Chan Cahal: Socio-economic dynamics in an agrarian Maya community in the Blue Creek polity, Northwestern Belize

Dominick Van den Notelaer
“Den boer op”: Mayaboeren in prehistorisch BelizeIn 1925 schreef filosoof Bertrand Russell: “Het klopt dat de middeleeuwen wreed, ridderlijk en vroom waren. Maar als we een tijdsperiode écht willen begrijpen mogen we ze niet ten goede of ten kwade contrasteren met onze eigen periode, maar moeten we ze proberen te begrijpen zoals ze was voor de mensen die erin leefden.

Chan Cahal: Socio-economic dynamics in an agrarian Maya community in the Blue Creek polity, Northwestern Belize

“Den boer op”: Mayaboeren in prehistorisch Belize

In 1925 schreef filosoof Bertrand Russell: “Het klopt dat de middeleeuwen wreed, ridderlijk en vroom waren. Maar als we een tijdsperiode écht willen begrijpen mogen we ze niet ten goede of ten kwade contrasteren met onze eigen periode, maar moeten we ze proberen te begrijpen zoals ze was voor de mensen die erin leefden. Bovenal moeten we beseffen dat in elke historische periode de meeste mensen gewone mensen waren, die zich bezig hielden met hun dagelijks brood, in plaats van zich te bekommeren over de grote thema’s waarmee de meeste historici zich bezig houden”. Russell’s opmerking over de middeleeuwen geldt eveneens voor een heel andere beschaving aan de andere kant van de aardbol. Ook de Maya’s die in Centraal Amerika leefden worden vaak getypeerd aan de hand van enkele stereotypen zoals hun kalendersysteem of mensenoffers. Verder worden ook van deze cultuur de overblijfselen van de “gewone mensen” vaak door archeologen als homogeen, oninteressant en statisch bestempeld. Dat deze stereotypen en vooroordelen over de lagere sociale klassen ook in deze cultuur onterecht zijn, wordt duidelijk wanneer we kijken naar Chan Cahal, een boerensamenleving in de grotere Mayastad Blue Creek.

We dalen af naar Noordwest Belize, waar archeologen dagelijks giftige spinnen en schorpioenen, dodelijke slangen, meedogenloze hitte en tropische stormen trotseren om meer te weten te komen over de oude Maya’s. Met wat geluk spotten ze tijdens hun expedities ook apen, toekans of zelfs een jaguar. Toch is hun aandacht vooral gericht naar wat er zich in de bodem bevindt. In tegenstelling tot sommige andere sites vinden ze in Chan Cahal weinig monumentale bouwwerken of indrukwekkende paleizen, maar des te meer stenen platformen waarop de boeren hun hutjes bouwden. De naam Chan Cahal betekent niet voor niets “kleine huisjes” in de lokale Maya taal.

Over het begin van Chan Cahal is weinig geweten omdat men de vroegste vondsten sterk verstoord aantrof. Wel staat vast dat deze nederzetting rond 900 voor Christus opgestart werd als een kleine gemeenschap die landbouw afwisselde met jagen en verzamelen. Deze vroege startdatum maakt deze nederzetting tot het vroegst bewoonde deel van Blue Creek. Pas enkele eeuwen later, wanneer er ook in de rest van de Mayawereld een duidelijke bevolkingsexplosie waarneembaar is, groeit Chan Cahal sterk en worden ook andere stadsdelen van Blue Creek bevolkt. De economie van Blue Creek ontwikkelt zich hierna in een gestaag tempo door een combinatie van de overschotten die op de velden geproduceerd worden en de locatie nabij de Río Hondo rivier. Hierdoor kunnen de voedseloverschotten makkelijk worden geëxporteerd en kan men controle uitvoeren op de handel tussen de kust en het binnenland. Microscopische analyse heeft aangetoond dat de boeren van Chan Cahal onder andere maïs, bonen, pompoen en cacao teelden.

