Discrimination of Women at Work

Philippine Van den Brande
    ‘Vrouwelijke arbeidsmarkt participatie: Wankel of in kannen en kruiken?’Ongeveer twee jaar geleden begon ik mijn zoektocht naar een thesis onderwerp. Onder invloed van mijn medestudenten, ouders en vrienden ontwikkelde ik belangstelling voor emancipatie en vrouwelijke tewerkstelling. Feministen beweren dat de condities waarin vrouwen werken nog steeds veel te wensen overlaten, ondanks het feit dat vrouwelijke tewerkstelling nu al decennia lang erkend wordt in Europa.

Discrimination of Women at Work

    ‘Vrouwelijke arbeidsmarkt participatie: Wankel of in kannen en kruiken?’Ongeveer twee jaar geleden begon ik mijn zoektocht naar een thesis onderwerp. Onder invloed van mijn medestudenten, ouders en vrienden ontwikkelde ik belangstelling voor emancipatie en vrouwelijke tewerkstelling. Feministen beweren dat de condities waarin vrouwen werken nog steeds veel te wensen overlaten, ondanks het feit dat vrouwelijke tewerkstelling nu al decennia lang erkend wordt in Europa. Aangezien ik mezelf beschouw als een trots lid van het vrouwelijke geslacht en, zoals ik het zou verwoorden, een eerder ambitieuze ‘carrière jager’, besloot ik om mijn thesis over dit onderwerp te schrijven.Gelijkheid en non-discriminatie zijn van essentieel belang in discussies over vrouwenrechten. Het is dan ook spijtig dat deze begrippen vaak door elkaar gehaald worden of zelfs erger – verkeerd begrepen worden. In het eerste deel van mijn thesis heb ik geprobeerd om korte metten te maken met de meest voorkomende dubbelzinnigheden. Het was eerst en vooral noodzakelijk om de gelijkheid en discriminatie begrippen te definiëren en in de juiste context te plaatsen. De twee volgende onderverdelingen tonen aan dat discriminatie een lastig concept is dat zelfs verschillende gedaantes kan aannemen. Het is in principe wettelijk verboden om vrouwen te onderwerpen aan een discriminerende behandeling. Onderverdeling vier beschrijft de belangrijkste uitzonderingen op dit verbod. De laatste onderverdeling van deel één introduceert de controversiële notie ‘positieve actie’ aan de lezers.     Deel twee beschrijft de rechtsregimes die van belang zijn voor vrouwelijke arbeidsmarkt participatie. Door een vooraf bepaalde agenda moest ik mezelf beperken tot twee internationale en twee regionale regimes. Ik koos het weinig bekende Verdrag inzake de uitbanning van alle vormen van discriminatie tegen vrouwen omdat het het belangrijkste Verenigde Naties verdrag is wat vrouwenrechten betreft. De Internationale Arbeidsorganisatie functioneert als mijn tweede internationale regime. Aangezien mijn thesis zich specifiek richt op Europese vrouwen, was de keuze voor de Europese Unie en het Herziene Europees Sociaal Handvest als regionale regimes voor de hand liggend.Deel drie van mijn thesis is ongetwijfeld het belangrijkste deel. Doorheen de jaren, feministen stelden een lijst op van specifieke werk-gerelateerde problemen. In deel drie benader ik het merendeel van deze problemen vanuit een vergelijkend perspectief. Inbegrepen zijn onder meer arbeids- en promotiekansen, de loonkloof, seksuele intimidatie, deeltijds werk, zwangerschap, ouderschapsverlof en kinderopvangvoorzieningen.Mijn ingesteldheid was eerder positief toen ik net aan het project begon. Ik ging er (argeloos?) vanuit dat feministische conclusies met een korrel zout genomen moeten worden. Dit optimisme week echter voor teleurstelling naarmate ik verder vorderde. Diverse bronnen tonen aan dat verontrustende gebruiken gewoonweg overleven. De gemiddelde werkneemster verdient nog steeds minder dan haar mannelijke collega. Vrouwen zijn de voornaamste slachtoffers van seksuele intimidatie op het werk. Werkneemsters worden vaker ontslagen dan werknemers. Vrouwen zijn ondervertegenwoordigd in de hogere functies die een uitoefening van gezag of verantwoordelijkheid vereisen. Loopbaanonderbreking of loopbaan beëindiging om voor jonge kinderen te zorgen wordt nog steeds overwogen door moeders, niet door hun mannelijke partners. Elk van de vier bovengenoemde rechtsregimes bevat regels om vrouwonvriendelijke praktijken aan te pakken maar tot zover, de resultaten zijn gemengd. De ongunstige behandeling van werkneemsters is nog steeds te wijten aan hardnekkige stereotypen over de rol van de vrouw en haar plaats in de maatschappij. In sommige gevallen zijn de rechtsregimes erin geslaagd om deze stereopen aan te pakken. In andere gevallen daarentegen is het zeer duidelijk dat rechtsregels alleen niet voldoende slagkracht hebben of dat ze de ongunstige stereotypes zelfs bevestigen.In conclusie, de trieste waarheid blijkt te zijn dat – in de woorden van de succesvolle professor Anne-Marie Slaughter – “European women still can’t have it all”.

 

Bibliografie

                                                     Bibliography

International and Regional TreatiesPre-World War II Conventions- Treaty of Peace between the Allied and Associated Powers and Austria, St. Germain-en-Laye, 10 September 1919.

United Nations Conventions- Charter of the United Nations, 26 June 1945.- Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 10 December 1948.- International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 21 December 1965.- International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 16 December 1966.- International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 16 December 1966.- Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 18 December 1979.- Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 6 October 1999.

Conventions adopted by the International Labour Organization- Convention no. 1 on the Hours of Work (Industry), 1919.- Convention no. 3 on Maternity Protection, 1919.- Convention no. 4 on Night Work (Women), 1919.- Convention no. 14 on Weekly Rest (Industry), 1921.- Convention no. 45 on Underground Work (Women), 1935.- Declaration concerning the aims and purposes of the International Labour Organization (Declaration of Philadelphia), 1944.- Convention no. 95 on the Protection of Wages, 1949.- Convention no. 100 on Equal Remuneration, 1951.- Convention no. 102 on Social Security (Minimum Standards), 1952.- Convention no. 103 on Maternity Protection, 1952.- Convention no. 111 on Discrimination in Employment and Occupation, 1958.- Convention no. 118 on Equal Treatment in Social Security, 1962.- Convention no. 120 on Hygiene, 1964.- Convention no. 131 on Minimum Wage Fixing, 1970.- Convention no. 132 on Holidays with Pay (Revised), 1970.- Convention no. 155 on Occupational Safety and Health, 1981.- Convention no. 156 on Workers with Family Responsibilities, 1981.Convention no. 158 on the Termination of Employment, 1982.- Convention no. 161 on Occupational Health Services, 1985.- Convention no. 167 on Safety and Health in Construction, 1988. - Convention no. 171 on Night Work, 1990.- Convention no. 169 on Indigenous and Tribal Peoples, 1989.- Convention no. 175 on Part-time Work, 1994.- Convention no. 183 on Maternity Protection, 2000.

