Impact van structurele kenmerken op het antioxidant en prebiotisch potentieel van (arabino)xylanoligosachariden

Heleen Olaerts
Welke structurele kenmerken bepalen het gezondheidsprofiel van dieetvezel in tarwe ?Een goede darmflora kan bijdragen tot de gezondheid van de mens. De laatste jaren is er veel onderzoek gevoerd naar manieren om deze darmflora te sturen. Lactobacillen en bifidobacteriën worden als gunstig voor de gastheer worden beschouwd. Toename van deze bacteriën of het verhogen van hun activiteit in de dikke darm kan gerealiseerd worden door opname van bepaalde voedingscomponenten, zoals prebiotica, die selectief de groei/activiteit van deze bacteriën stimuleren.

Impact van structurele kenmerken op het antioxidant en prebiotisch potentieel van (arabino)xylanoligosachariden

Welke structurele kenmerken bepalen het gezondheidsprofiel van dieetvezel in tarwe ?

Een goede darmflora kan bijdragen tot de gezondheid van de mens. De laatste jaren is er veel onderzoek gevoerd naar manieren om deze darmflora te sturen. Lactobacillen en bifidobacteriën worden als gunstig voor de gastheer worden beschouwd. Toename van deze bacteriën of het verhogen van hun activiteit in de dikke darm kan gerealiseerd worden door opname van bepaalde voedingscomponenten, zoals prebiotica, die selectief de groei/activiteit van deze bacteriën stimuleren. Prebiotica zijn niet verteerbaar door de mens, maar worden pas in de dikke darm gefermenteerd door de gunstige bacteriën. Recent werd aangetoond dat arabinoxylan-oligosachariden (AXOS) zulke prebiotische eigenschappen vertonen. AXOS kunnen aangemaakt worden door enzymatische afbraak van arabinoxylan, dat een belangrijke dieetvezelcomponenten is in tarwe. Deze AXOS kunnen variëren in ketenlengte en in substitutiegraad met arabinose. Indien deze componenten slechts weinig arabinose in hun structuur hebben, worden ze ook wel xylo-oligosachariden (XOS) genoemd. Bovendien kunnen ze ook variëren in de mate waarin ferulinezuur (FA), een gekend antioxidant, aanwezig is in zijn structuur. Een antioxidant is in staat om schadelijke vrije radicalen te vangen ter vorming van een stabiliserend FA afgeleid radicaal. Na botsing van een ander radicaal kan het radicaal-ketenmechanisme beëindigd worden. Omwille van dit mechanisme zou FA een bescherming kunnen bieden tegen verschillende aandoeningen zoals kanker, diabetis en ziekte van Alzheimer en tegen schadelijke effecten van UV-licht.

De invloed van sommige structurele parameters was reeds uitgebreid onderzocht. Echter de impact van FA op de prebiotische eigenschappen en de mogelijke antioxidanteigenschappen van AXOS was nog niet onderzocht. Tevens was de invloed van de ketenlengte op de fermentatie van XOS nog niet bestudeerd.

Om het eerste onderzoeksdoel in deze studie te realiseren werd gebruik gemaakt van zes AXOS stalen, met een gelijkaardige suikerstructuur maar variërend in het voorkomen van FA. De AXOS waren arm of rijk aan FA, waarbij FA zowel vrij, gebonden of aan elkaar verknoopt voorkwam.  Bovendien werden ook twee XOS stalen met verschillende ketenlengte gebruikt voor de studie van de invloed van de ketenlengte op de prebiotische eigenschappen van XOS.

Meting van de antioxidantcapaciteit van deze AXOS toonde aan dat FA de belangrijkste factor was die de antioxidanteigenschappen van AXOS bepaalde, waarbij ook de vorm waar in het voorkwam een grote invloed had. FA gebonden aan arabinose had nog steeds goede antioxidanteigenschappen, maar deze was wel minder krachtig dan bij vrij FA. Verknoping van FA verlaagde antioxidantcapaciteit nog sterker.

De prebiotische eigenschappen van XOS en AXOS werden bestudeerd met behulp van in vitro fermentatie. Binnen het geteste bereik in ketenlengte werd er geen verschil vastgesteld tussen de fermentatie van kleine en grote XOS. AXOS arm aan FA werden het snelst gefermenteerd en hierdoor werden er sneller gunstige korte keten vetzuren gevormd. Deze korte keten vetzuren hebben belangrijke fysiologische functies in het lichaam en zouden bescherming kunnen bieden tegen darmkanker. Tijdens fermentatie van AXOS zorgden zowel vrij als gebonden FA voor een vertraging van de fermentatie. Een tragere AXOS fermentatie is daarom niet nadelig, aangezien de fermentatie dan verder in de dikke darm zal plaatsvinden, waardoor de gunstige effecten zich ook daar kunnen afspelen. Tenslotte daalde gedurende de fermentatie de antioxidantcapaciteit van de AXOS in de fermentatievloeistof door verdere metabolisatie van vrij FA.

Deze studie toonde aan dat AXOS prebiotische en antioxidanteigenschappen combineren en dat deze eigenschappen afhankelijk zijn van het gehalte en de vorm van FA in AXOS.

AXOS kunnen in toegepast worden in een brede waaier aan levensmiddelen. Hierbij worden graangebaseerde toepassing (brood, pasta, biscuits, …) geprefereerd aangezien de productie van AXOS kan plaatsvinden tijdens de verwerking van het graan tot het eindproduct.

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Universiteit of Hogeschool
Master of Science in de Bio-Ingenieurswetenschappen: Levensmiddelentechnologie
Publicatiejaar
2013
Kernwoorden
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