Als een gevolg hiervan kan Blue Creek grote hoeveelheden aan exotische en prestigieuze goederen importeren, die ook vrij makkelijk hun weg naar de lagere sociale klassen vinden. Zelfs de boeren van Chan Cahal hebben relatief veel artefacten gemaakt uit materialen die elders als exclusief voor de elite worden beschouwd. Nochtans is het duidelijk dat de boeren op zich niet erg rijk waren, aangezien andere tekenen van rijkdom zoals indrukwekkende residenties volledig ontbreken. Prestigieuze goederen waren blijkbaar goedkoop in deze stad. Wel getuigen de luxegoederen in Chan Cahal steevast van een lager vakmanschap en zijn ze minder talrijk, zodat er toch een duidelijk verschil is tussen de luxegoederen van de hoge en de lage klassen.

Rond 500 na Christus zijn er enkele vondsten in het centrum van Blue Creek die door de archeologen geïnterpreteerd worden als tekenen dat de stad veroverd werd door een andere stad. Hoewel er in  sommige stadsdelen niets verandert en de stad als geheel economisch blijft bloeien, heeft dit toch een duidelijke weerslag op Chan Cahal. De lokale elite van Chan Cahal had zich op dat moment in het zuidelijke deel gevestigd en er een centraal complex met twee bescheiden piramiden en een platform voor rituele dansen opgetrokken. Onmiddellijk nadat Blue Creek zijn onafhankelijkheid verliest, trekken zij weg uit dit gebied. Het rituele complex wordt zelfs plotsklaps ten midden van verbouwingen verlaten. Het lijkt er dus op dat de positie van deze elite familie onhoudbaar werd door het wegvallen van de heersers van de stad.

Het wegvallen van de lokale elites creëert een machtsvacuüm dat al snel wordt opgevangen door een nieuwe familie van elites. Het is echter niet duidelijk of deze door een goede strategie en wat geluk deze positie verwierven, of dat zij aangeduid werden door de nieuwe heersers van Blue Creek. Desalniettemin staat vast dat deze familie binnen enkele generaties uitgroeit van enkele arme boeren tot de rijkste en machtigste personen van Chan Cahal. Deze controleren de arbeid op de omringende velden en de in-en uitvoer van goederen in Chan Cahal veel nauwgezetter dan hun voorgangers. Ook laten zij in de velden een complex van kanalen uitgraven om het overvloedige water van de velden weg te laten vloeien en er zo voor te zorgen dat de akkers een maximale opbrengst opleveren. In tegenstelling tot de vorige perioden krijgen de boeren geen toegang meer tot exotische of prestigieuze goederen en worden alle winsten gebruikt om de status van de nieuwe elite op te krikken.

Blue Creek en Chan Cahal blijven dus een sterke positie behouden, tot er in de negende eeuw een echte catastrofe gebeurd in quasi het gehele Mayagebied. Na jaren van aanhoudende droogte mislukken de oogsten keer op keer en kan de grote bevolking niet meer worden gevoed waardoor die zich genoodzaakt ziet weg te trekken op zoek naar een betere toekomst. Meer dan anderhalf millennium nadat hun voorouders zich in dit gebied vestigden, verlaten de boeren van Chan Cahal één voor één hun hutten.

Het zou nog eens een millennium duren alvorens archeologen deze site ontdekken. Hun werk illustreert dat ook de allerlaagste klassen van de Maya samenleving een interessant en dynamisch verleden kenden en is onmisbaar om de Mayacultuur in zijn geheel te begrijpen, in plaats van alleen aandacht te schenken aan de meest imposante restanten. 

Bibliografie

E. M. Abrams, How the Maya Built their World: Energetics and Ancient Architecture, Austin, 1994.

J. Acre, “Imperial Funerals in the Later Roman Empire: Change and Continuity”, in: F. Theuws & J. L. Nelson (eds), Rituals of Power: From Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages, Leiden, Boston & Köln, 2000, p. 115-129.

R. E. W. Adams, V. Scarborough, L. Levi, S. Walling, N. P. Dunning, B. Lewis, L. Shaw, E. King, L. A. Sullivan, K. Reese-Taylor & F. Valdez Jr. , “Programme for Belize Archaeological Project: A History of Archaeological Research”, Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 1 (2004), p. 175-183.

R. E. W. Adams, H. R. Robichaux, F. Valdez Jr. , B. A. Houk & R. Matthews, “Transformations, Periodicity, and Urban Development in the Three Rivers Region”, in: A. A. Demarest, P. M. Rice & D. S. Rice (eds), The Terminal Classic in the Maya Lowlands: Collapse, Transition, and Transformation, Boulder, 2004, p. 324-341.