Recommendations adopted by the International Labour Organization- Recommendation no. 165 on Workers with Family Responsibilities, 1981.- Recommendation no. 182 on Part-Time Work, 1994.- Recommendation no. 191 on Maternity Protection, 2000.

Treaties adopted by the Council of Europe- Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, Rome 4 November 1950.- European Social Charter, Turin 18 October 1961.- Additional Protocol to the European Social Charter, Strasbourg 5 May 1988.- Additional Protocol to the European Social Charter Providing for a System of Collective Complaints, Strasbourg 9 November 1995.- Revised European Social Charter, Strasbourg 3 May 1996.

Other Regional Treaties- American Convention on Human Rights, 22 November 1969.

 

 

 

 

 

European Union LegislationPrimary EU Law- Treaty establishing the European Economic Community, Rome 25 March 1957.- Consolidated Version of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, Rome 25 March 1957.- The Single European Act, Luxembourg 17 February 1986.- Treaty on the European Union, Maastricht 7 February 1992.- Consolidated Version of the Treaty on European Union, Maastricht 7 February 1992.- Treaty of Amsterdam, 2 October 1997.- Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, Nice 7 December 2000.

Secondary EU Law- Council Directive 1975/117/EEC of 10 February 1975 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the application of the principle of equal pay for men and women.- Council Directive 1976/207/EEC of 9 February 1976 on the implementation of the principle of equal treatment for men and women as regards access to employment, vocational training, promotion and working conditions.- Council Directive 1979/7/EEC of 19 December 1978 on the progressive implementation of the principle of equal treatment for men and women in matters of social security.- Council Directive of 12 June 1989 on the introduction of measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health of workers at work.- Council Directive 1992/85/EEC of 19 October 1992 on the introduction of measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health at work of pregnant workers and workers who have recently given birth or are breastfeeding.- Council Directive 1996/34/EC of 3 June 1996 on the framework agreement on parental leave concluded by UNICE, CEEP and the ETUC.- Council Directive 1997/80/EC of 15 December 1997 on the burden of proof in cases of discrimination based on sex.- Council Directive 1997/81/EC of 15 December 1997 concerning the Framework Agreement on part-time work concluded by UNICE, CEEP and the ETUC.- Council Directive 1998/59/EC of 20 July 1998 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to collective redundancies. - Council Directive 2000/43/EC of 29 June 2000 implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of racial or ethnic origin.- Council Directive 2000/78/EC of 27 November 2000 establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation.- Directive 2002/73/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 September 2002 amending Council Directive 76/207/EEC on the implementation of the principle of equal treatment for men and women as regards access to employment, vocational training and promotion, and working conditions.- Directive 2003/88/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 November 2003 concerning certain aspects of the organization of working time. - Regulation 883/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the coordination of social security systems.- Council Directive 2004/113/EC of 13 December 2004 implementing the principle of equal treatment between men and women in the access to and supply of goods and services.- Directive 2006/54/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 July 2006 on the implementation of the principle of equal opportunities and equal treatment of men and women in matters of employment and occupation (recast).- Directive 2008/94/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2008 on the protection of employees in the event of the insolvency of their employer.- Regulation 987/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 September 2009 laying down the procedure for implementing Regulation 883/2004 on the coordination of social security systems. - Council Directive 2010/18/EU of 8 March 2010 implementing the revised Framework Agreement on parental leave concluded by BUSINESSEUROPE, UEAPME, CEEP and ETUC and repealing Directive 96/34/EC.

 

National LegislationFederal United States Legislation- Civil Rights Act of 1964, Public Law 88-352 (78 Stat. 241).

Legislation adopted by Westminster Parliament (United Kingdom)Sex Discrimination Act 1975, c. 65.

 

 

 

 

 

Case-LawThe Permanent Court of International Justice- Permanent Court of International Justice, Advisory Opinion on German settlers in Poland, 1923, serie B no. 6.- Permanent Court of International Justice, Advisory Opinion on the treatment of Polish nationals and other persons of Polish origin or speech in the Danzig territory, 1932, serie A/B no. 44.- Permanent Court of International Justice, Advisory Opinion on minority schools in Albania, 1935, serie A/B no. 64.

The UN Human Rights Committee (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights)- ICCPR, Broeks v. The Netherlands, Communication no. 172/1984, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/OP/2 at 196 (1987).- ICCPR, Althammer v. Austria, Communication no. 998/2001, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/78/D/998/2001 (2003).- ICCPR, Derksen v. The Netherlands, Communication no. 976/2001, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/80/D/976/2001 (2004).

The UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women- CEDAW, R.K.B. v. Turkey, Communication no. 28/2010, CEDAW/C/51/D/28/2010 (2012).- CEDAW, Isatou Jallow v. Bulgaria, Communication no. 32/2011, CEDAW/C/52/D/32/2011 (2012).

The European Court of Human Rights- ECtHR, Case relating to certain aspects of the laws on the use of languages in education in Belgium v. Belgium, 1968.- ECtHR, X and Y v. The Netherlands, 1985.- ECtHR, Laskey and others v. the United Kingdom, 1997.- ECtHR, Petrovic v. Austria, 1998.- ECtHR, Burden v. UK, 2008.- ECtHR, Religionsgemeinschaft der Zeugen Jehovas v. Austria, 2008.- ECtHR, Hulea v. Romania, 2012.- ECtHR, Konstantin Markin v. Russia, 2012.

The European Committee of Social Rights- European Committee of Social Rights, Collective Complaint 13/2002, Autism-Europe v. France (2003).- European Committee of Social Rights, Collective Complaint 27/2004, European Roma Rights Centre v. Italy (2005).- European Committee of Social Rights, Collective Complaint 31/2005, European Roma Rights Centre v. Bulgaria (2006).- European Committee of Social Rights, Collective Complaint 41/2007, Disability Advocacy Center v. Bulgaria (2008).- European Committee of Social Rights, Collective Complaint 50/2008, Conféderation Francaise Démocratique du Travail v. France (2009).- European Committee of Social Rights, Collective Complaint 58/2009, Centre on housing Rights and Evictions v. Italy (2010).- European Committee of Social Rights, Collective Complaint 64/2011, European Roma and Travellers Forum v. France (2012).

