation of renewable energy support policies, applied on Flanders’ tradable certificates system. Energy Policy, 37(4), 1385–1394. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2008.11.032

Vlaams Department Leefmilieu. (2006). VADEMECUM BERMMAAISEL BEPERKING EN VERWERKING VAN BERMMAAISEL. Brussel: Druk in de Weer.

          Vlaamse Compostorganisatie VZW. (2011). Data Compostproducenten op kaart. Flanders, Belgium.

Vlaamse Compostorganisatie VZW. (2011). Overzicht vergistingsbedrijven met kwaliteitscontrole. Flanders, Belgium.

Wang, Z., & Keshwani, D. R. (2010). Biomass Resources. In J. Cheng, Biomass to renewable energy processes. CRC Press. pp. 42-70.

Watkinson, I. I., Bridgwater, a. V., & Luxmore, C. (2012). Advanced education and training in bioenergy in Europe. Biomass and Bioenergy, 38, 128–143. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2011.06.038

Weigelt, a., Weisser, W. W., Buchmann, N., & Scherer-Lorenzen, M. (2009). Biodiversity for multifunctional grasslands: equal productivity in high-diversity low-input and low-diversity high-input systems. Biogeosciences, 6(8), 1695–1706. doi:10.5194/bg-6-1695-2009

Yang, J., Dai, G., Ma, L., Jia, L., Wu, J., & Wang, X. (2013). Forest-based bioenergy in China: Status, opportunities, and challenges. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 18, 478–485. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2012.10.044


Yiqun, L. (2008). The comparison among biofuel resources. China Academic Journal Electronic Publishing House, 11, 37–38.

Zhang, F., Johnson, D. M., & Sutherland, J. W. (2011). A GIS-based method for identifying the optimal location for a facility to convert forest biomass to biofuel. Biomass and Bioenergy, 35(9), 3951–3961. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2011.06.006

Zhang, M., Wiegmans, B., & Tavasszy, L. (2013). Optimization of multimodal networks including environmental costs: A model and findings for transport policy. Computers in Industry, 64(2), 136–145. doi:10.1016/j.compind.2012.11.008

Zhang, Q., & Hu, X. (2006). Heuristic Algorithm for Location-Allocation Problem Based on Wavelet Analysis in Integrated Logistics Distribution, 0–5.

Zhao, X., Wang, J., Liu, X., Feng, T., & Liu, P. (2012). Focus on situation and policies for biomass power generation in China. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(6), 3722–3729. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2012.03.020

Zhou, C., Lu, F., & Wang, Q. (2000). A Conceptual Model for a Feature-Based Virtual Network, pp. 271–286.

Zhou, X., Xiao, B., Ochieng, R. M., & Yang, J. (2009). Utilization of carbon-negative biofuels from low-input high-diversity grassland biomass for energy in China. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13(2), 479–485. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2007.10.003

          Zielstra, D., & Zipf, A. (2010). Quantitative Studies on the Data Quality of OpenStreetMap in Germany.




Universiteit of Hogeschool
Deel deze scriptie