J. J. Aimers, “What Maya Collapse? Terminal Classic Variation in the Maya Lowlands”, Journal of Archaeological Research 15 (2007), p. 329-377.

J. J. Aimers, T. G. Powis & J. J. Awe, “Preclassic Round Structures of the Upper Belize River Valley”, Latin American Antiquity 11.1 (2000), p. 71-86.

W. Ashmore, “Ode to a Dragline: Demographic Reconstructions at Classic Quirigua”, in: P. T. Culbert & D. S. Rice (eds), Precolumbian Population History in the Maya Lowlands, Albuquerque, 1990, p. 63-82.

M. A. Astor-Aguilera, The Maya World of Communicating Objects: Quadripartite Crosses, Trees, and Stones, Albuquerque, 2010.

R. E. Baker, “Status Report on the Settlement Survey”, in: T. H. Guderjan, D. W. Driver & H. R. Haines (eds), Archaeological Research at Blue Creek Belize: Progress of the Fourth (1995) Field Season, San Antonio, 1996, p. 109-116.

J. L. Baker, “Investigations in the Ditched Agricultural Fields”, in: D. W. Driver, H. R. Haines & H. L. Clagett (eds), The Blue Creek Project: Working Papers from the 1996 Field Season, San Antonio, 1997, p. 71-86.

J. L. Baker, Maya Wetlands Ecology and Pre-Hispanic Utilization of Wetlands in Northwestern Belize, Unpublished PhD Dissertation, Arizona, 2003.

M.L. Barlett & P. A. McAnany, “’Crafting’ Communities: The Materialization of Formative Maya Identities”, in: M. A. Canuto & J. Yaeger (eds), The Archaeology of Communities: A New World Perspective, London & New York, 2000, p. 102-122.

J. W. Barret, Prehistoric Dock and Dam Feature Excavations: Blue Creek Operation 54 Investigations (Manuscript on File), Forth Worth, 2002.

J. W. Barret, Constructing Hierarchy through Entitlement: Inequality in Lithic Resource Access among the Ancient Maya of Blue Creek, Belize, Unpublished PhD Dissertation, College Station, 2004.

J. W. Barret, “Rethinking Long-Distance Exchange and the Economic Interdependence of Maya Sites during the Late Preclassic Period: The View from Northern Belize”, Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 3 (2006), p. 131-142.

J. W. Barret & T. H. Guderjan, “An Ancient Maya Dock and Dam Complex at Blue Creek, Rio Hondo, Belize”, Latin American Antiquity 17.2 (2006), p. 227-239.

T. B. Beach & S. Luzzadder-Beach, “Geoarchaeological Investigations at Blue Creek, 2003”, in: Jon C. Lohse (ed.), 2003 Summaries of the Blue Creek Regional Political Ecology Project, Upper Northwestern Belize, Forth Worth & Austin, 2004, p. 29-32.

T. B. Beach & S. Luzzadder-Beach, “Blue Creek 2004 Field Season Report: Geomorphology, Pollen, and Hydrology Investigations”, in: J. C. Lohse & K. L. Sagebiel (eds), 2004 Summaries of the Blue Creek Regional Political Economy Project, Upper Northwestern Belize, Forth Worth & Austin, 2005, p. 43-53.

T. B. Beach & S. Luzzadder-Beach, “Field Report from Wetland Hydrology and Geomorphology Team”, in: T. H. Guderjan, T. Preston, T. B. Beach & S. Luzzadder-Beach (eds), Blue Creek Archaeological Project: Report of 2006 Fieldwork, Forth Worth, 2007, p. 65-79.

T. B. Beach, S. Luzzadder-Beach, N. P. Dunning, J. Hageman & J. C. Lohse, “Upland Agriculture in the Maya Lowlands: Ancient Maya Soil Conservation in Northwestern Belize”, Geographical Review 92.3 (2002), p. 372-397.

T. B. Beach, S. Luzzadder-Beach, J. C. Lohse & L. A. Sullivan, “2005 Field Report from Wetland Hydrology and Geomorphology”, in: J. C. Lohse (ed.), Final Season Summaries of the Blue Creek Regional Political Ecology Project: 2005 Investigations in Upper Northwestern Belize, Forth Worth & Austin, 2007, p. 96-104.