The European Court of Justice- ECJ C-2/56, Geitling selling agency for Ruhr coal v. High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community, 1957.- ECJ C-29/69, Stauder v. City of Ulm, 1969.- ECJ C-15/69, Wurttembergische Milchverwertung-Sudmilch AG v. Salvatore Ugliola, 1969.- ECJ C-11/70, Internationale Handelsgesellschaft mbH v. Einfuhr- und Vorratsstelle für Getreide und Futtermittel, 1970.- ECJ C-20/71, Luisa Sabbatini v. European Parliament, 1972.- ECJ C-152/73, Maria Sotgui v. Deutsche Bundespost, 1974.- ECJ C-36/75, Rutili v. Ministre de l’intérieur, 1975.- ECJ C-4/73, J. Nold v. Commission of the European Communities, 1974.- ECJ C-43/75, Defrenne II, 1976.- ECJ C-149/77, Defrenne III, 1978.- ECJ C-44/79, Hauer v. Land Rheinland-Pfalz, 1979.- ECJ C- 129/79, Macarthys Ltd v. Wendy Smith, 1980.- ECJ C-136/79, National Panasonic Ltd v. Commission of the European Communities, 1980.- ECJ C-96/80, J.P. Jenkins v. Kingsgate (Clothing Productions) Ltd, 1981.- ECJ C-58/81, Commission of the European Communities v. Luxembourg, 1982.- ECJ C-61/81, Commission of the European Communities v. United Kingdom, 1982.- ECJ C-79/83, Dorit Harz v. Deutsche Tradax GmbH, 1984.- ECJ C-184/83, Ulrich Hofmann v. Barmer Ersatzkasse, 1984.- ECJ C-75/82 and 117/82, C. Razzouk and A. Beydoun v. Commission of the European Communities, 1984.- ECJ C-170/84, Bilka Kaufhaus GmbH v. Karin Weber Von Hartz, 1986.- ECJ C-222/84, Johnston v. Chief Constable of the Royal Ulster Constabulary, 1986.- ECJ C-111/86, Evelyne Delauche v. Commission of the European Communities, 1987.- ECJ C-318/86, Commission of the European Communities v. France, 1988.- ECJ C-227/88, Hoechst AG v. Commission of the European Communities, 1989.- ECJ C-102/88, M.L. Ruzius-Wilbrink v. Bestuur van de Bedrijfsverenigingen voor Overheidsdiensten, 1989.- ECJ C-171/88, Ingrid Rinner-Kuhn v. FWW spezial-gebaudereinigung GmbH & Co. KG, 1989. - ECJ C-5/88, Hubert Wachauf v. Bundesamt fur Ernahrung und Forstwirtschaft, 1989.- ECJ C-177/88, Elisabeth Dekker v. Stichting Vormingscentrum voor jonge volwassenen (VJV-centrum) plus, 1990.- Case C-179/88, Birthe Hertz v. Dansk Arbejdsgiverforening, 1990.- ECJ C-33/89, Maria Kowalska v. Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, 1990.- ECJ C-184/89, Helga Nimz v. freie und hansestadt Hamburg, 1991.- ECJ C-360/90, Arbeiterwohlfahrt der Stadt Berlin v. Monika Botel, 1992.- ECJ C-173/91, Commission of the European Communities v. Belgium, 1993.- ECJ C-7/93, Bestuur van het Algemeen Burgerlijk Pensioenfonds v. G.A. Beune, 1994.- ECJ C-342/93, Gillespie and others v. Northern Health and Social Services Board, 1996.- ECJ C-421/92, Gabriele Habermann-Beltermann v. Arbeiterwohlfahrt, 1994.- ECJ C-28/93, Maria van den Akker and Others v. Stichting Shell Pensioenfonds, 1994.- ECJ C-32/93, Carole Louise Webb v. EMO Air Cargo, 1994.- ECJ C-317/93, Inge Nolte v. Landesversicherungsanstalt Hannover, 1995.- ECJ C-450/93, Eckhard Kalanke v. freie hansestadt Bremen, 1995.- ECJ C-444/93, Ursula Megner and Hildegard Scheffel v. Innungskrankenkasse Vorderpfalz, 1995.- ECJ C-400/93, Specialarbejderforbundet I Danmark v. Dansk Industri acting for Royal Copenhagen A/S, 1995.- ECJ C-278/93, Edith Freers and Hannelore Speckmann v. Deutsche Bundespost, 1996.- ECJ C-457/93, Kuratorium für Dialyse und Nierentransplantation v. Johanna Lewark, 1996.- ECJ C-180/95, Nils Draehmpaehl v. Urania Immobilienservice OHG, 1997.- ECJ C-1/95, Hellen Gerster v. Freistaat Bayern, 1997.- ECJ C-100/95, Brigitte Kording v. Senator fur Finanzen Bremen, 1997.- ECJ C-409/95, Hellmut Marschall v. Land Nordrhein Westfalen, 1997.- ECJ C-411/96, Margaret Boyle and other v. Equal Opportunities Commission, 1998.- ECJ C-394/96, Mary Brown v. Rentokil Ltd, 1998.- ECJ C-136/95, CNAVTS v. Evelyne Thibault, 1998.- ECJ C-185/97, Belinda Jane Coote v. Granada Hospitality Ltd, 1998.- ECJ C-120/95, Nicolas Decker v. Caisse de maladie des employés privés, 1998.- ECJ C-243/95, Kathleen Hill and Anne Stapleton v. Revenue Commissioners and Department of Finance, 1998.- ECJ C-158/96, Raymond Kohll v. Union des caisses de maladie, 1998.- ECJ C-218/98, Dabo Abdoulay and Others v. Renault SA, 1999.- ECJ C-187/98, Commission of the European Communities v. Greece, 1999.- ECJ C-249/97, Gabriele Gruber v. Silhouette International, 1999.- ECJ C-333/97, Susanne Lewen v. Lothar Denda, 1999.- ECJ C-167/97, Regina v. Secretary of State for employment, ex parte Seymour-Smith, 1999.- ECJ C-407/98, Katarina Abrahamsson and Leif Anderson v. Elisabet Fogelqvist, 2000.- ECJ C-158/97, Georg Badeck and Others v. Hessicher Ministerprasident, 2000.- ECJ C-17/98, Emesa Sugar NV v. Aruba, 2000.- ECJ C-270/97, Deutsche Post AG v. Elisabeth Sievers, 2000.- ECJ C-50/96, Deutsche Telekom AG v. Lilli Schroder, 2000.- ECJ C-322/98, Barbel Kachelmann v. Bankhaus Hermann Lampe, 2000.- ECJ C-7/98, Dieter Krombach v. Andre Bamberski, 2000.- ECJ C-381/99, Susanna Brunnhofer v. Bank der österreichischen Postsparkasse AG, 2001.- ECJ C-476/99, H. Lommers v. Minister van Landbouw, natuurbeheer en Visserij, 2002.- ECJ C-320/01, Wiebke Busch v. Klinikum Neustadt GmbH & Co. Betriebs-KG, 2003.- ECJ C-187/00, Helga Kutz-Bauer v. Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, 2003.- ECJ C-25/02, Katharina Rinke v. Arztekammer Hamburg, 2003.  - ECJ C-77/02, Erika Steinicke v. Bundesanstalt fur Arbeit, 2003.- ECJ C-256/01, Debra Allonby v. Accrington & Rossendale College, 2004. - ECJ C-319/03, Serge Briheche v. Ministre de l’Intérieur, Ministre de l’éducation and Ministre de la Justice, 2004.- ECJ C-285/02, Elsner-Lakeberg v. Land Nordrhein-Westfalen, 2004.- ECJ C-519/03, Commission of the European Communities v. Luxembourg, 2005.- ECJ C-116/06, Sari Kiiski v. Tampereen Kaupunki, 2007.- ECJ C-194/08, Susanne Gassmayr v. Bundesminister fur Wissenschaft und Forschung, 2010.- ECJ C-395/08, INPS v. Tiziana Bruno, 2010.