T. B. Beach, S. Luzzadder-Beach, N. P. Dunning, J. G. Jones, J. C. Lohse, T. H. Guderjan, S. R. Bozarth, S. Millspaugh & T. Bhattacharya, “A Review of Human and Natural Changes in Maya Lowland Wetlands over the Holocene”, Quaternary Science Reviews 28 (2009), p. 1710-1724.

T. B. Beach, S. Luzzadder-Beach & J. C. Lohse, “Landscape Formation and Agriculture in the Wetlands of Northwestern Belize”, in: J. C. Lohse (ed.), Classic Maya Political Ecology: Resource Management, Class Histories, and Political Change in Northwestern Belize, Los Angeles, 2013, p. 43-67.

P. Bonnafoux, “Waters, Droughts, and Early Classic Maya Worldviews”, in: C. Isendahl & B. Liljefors-Persson (eds), Ecology, Power, and Religion in Maya Landscapes, Markt Schwaben, 2011, p. 31-48.

S. R. Bozarth, “Analyses of Biosilicates and Particulate Charcoal at U Xulil Beh, Bedrock and Blue Creek”, in: T. H. Guderjan, J. W. Barret &Tim Preston (eds), Seventeenth Sojourn: The 2008 Season of the Blue Creek Archaeological Project, Forth Worth, 2009, p. 141-148.

S. R. Bozarth & T. H. Guderjan, “Evidence of Agriculture and Ceremonies Based on Biosilicate Analysis”, in: T. H. Guderjan & R. J. Lichtenstein (eds), Working Papers of the Blue Creek Project 1998 & 1999 Field Seasons, San Antonio, 2002, p. 101-126.

S. R. Bozarth & T. H. Guderjan, “Biosilicate Analysis of Residue in Maya Dedicatory Cache Vessels from Blue Creek, Belize”, Journal of Archaeological Science 31 (2004), p. 205-215.

K. M. Brown, “Establishing Hierarchies in the Middle Preclassic Belize River Valley” Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 5 (2008), p. 175-184.

L. A. Brown, S. E. Simmons & P. Sheets, “Household Production of Extra-Household Ritual at the Cerén Site, El Salvador”, in: P. Plunket (ed.), Domestic Ritual in Ancient Mesoamerica, Los Angeles, 2002, p. 83-92.

K. M. Brown & J. F. Garber, “The Role of Public Architecture and Ritual in the Rise of Complexity: An Example from Blackman Eddy, Belize”, Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 2 (2005), p. 53-65.

P. J. Buttles, L. A. Sullivan & F. Valdez Jr. , “Early Classic Manifestations in Northern Belize”, Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 2 (2005), p. 99-109.

J. Cartwright-Gerhardt, Preclassic Maya Architecture at Cuello, Belize, Oxford, 1988.

J. Cartwright-Gerhardt & N. Hammond, “The Community of Cuello: The Ceremonial Core”, in: N. Hammond (ed.), Cuello: An Early Maya Community in Belize, Cambridge, New York, Port Chester, Melbourne & Sydney, 1991, p. 98-117.

D. Z. Chase, “The Invisible Maya: Population History and Archaeology at Santa Rita Corozal”, in: P. T. Culbert & D. S. Rice (eds), Precolumbian Population History in the Maya Lowlands, Albuquerque, 1990, p. 199-213.

D. Z. Chase, “Postclassic Maya Elites: Etnohistory and Archaeology”, in: D. Z. Chase & A. F. Chase (eds), Mesoamerican Elites, An Archaeological Assessment, Norman, 1992, p. 118-134.

D. Z. Chase & A. F. Chase, “Yucatec Influence in Terminal Classic Northern Belize”, American Antiquity 47.3 (1982), p. 596-614.

A. F. Chase & D. Z. Chase, “Terminal Classic Status-Linked Ceramics and the Maya “Collapse”: De Facto Refuse at Caracol, Belize”, in: A. A. Demarest, P. M. Rice & D. S. Rice (eds), The Terminal Classic in the Maya Lowlands: Collapse, Transition, and Transformation, Boulder, 2004, p. 342-366.