The General Court (European Union)- GC T-45/90, Alicia Speybrouck v. European Parliament, 1992.

Advocate Generals’ Opinions to the European Court of Justice- Opinion of Advocate General Tesauro, Eckhard Kalanke v. freie hansestadt Bremen, 6 April 1995.- Opinion of Advocate General Ruiz-Jarabo Colomer, Tele Danmark A/S v. Handels- og Kontorfunktionærernes Forbund i Danmark, 10 May 2001.- Opinion of Advocate General Poiares Maduro, S. Coleman v. Attridge Law and Steve Law, 31 January 2008.

The EFTA Court (European Economic Area)- EFTA Court, E-1/02, EFTA Surveillance Authority v. Norway, 2003.

The United States Supreme Court- Griggs et al v. Duke Power, 401 U.S. 424 (1971).- Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinson, 477 U.S. 57 (1986).- Beth Ann Faragher v. City of Boca Raton 524 U.S. 775 (1998).- Burlington Industries Inc. v. Ellerth 524 U.S. 742 (1998).

The California Court of Appeal- Weeks v. Baker & McKenzie, 63 Cal. App. 4th 1128 (1998).

Other Materials Published by Treaty BodiesThe UN Human Rights Committee (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights)- ICCPR General Comment no. 18 on Non-Discrimination (1989).

The UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights- CESCR General Comment no. 20 on non discrimination in economic, social and cultural rights (2009).

The UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women- CEDAW General Recommendation no. 12 on violence against women (1989).- CEDAW General Recommendation no. 13 on equal remuneration for work of equal value (1989).- CEDAW General Recommendation no. 19 on violence against women (1992).- CEDAW General Recommendation no. 23 on women in political and public life (1997).- CEDAW General Recommendation no. 25 on temporary special measures (2004).- CEDAW General Recommendation no. 28 on the core obligations of state parties under the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (2010).- CEDAW, Report by the Secretariat on the Committee’s approach to article 4, paragraph 1 of the Convention, CEDAW/C/2001/II/5 (2001).- CEDAW CO Albania, CEDAW/C/ALB/CO/3 (2010).- CEDAW CO Algeria, CEDAW/C/DZA/CO/3-4 (2012).- CEDAW CO Antigua and Barbuda, A/52/38/Rev. 1 (1997).- CEDAW CO Armenia, CEDAW/C/ARM/CO/4/Rev.1 (2009).- CEDAW CO Australia, A/52/38/Rev. 1 (1997).- CEDAW CO Austria, A/55/38 (2000).- CEDAW CO Austria, CEDAW/C/AUT/CO7-8 (2013).- CEDAW CO Armenia, A/52/38/Rev.1 (1997).- CEDAW CO Bangladesh, A/59/38 (2004).- CEDAW CO Belarus, CEDAW/C/BLR/CO/7 (2011).- CEDAW CO Belize, A/54/38/Rev. 1 (1999).- CEDAW CO Canada, A/58/38 (2003).- CEDAW CO Canada, CEDAW/C/CAN/CO/7 (2008).- CEDAW CO Croatia, A/53/38 (1998).- CEDAW CO Columbia, A/54/38/Rev. 1 (1999).- CEDAW CO Cuba, A/55/38 (2000).- CEDAW CO Cyprus, A/61/38 (2006).- CEDAW CO Czech Republic, A/53/38/Rev.1 (1998).- CEDAW CO Czech Republic, A/57/38 (2002).- CEDAW CO Czech Republic, CEDAW/C/CZE/CO/3 (2006).- CEDAW CO Denmark, A/57/38 (2002).- CEDAW CO Dominican Republic, A/59/38 (2004).- CEDAW CO Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, CEDAW/C/PRK/CO/1 (2005).- CEDAW CO Democratic Republic of the Congo, A/55/38 (2000). - CEDAW CO Estonia, A/57/38 (2002).- CEDAW CO Fiji, A/57/38 (2002).- CEDAW CO Finland, A/56/38 (2001).- CEDAW CO Finland, CEDAW/C/FIN/CO/6 (2008).- CEDAW CO France, A/58/38 (2003).- CEDAW CO Germany, A/55/38 (2000).- CEDAW CO Germany, A/59/38 (2004).- CEDAW CO Grenada, CEDAW/C/GRD/CO/1-5 (2012).- CEDAW CO Greece, A/57/38 (2002).- CEDAW CO Greece, CEDAW/C/GRC/CO/7 (2013).- CEDAW CO Guyana, A/56/38 (2001).- CEDAW CO Hungary, A/57/38 (2002).- CEDAW CO Iceland, A/51/38 (1996).- CEDAW CO Iraq, A/55/38 (2000).- CEDAW CO Italy, CEDAW/C/ITA/CC/4-5 (2005).- CEDAW CO Italy, CEDAW/C/ITA/CO/6 (2011).- CEDAW CO Jamaica, CEDAW/C/JAM/CO/6-7 (2012).- CEDAW CO Japan, CEDAW/C/JNP/CO/6 (2009).- CEDAW CO Jordan, A/55/38 (2000). - CEDAW CO Jordan, CEDAW/C/JOR/CO/5 (2012).- CEDAW CO Kazakhstan, A/56/38 (2001).- CEDAW CO Kuwait, A/59/38 (2004).- CEDAW CO Kuwait, CEDAW/C/KWT/CO/3-4 (2011).- CEDAW CO Kyrgyzstan, A/54/38 (1999). - CEDAW CO Liechtenstein, A/54/38/Rev.1 (1999).- CEDAW CO Luxembourg, A/55/38 (2000).- CEDAW CO Luxembourg, A/58/38 (2003).- CEDAW CO Luxembourg, CEDAW/C/LUX/CO/5 (2008).- CEDAW CO Malta, A/59/38 (2004).- CEDAW CO Mexico, A/53/38 (1998).- CEDAW CO Mexico, A/57/38 (2002).- CEDAW CO Mexico, CEDAW/C/MEX/CO/7-8 (2012).- CEDAW CO Mongolia, CEDAW/C/MNG/CO/7 (2008).- CEDAW CO Montenegro, CEDAW/C/MNE/CO/1 (2011).- CEDAW CO Myanmar, CEDAW/C/MMR/CO/3 (2008).- CEDAW CO Netherlands, A/56/38 (2001).- CEDAW CO Netherlands, CEDAW/C/NLD/CO/5 (2010).- CEDAW CO New Zealand, A/53/38 (1998). - CEDAW CO New Zealand, A/58/38 (2003).- CEDAW CO New Zealand, CEDAW/C/NZL/CO/7 (2012).- CEDAW CO Nicaragua, A/56/38 (2001).- CEDAW CO Norway, A/58/38 (2003).- CEDAW CO Norway, CEDAW/C/NOR/CO/8 (2012).- CEDAW CO Portugal, A/57/38 (2002).- CEDAW CO Republic of Korea, A/42/38 (1987).- CEDAW CO Republic of Korea, A/53/38/Rev. 1 (1998).- CEDAW CO Republic of Moldova, A/55/38 (2000).- CEDAW CO Russian Federation, CEDAW/C/USR/CO/7 (2010).- CEDAW CO Singapore, CEDAW/C/SGP/CO/4 (2011).- CEDAW CO Slovakia, A/53/38 (1998).- CEDAW CO Slovenia, A/52/38/Rev. 1 (1997).- CEDAW CO Slovenia, A/58/38 (2003).- CEDAW CO Spain, CEDAW/C/ESP/CO/6 (2009).- CEDAW CO Suriname, A/57/38 (2002).- CEDAW CO Switzerland, A/58/38 (2003).- CEDAW CO Switzerland, CEDAW/C/CHE/CO/3 (2009).- CEDAW CO Togo, CEDAW/C/TGO/CO/6-7 (2012).- CEDAW CO Trinidad and Tobago, A/57/38 (2002).- CEDAW CO Tunisia, A/57/38 (2002).- CEDAW CO Turkey, A/60/38 (2005).- CEDAW CO Turkmenistan, CEDAW/C/TKM/CO/3-4 (2012).- CEDAW CO Ukraine, A/51/38 (1996).- CEDAW CO Ukraine, A/57/38 (2002).- CEDAW CO Uganda, A/57/38 (2002).

The European Committee of Social Rights- ESC Conclusions VIII, Dissenting Opinion of Mr. F. Fabricius (1984).- ESC Conclusions XII-1, Dissenting Opinion of Ms. S. Billum Stegard (1991-1992).- ESC Conclusions XIII-2, General Introduction (1995).- ESC Conclusions I, Statement of Interpretation on Article 4(3) (1969).- ESC Conclusions II, Statement of Interpretation on Article 4(3) (1971).- ESC Conclusions XIX-4, Austria (2011).- ESC Conclusions XIII-1, Cyprus (1991).- ESC Conclusions XVII-2, Czech Republic (2005).- ESC Conclusions XIX-4, Czech Republic (2011).- ESC Conclusions XIX-4, Denmark (2011).- ESC Conclusions XIII-5, Finland (1997).- ESC Conclusions XIX-4, Germany (2011).- ESC Conclusions XIII-1, Greece (1991).- ESC Conclusions XIX-4, Greece (2011).- ESC Conclusions XVI-2, Hungary (2003).- ESC Conclusions XIII-2, Italy (1995).- ESC Conclusions XVII-2, Latvia (2005).- ESC Conclusions XIX-4, Latvia (2011).- ESC Conclusions XIII-1, Netherlands (1991). - ESC Conclusions XIII-5, Netherlands (1997).- ESC Conclusions XIII-1, Norway (1991).- ESC Conclusions XIII-2, Norway (1995).- ESC Conclusions XIII-5, Norway (1997).- ESC Conclusions XV-2, Poland (2001).- ESC Conclusions XVII-2, Poland (2005).- ESC Conclusions XIII-3, Portugal (1995).- ESC Conclusions XVI-2, Portugal (2003).- ESC Addendum to Conclusions XV-2, Slovakia (2001).- ESC Conclusions X-2, Spain (1990).- ESC Conclusions XVI-2, Spain (2004).- ESC Conclusions XIX-4, Spain (2011).- ESC Conclusions XIII-5, Sweden (1997).- ESC Conclusions XVII-1, Turkey (2004).- ESC Conclusions XIII-3, United Kingdom (1995).- ESC Conclusions XV-2, United Kingdom (2001).- ESC Conclusions XIX-4, United Kingdom (2011).- RESC Conclusions, Statement of Interpretation on Article 1(2) (2006).- RESC Conclusions, Statement of Interpretation on Article 8(1) (2011).- RESC Conclusions, Andorra (2011).- RESC Conclusions, Armenia (2007).- RESC Conclusions, Armenia (2011).- RESC Conclusions, Azerbaijan (2011).- RESC Conclusions, Belgium (2000).- RESC Conclusions, Bosnia Herzegovina (2011).- RESC Conclusions, Bulgaria (2003).- RESC Conclusions, Bulgaria (2006).- RESC Conclusions, Bulgaria (2011).- RESC Conclusions, Cyprus (2012).- RESC Conclusions, Estonia (2005).- RESC Conclusions, Estonia (2011). - RESC Conclusions, Finland (2011).- RESC Conclusions, France (2003).- RESC Conclusions, Georgia (2011).- RESC Conclusions, Hungary (2011).- RESC Conclusions, Ireland (2011).- RESC Conclusions, Italy (2012).- RESC Conclusions, Lithuania (2005).- RESC Conclusions, Lithuania (2006).- RESC Conclusions, Lithuania (2012).- RESC Conclusions, Moldova (2008).- RESC Conclusions, Netherlands (2008).- RESC Conclusions, Norway (2005).- RESC Conclusions Portugal (2011).- RESC Conclusions, Romania (2002). - RESC Conclusions, Romania (2003).- RESC Conclusions, Slovak Republic (2011).- RESC Conclusions, Slovenia (2003).- RESC Conclusions, Sweden (2003).- RESC Conclusions, Sweden (2005).- RESC Conclusions, Sweden (2011).- RESC Conclusions, Statement of Interpretation on Article 1(2) (2006).- RESC Conclusions, Turkey (2011).- RESC Conclusions, Ukraine (2011).