D. Z. Chase & A. F. Chase, “Archaeological Perspectives on Classic Maya Social Organization from Caracol, Belize”, Ancient Mesoamerica 15.1 (2004), p. 139-147.

H. L. Clagett, “Household Archaeology at Chan Cahal: A Step Beyond Functionalism” in: D. W. Driver, H. R. Haines & H. L. Clagett (eds), The Blue Creek Project: Working Papers from the 1996 Field Season, San Antonio, 1997, p. 71-78.

D. L. Clarke, Analytical Archaeology, London, 1968.

S. C. Clayton, “Summary of Fieldwork at the Rio Hondo House Mound Hinterland Settlement, Blue Creek, Belize 2002”, in: J. C. Lohse (ed.), Blue Creek Regional Political Ecology Project: 2001 and 2002 Research Summaries, Austin, 2003, p. 25-38.

S. C. Clayton, “Hinterland Diversity and Ancient Maya Political Economy in Northwestern Belize”, in: J. C. Lohse (ed.), Classic Maya Political Ecology: Resource Management, Class Histories, and Political Change in Northwestern Belize, Los Angeles, 2013, p. 171-192.

S. C. Clayton, D. W. Driver & L. J. Kosakowsky, “Rubbish or Ritual? Contextualizing a Terminal Classic Problematical Deposit at Blue Creek, Belize: A response to 'Public Architecture, Ritual, and Temporal Dynamics at the Maya Center of Blue Creek, Belize' by Thomas H. Guderjan”, Ancient Mesoamerica 16.1 (2005), p. 119-130.

S. D. Coe & M. D. Coe, The True History of Chocolate, London, 1996.

P. T. Culbert, “Maya Development and Collapse: An Economic Perspective”, in: N. Hammond (ed.), Social Process in Maya Prehistory: Studies in Honour of Sir Eric Thompson, London, New York & San Francisco, 1977, p. 509-530.

P. T. Culbert, L. J. Kosakowsky, R. E. Fry & W. A. Haviland, “The Population of Tikal, Guatemala”, in: P. T. Culbert & D. S. Rice (eds), Precolumbian Population History in the Maya Lowlands, Albuquerque, 1990, p. 103-121.

D. E. Currid, “Excavations at Structure 60 Patio Group”, in: T. H. Guderjan & R. J. Lichtenstein (eds), Working Papers of the Blue Creek Project 1998 & 1999 Field Seasons, San Antonio, 2002, p. 95-99.

D. de Landa, Yucatan Before and After the Conquest (Original title: Relación de las Cosas de Yucatan, Madrid, 1566), Translated by W. Gates, New York, 1978.

A. A. Demarest, Ancient Maya: The Rise and Fall of a Rainforest Civilization, Cambridge, 2004.

A. A Demarest, P. M. Rice & D. S. Rice, “The Terminal Classic in the Maya Lowlands: Assessing Collapses, Terminations, and Transformations”, in: A. A. Demarest, P. M. Rice & D. S. Rice (eds), The Terminal Classic in the Maya Lowlands: Collapse, Transition, and Transformation, Boulder, 2004, p. 545-572.

W. M. Denevan, “Hydraulic Agriculture in the American Tropics: Forms, Measures, and Recent Research”, in: K. V. Flannery (ed.), Maya Subsistence, Studies in Memory of Dennis E. Puleston, New York, 1982, p. 181-203.

M. L. Dreiss & D. O. Brown, “Obsidian Exchange Patterns in Belize”, in: P. A. McAnany & B. L. Isaac (eds), Prehistoric Maya Economies of Belize, Greenwich & London, 1989, p. 57-90.

D. W. Driver, “An Early Classic Colonnaded Building at the Maya Site of Blue Creek, Belize”, Latin American Antiquity 13.1 (2002), p. 63-84.

D. W. Driver, “Inter-Community Architectural Variation: Excavations Conducted in the Blue Creek Settlement Zone”, in: J. C. Lohse (ed.), 2003 Summaries of the Blue Creek Regional Political Ecology Project, Upper Northwestern Belize, Forth Worth, 2004, p. 53-80.

D. W. Driver, The Construction of Intrapolity Sociopolitical Identity Through Architecture at the Ancient Maya City of Blue Creek, Belize, Unpublished PhD Dissertation, Carbondale, 2008.