 

 

United Nations Documents- Prevention of Discrimination; the concept and practice of affirmative action, Final report submitted by Mr. Marc Bossuyt, Special Rapporteur, in accordance with Sub-Commissions resolution 1998/5, E/CN.4/Sub.2/2002/21, 17 June 2002.- Yakin Erturk, Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, A/HRC/11/6/Add. 5, 27 May 2009, 63 p.

 

 

 

 

 

Other Instruments adopted by the International Labour Organization- Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations, Direct Request on Convention no. 100 on Equal Remuneration, 1951, Lebanon, adopted 2009, published 99th ILC Session (2010).- Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations, Direct Request on Convention no. 100 on Equal Remuneration, 1951, Syrian Arab Republic, adopted 2008, published 98th ILC Session (2009). - Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations, Direct Request on Convention no. 111 on Discrimination in Employment and Occupation, Comoros, adopted 2012, published 102nd ILC Session (2013). - Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations, Direct Request on Convention no. 111 on Discrimination in Employment and Occupation, France, adopted 2011, published 101st ILC Session (2012). - Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations, Direct Request on Convention no. 111 on Discrimination in Employment and Occupation, Luxembourg, adopted 2012, published 102nd ILC Session (2013). - Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations, Observation on Convention no. 111 on Discrimination in Employment and Occupation, Bolivia, adopted 2012, published 102nd ILC Session (2013). - Committee of Experts on the Application of Recommendations and Conventions, General Observation concerning Convention No. 111: Sexual Harassment, adopted 2002, published 91st ILC Session (2003).- International Labour Conference, General Survey of the Reports on the Equal Remuneration Convention (no. 100) and Recommendation (no. 90), Geneva, International Labour Office, 72nd Session, 1986, 203 p. - International Labour Conference, Equality in Employment and Occupation: General Survey by the Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations, Geneva, International Labour Office, 75th Session, 1988, 259 p. - International Labour Conference, General Survey on the Reports on the Workers with Family Responsibilities Convention no. 156 and Recommendation no. 165, 80th Session, 1993, 113 p.- International Labour Conference, General Survey on the fundamental Conventions concerning rights at work in the light of the ILO Declaration on Social Justice for a Fair Globalization, Report III (Part 1B), 101st Session, 2012, 395 p.- International Labour Conference, Equality in Employment and Occupation: Special Survey in respect of Convention no. 111, Geneva, International Labour Office, 83rd Session, 1996, 133 p.- International Labour Conference, Report of the Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations, Report III (Part 1A), Geneva, International Labour Office, 86th Session, 1998, 511 p.- International Labour Conference, Report of the Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations, Report III (Part 1A), Geneva, International Labour Office, 96th Session, 2007, 627 p.

 

 

 

 

Other Instruments adopted by the Council of Europe and the EU InstitutionsThe Council of Europe- Explanatory Report to the Revised European Social Charter, 1996. 

The European Union- Joint Declaration by the European Parliament, the Council and the Commission concerning the protection of Fundamental Rights & the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, 5 April 1977, Official Journal C 103 , 27/04/1977 P.- New Community Action Programme on the Promotion of Equal Opportunities for Women 1982-1985 COM (81) 758 final.- Council Recommendation 84/635/EEC of 13 December 1984 on the promotion of positive action for women.- Second Council Resolution of 24 July 1986 on the promotion of equal opportunities for women, 86/C 203/02.- The Community Charter of Fundamental Social Rights of Workers, 9 December 1989.- Council Resolution of 29 May 1990 on the protection of the dignity of women and men at work, 90/C 157/02. - Commission Recommendation of 27 November 1991 on the protection of the dignity of women and men at work, 92/131/ EEC.- Council Recommendation of 31 March 1992 on child-care, 92/241/EEC.- Communication of the Commission, ‘Incorporating equal opportunities for women and men into all Community policies and activities’, 21 February 1996, COM(96) 67 final.- Report from the Commission on the implementation of council directive 92/85/eec, 1999, COM/99/0100 final.- Text of the explanations relating to the complete text of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, Charte 4473/00 Convent 49, 11 October 2000.- Commission of the European Communities, Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Council Directive 92/85/EEC, Brussels 3.10.2008, COM(2008) 637 final.- Position of the European Parliament adopted at first reading on 20 October 2010 with a view to the adoption of Directive 2011/.../EU of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Council Directive 92/85/EEC, P7_TA(2010)0373.- Council of the European Union, Progress Report on the Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Council Directive 92/85/EEC, Brussels, 31 May 2011, 10541/11. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Official PublicationsThe United Nations- United Nations, Manual on Human Rights Reporting, Geneva, United Nations Publications, 1997, 520 p.

The International Labour Organization- Hein C., Reconciling work and family responsibilities, Geneva, International Labour Office, 2005, 207 p.- Hein C. and Cassirer N., Workplace solutions for childcare, Geneva, International Labour Office, 2010, 480 p.- International Labour Office, Achieving Equal Employment Opportunities for People with Disabilities through Legislation: Guidelines, Geneva, International Labour Organization, 2004, 90 p.- International Labour Office, ABC of women workers’ rights and gender equality, Geneva, International Labour Organization, 2007, 221 p.- International Labour Office, Equality at work: Tackling the challenges, International Labour Organization, Geneva, 2007, 50 p.- International Labour Office, Maternity at Work: a review of national legislation, Geneva, International Labour Organization, 2010, 105 p.- International Labour Standards Department, Eliminating discrimination against indigenous and tribal peoples in employment and occupation: A Guide to ILO Convention No. 111, Geneva, International Labour Organization, 2007, 38 p.- Jha P. and Golder S., Labour Market Regulation and Economic Performance, Geneva, International Labour Organization, 2008, 71 p.- McCann D., Sexual Harassment at work: National and international responses, Geneva, International Labour Organization, 2005, 66 p.- Oelz M., Olney S. and Tomei M., Equal Pay: An Introductory Guide, Geneva, International Labour Organization, 2013, 114 p.

The Council of Europe and the European Union- Archibong U. and Eferakorho J., International perspectives on positive action measures, Luxembourg, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2009, 72 p. - Burri S., EU Gender Equality Law Update 2010, Luxembourg, Office for Official Publications of the European Union, 2010, 29 p.- Burri S. and Prechal S., EU Gender Equality Law, Luxembourg, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2008, 27 p.- De Vos M., Beyond Formal Equality, Luxembourg, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2007, 74 p.- Di Martino V., Hoel H. and Cooper C., Preventing violence and harassment in the workplace, Luxembourg, Office for the Official Publications of the European Communities, 2003, 100 p.- Directorate General for Internal Policies, Costs and benefits of maternity and paternity leave, Brussels, European Parliament, 2010, 134 p.- Drew E., Parental Leave in Council of Europe Member States, Strasbourg, Directorate General of Human Rights, 2005, 48 p.- Emmanuelle B. and Rorive I., In search of a balance between the right to equality and other fundamental rights, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union, 2010, 88 p.- European Commission, Progress on equality between women and men in 2011, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union, 2012, 43 p.- European Commission, Report on equality between women and men, Luxembourg, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2008, 44 p.- European Commission, Report on equality between women and men, Luxembourg, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2009, 48 p.- European Commission, Report on equality between women and men, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union, 2010, 50 p.- European Commission, Sexual Harassment at the Workplace in the European Union, Luxembourg, Office of Official Publications of the European Communities, 1999, 233 p.- European Committee of Social Rights, Digest of the Case Law of the European Committee of Social Rights, Strasbourg, Council of Europe ,2008, 368 p.- European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Parental Leave in European companies, Luxembourg, Office of Official Publications of the European Communities, 2007, 51 p.- European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Foundations Findings: Childcare services in Europe, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union, 2009, 20 p.- European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Part-time work in Europe - Executive summary, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union 2011, 2 p.- European Institute for Gender Equality, Review of the Implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action: Women and the Economy, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union, 2011, 26 p.- European Network of Legal Experts in the non-discrimination field, The Prohibition of Discrimination under European Human Rights Law, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union, 2011, 75 p.- European Parliament, Atypical Work in the EU, Luxembourg, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2000, 163 p.- European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, Handbook on European non-discrimination law, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union, 2010, 151 p.- Farkas L., How to Present a Discrimination Claim, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union, 2011, 116 p.- Lenia S., Fundamental Social Rights, Strasbourg, Council of Europe Publishing, 2002, 495 p.- Sandor E., Part-time work in Europe, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union, 2009, 46 p.- Secretariat of the European Social Charter, Equality between Women and Men in the European Social Charter, Strasbourg, Council of Europe Publishing, 2005, 17 p. - Selanec G. and Senden L., Gender Quotas and Other Positive Action Measures to Ensure Full Equality in Practice between Men and Women, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union, 2011, 38 p.- Social Charter monographs, Equality between women and men in the European Social Charter, Strasbourg, Council of Europe Publishing, 2000, 142 p.- Rubenstein M., The Dignity of Woman at Work: A Report on the Problem of Sexual Harassment in the Member States of the European Communities, Luxembourg, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1988, 164 p.- Tobler C., Limits and potential of the concept of indirect discrimination, Luxembourg, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2008, 87 p.

 

 

 

 

 