D. W. Driver & L. J. Kosakowsky, “Transforming Identities and Shifting Goods: Tracking Sociopolitical Change through the Monumental Architecture and Ceramic Assemblage at Blue Creek, in: J. C. Lohse (ed.), Classic Maya Political Ecology: Resource Management, Class Histories, and Political Change in Northwestern Belize, Los Angeles, 2013, p. 69-98.

N. P. Dunning, “Down on the Farm: Classic Maya ‘Homesteads’ as ‘Farmsteads’”, in: J. C. Lohse & F. Valdez Jr. (eds), Ancient Maya Commoners, Austin, 2004, p. 97-116.

N. P. Dunning, S. Luzzadder-Beach, T. Beach, J. G. Jones, V. Scarborough & T. P. Culbert, “Arising from the Bajos: The Evolution of a Neotropical Landscape and the Rise of Maya Civilization”, Annals of the Association of American Geographers 92, 2002, p. 267-283.

F. Estrada-Belli, The First Maya Civilization, Ritual and Power Before the Classic Period, London & New York, 2011.

S. L. Fedick, “The Economics of Agricultural Land Use and Settlement in the Upper Belize Valley”, in: P. A. McAnany & B. L. Isaac (eds), Prehistoric Maya Economies of Belize, Greenwich & London, 1989, p. 215-253.

K. V. Flannery, “The Origins of the Village Revisited: From Nuclear to Extended Households”, American Antiquity 67.3 (2002), p. 417-433.

A. E. Foias, Ancient Maya Political Dynamics, Gainesville, 2013.

D. A. Freidel & V. Scarborough, “Subsistence, Trade, and Development of the Coastal Maya”, in: K. V. Flannery (ed.), Maya Subsistence, Studies in Memory of Dennis E. Puleston, New York, 1982, p. 131-155.

D. A. Freidel & L. Schele, “Kingship in the Late Preclassic Maya Lowlands: The Instruments and Places of Ritual Power”, American Anthropologist, New Series 90.3 (1988), p. 574-567.

D. A. Freidel, L. Schele & J. Parker, Maya Cosmos: Three Thousand Years on the Shaman’s Path, New York, 1993.

J. L. Fitzsimmons, Death and the Classic Maya Kings, Austin, 2009.

J. L. Fitzsimmons, “Perspectives on Death and Transformation in Ancient Maya Society: Human Remains as a Means to an End”, in: J. L. Fitzsimmons & I. Shimada (eds), Living with the Dead: Mortuary Ritual in Mesoamerica, Tuscon, 2011, p. 53-77.

R. E. Fry, “Regional Ceramic Distributional Patterning in Northern Belize: The View from Pulltrouser Swamp”, in: P. A. McAnany & B. L. Isaac (eds), Prehistoric Maya Economies of Belize, Greenwich & London, 1989, p. 91-111.

J. Garber & J. J. Awe, “A Terminal Early Formative Symbol System in the Maya Lowlands: The Iconography of the Cunil Phase (1100-900 BC) at Cahal Pech”, Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 6 (2009), p. 151-159.

J. Garber, K. M. Brown, J. J. Awe & C. J. Hartman, “The Terminal Early Formative Kanocha Phase (1100-900 B.C.) at Blackman Eddy”, Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 1 (2004), p. 13-25.

A. A. Giacometti, “Untitled Paper on Sayap Ha Excavations” (Manuscript on file at the Maya Research Program), 2001.

A. A. Giacometti, The Role of Plaza Complexes in Hinterland Settlements at the Maya Site of Blue Creek, Belize, Unpublished Master thesis, London, 2002.

A. Giacometti, B. Andrews & T. Preston, Excavations at the Housemounds of Sayap’ha and Chan Cahal: 2002 Season, Unpublished Research Report, 2002.

A. Giddens, The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration, Cambridge & Oxford, 1986.

R. B. Gill, The Great Maya Droughts: Water, Life, and Death, Albuquerque, 2010.

S. D. Gillespie, “Rethinking Ancient Maya Social Organization: Replacing Lineage with House”, American Anthropologist, New Series 102.3 (2000), p. 467-484.