Legal Doctrine: Books- Alcock C., Payne S. and Sullivan M., Introducing Social Policy, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 2000, 343 p.- Alen A. en Lemmens P. (eds.), Gelijkheid en Non-Discriminatie, Antwerpen, Kluwer Rechtswetenschappen, 1991, 228 p.- Aliprantis N. and Papageorgiou I. (eds.), Social Rights – Challenges at European, Regional and International Level, Brussels, Bruylant, 2010, 408 p.- Alston P. (ed.), The EU and Human Rights, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1999, 946 p.- Alston P. and Goodman R., International Human Rights, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2013, 1580 p.- Arnardottir O., Equality and Non-Discrimination under the European Convention on Human Rights, The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2003, 265 p.- Askin K. and Koenig D. (eds.), Women and International Human Rights Law, I, New York, Transnational Publishers, 2000, 736 p.- Askin K. and Koenig D. (eds.), Women and International Human Rights Law, II, New York, Transnational Publishers, 2000, 731 p.- Barnard C., EC Employment Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2006, 798 p.- Barnard C., EU Employment Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2012, 800 p.- Bartolomei H., von Potobsky G. and Swepston L., The International Labor Organization, Colorado, Westview Press, 1996, 296 p. - Bayart C., Sottiaux S. en Van Drooghenbroeck S. (eds.), Actuele Topics Discriminatierecht, Brugge, die Keure, 2010, 407 p. - Bell M., Anti-Discrimination Law and the European Union, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2002, 269 p.- Betten L. and Grief N., EU Law and Human Rights, London and New York, Longman, 1998, 158 p.- Blanpain R., Europees Arbeidsrecht, Brugge, die Keure, 2012, 592 p.- Boerefijn I. and Coomans F. (eds.), Temporary Special Measures: Accelerating de facto equality of Women under article 4(1) UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, Antwerp, Intersentia, 2003, 258 p.- Borghs P., De Antidiscriminatiewet, Antwerpen-Apeldoorn, Garant, 2003, 90 p.- Bradley H., Gender and Power in the Workplace, Hampshire, MacMillan Press Ltd, 1999, 250 p.- Brems E. en Stevens L. (eds.), Recht en Gender in België, Brugge, die Keure, 2011, 266 p.- Browne K., Biology at Work, New Jersey, Rutgers University Press, 2002, 282 p.- Brownlie I., Public International Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2008, 784 p.- Buergenthal T., Shelton D. and Stewart D., International Human Rights in a nutshell, St. Paul, Thomson Reuters, 2009, 553 p.- Burchell B., Fagan C., O’Brien C. and Smith M., Working conditions in the European Union: The Gender perspective, Dublin, European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, 2007, 73 p.- Burri S., Tijd delen: Deeltijd, gelijkheid en gender in Europees- en nationaalrechtelijk perspectief, Antwerpen, Kluwer, 2000, 723 p.- Burrows N. and Mair J., European Social Law, Chichester, John Wiley and Sons, 1996, 451 p.- Cahill M., The Social Construction of Sexual Harassment Law, Aldershot, Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2001, 125 p.- Cassese A., International Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2005, 558 p.- Chalmers D., Davies G. and Monti G., European Union Law, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2010, 1115 p.- Cockburn C., In the way of Women: Men’s resistance to sex equality in organizations, London, MacMillan, 1991, 260 p.- Collins H., The EU Pregnancy Directive, Oxford, Blackwell Publishers, 1994, 177 p.- Collins H., Davies P. and Rideout R. (eds.), Legal Regulation of the Employment Relation, Dordrecht, Kluwer Law International, 2000, 646 p.- Connolly M., Discrimination Law, London, Sweet & Maxwell, 2011, 442 p.- Cordier J.P. and Brasseur P., Le bien-être psychosocial au travail, Waterloo, Kluwer, 2009, 374 p.- Craig P. and de Burca G., EU Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2011, 1155 p.- Craig P. and de Burca G. (eds.), The Evolution of EU Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2011, 917 p.- Craig P., The Lisbon Treaty: Law, Politics and Treaty Reform, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2010, 466 p.- Cremers E., Monster W. and Willems L., Vrouwenverdrag, moederschap, ouderschap en arbeid, Den Haag, Elsevier, 1998, 379 p.- Crouch M., Thinking about Sexual Harassment, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2001, 328 p.- Cuypers C. (ed.), Gelijkheid in the Arbeidsrecht, Antwerpen – Oxford, Intersentia, 2003, 363 p.- Davis A. and Graham B., The Supreme Court, Race and Civil Rights, Thousand Oaks, SAGE publications Inc., 1995, 483 p.- de Boer M. and Wijers M., Taking Women’s Rights Seriously?, Utrecht, Humanist Committee on Human Rights, 2006, 101 p. - de Burca G. and Weiler J. (eds.), The European Court of Justice, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2001, 233 p.- De Graaf-Tolkamp C., Seksuele intimidatie op het werk, Zuthpen, Uitgeverij Paris, 2008, 110 p.- de Haas S., Sexual Harassment in a male dominated workplace, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Groningen, 2009, 111 p.- De Prins D., Sottiaux S. en Vrielink J., Handboek Discriminatierecht, Mechelen, Kluwer, 2005, 593 p.- De Schutter O. and Deakin S. (eds.), Social Rights and Market Forces, Brussels, Bruylant, 2005, 351 p.- Eide A., Krause C. and Rosas A. (eds.), Economic, social and cultural rights: a textbook, The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2001, 785 p. - Ellis E., EC Sex Equality Law, Oxford, Clarendon, 1998, 365 p. - Ellis E., EU Anti-Discrimination Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2005, 401 p.- Ellis E. and Watson P., EU Anti-Discrimination Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2012, 519 p.- Evenhuis W. en van Eijk E., Met recht een vrouw, Amsterdam, Greber Uitgever & Distributeur, 2001, 56 p.- Forsythe D. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Human Rights, II, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009, 506 p.- Forsythe D. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Human Rights, III, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009, 521 p.- Forsythe D. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Human Rights, V, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009, 537 p.- Foster N., Foster on EU Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2011, 512 p.- Foubert P., The legal protection of the pregnant worker in the European Community, The Hague, Kluwer Law International, 2002, 389 p.- Fredman S., Women and the Law, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1997, 429 p.- Fredman S., Discrimination Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2002, 205 p.- Fredman S., Discrimination Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2011, 384 p. - Freeman M., Chinkin C. and Beate R. (eds.), The Un Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: A Commentary, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2012, 731 p.- Gearty C. and Mantouvalou V., Debating Social Rights, Oxford, Hart Publishing,  2011, 191 p.- Gerards J., Rechterlijke toetsing aan het gelijkheidsbeginsel, Den Haag, Sdu Uitgevers BV, 2002, 803 p. - Gijzen M., Selected Issues in Equal Treatment Law: a Multi-Layered Comparison of European, English and Dutch Law, Antwerp-Oxford, Intersentia, 2006, 551 p.- Giubboni S., Social Rights and Market Freedom in the European Constitution, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2006, 290 p.- Gomez I. and de Feyter K. (eds.), International Protection of Human Rights: Achievements and Challenges, Bilbao, Publicaciones de la Universidad de Deusto, 2006, 704 p. - Goudappel F., The Effects of EU Citizenship, The Hague, T.M.C. Asser Press, 2010, 255 p.- Hakim C., Key Issues in Women’s Work, London, The GlassHouse Press, 2004, 280 p. - Hantrais L., Social Policy in the European Union, London, MacMillan Press, 2000, 273 p.- Harris D. and Darcy J., The European Social Charter, New York, Transnational Publishers Inc., 2001, 431 p.- Harris D., O’Boyle M., Bates E., Buckley C., Law of the European Convention on Human Rights, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009, 902 p.- Hartley T., The Foundations of European Union Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2010, 501 p. - Heringa A., Hes J. and Lijnzaad L. (eds.), Het Vrouwenverdrag: een beeld van een verdrag, Antwerpen – Apeldoorn, Maklu, 1994, 316 p.- Hervey T., Justifications for Sex Discrimination in Employment, London, Butterworths, 1993, 264 p.- Hervey T. and Kenner J. (eds.), Economic and Social Rights under the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights – A Legal Perspective, Oxford and Portland, Hart Publishing, 2003, 327 p.- Hervey T. and O’Keeffe D. 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Online SourcesWebsites- Website of Amnesty International:                                        http://www.amnesty.eu/en/home/- Website of the International Labour Organization:                    http://www.ilo.org/global/lang--en/index.htm- Website of the European Union:                                                        http://europa.eu/index_en.htm- The European Job Mobility Portal:                                    https://ec.europa.eu/eures/home.jsp- Website of the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights:                http://fra.europa.eu/en- Website of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development: http://www.oecd.org/- Website of The Guardian:                                                       http://www.theguardian.com/uk

Online Journal and Newspaper Articles- Hanseguard J., “For Paternity Leave, Sweden Asks if Two Months Is Enough”, The Wall Street Journal, 31st of July 2012, at: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB100008723963904442269045775611000203363…- Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Use of childbirth-related leave by mothers and fathers, 2010, available at: http://www.oecd.org/social/soc/41927348.pdf- Rankin J., “Council to ditch MEPs' maternity leave plans”, European Voice 2 December 2010.- The Washington Times, “Feminists accused of pushing agenda at U.N.”, Friday 11 August 2006, available at: http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2006/aug/11/20060811-123451-2280r/ 

Universiteit of Hogeschool
Master of Law
Publicatiejaar
2013
Kernwoorden
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