N. Gonlin, “Ritual and Ideology among Classic Maya Rural Commoners at Copán, Honduras”, in: N. Gonlin & J. C. Lohse (eds), Commoner Ritual and Ideology in Ancient Mesoamerica, Boulder, 2007, p. 83-121.

J. J. González, “Rural Settlement, Landscape Roles, and Political Change during the Classic Era in Northwestern Belize”, in: J. C. Lohse (ed.), Classic Maya Political Ecology: Resource Management, Class Histories, and Political Change in Northwestern Belize, Los Angeles, 2013, p. 149-170.

E. A. Graham, “Lamanai Reloaded: Alive and Well in the Postclassic”, Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 1 (2004), p. 223-241.

D. Graña-Behrens & N. Grube, “Glossary”, in: N. Grube (ed.), Maya: Divine Kings of the Rainforest, Potsdam, 2006, p. 428-439.

N. Grube, “Cacao- The Beverage of the Gods”, in: N. Grube (ed.), Maya: Divine Kings of the Rainforest, Potsdam, 2006, p. 32-33.

T. H. Guderjan, Patterns of Maya Jade Disposal at Blue Creek, Belize, Unpublished Paper, 2004.

T. H. Guderjan, “Public Architecture, Ritual, and Temporal Dynamics at the Maya Center of Blue Creek, Belize”, Ancient Mesoamerica 15 (2004), p. 1-17.

T. H. Guderjan, The Economic Base of an Ancient Maya City, Research report submitted to Culture and Agriculture, 2005.

T. H. Guderjan, “The Early Classic Period at the Maya Site of Blue Creek, Belize”, Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 2 (2005), p. 131-141.

T. H. Guderjan, The Nature of an Ancient Maya City: Resources, Interaction, and Power at Blue Creek, Belize, Tuscaloosa, 2007.

T. H. Guderjan, “Current Research Domains at Blue Creek”, in: T. H. Guderjan, J. W. Barret & T. Preston (eds), Seventeenth Sojourn: The 2008 Season of the Blue Creek Archaeological Project, Forth Worth, 2009, p. 5-13.

T. H. Guderjan, ”Power and Authority in an Ancient Maya City”, Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 6 (2009), p. 118-136.

T. H. Guderjan, “Developing Models of Maya Trade with Data from Ambergris Caye and Blue Creek, Belize”, Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 9 (2012), p. 157-167.

T. H. Guderjan & C. C. Hanratty, “A Thriving Non-Royal Lineage at Blue Creek: Evidence from a Sequence of Burials, Caches and Architecture” Acta Mesoamericana 19 (2006), s.p.

T. H. Guderjan & C. C. Hanratty, “Factors of Stress and Processes Leading to the End of the Classic Period at Blue Creek” Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 4 (2007), p. 155-165.

T. H. Guderjan & S. Krause, “Identifying the Extent of Ancient Maya Ditched Field Systems in the Rio Hondo Valley of Belize and Mexico: A Pilot Study and Some of its Implications”, Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 8 (2011), p. 127-136.

T. H. Guderjan, H. R. Haines, M. Lindeman, S. Mock, E. Rubble, F. Salam & L. Worcester, Excavations at the Blue Creek Ruin: 1992 Interim Report, San Antonio, 1993.

T. H. Guderjan, R.J. Lichtenstein & C. C. Hanratty, “Elite Residences at Blue Creek, Belize”, in: J. J. Christie (ed.), Maya Palaces and Elite Residences: An Interdisciplinary Approach, Austin, 2003, p. 13-45.

T. H. Guderjan, J. Baker & R. J. Lichtenstein, “Environmental and Cultural Diversity at Blue Creek”, in: V. L. Scarborough, F. Valdez Jr. & N. P. Dunning (eds), Heterarchy, Political Economy, and the Ancient Maya: The Three Rivers Region of the East-Central Yucatán Penninsula, Tuscon, 2003, p. 77-91.

H. R. Haines, “A Preliminary Discussion of Preclassic Midden Deposits at Structure 9” in: T. H. Guderjan, D. W. Driver & H. R. Haines (eds), Archaeological Research at Blue Creek, Belize. Progress Report of the Fourth (1995) Field Season, San Antonio, 1996, p. 85-108.

H. R. Haines, ”Continuing Excavations of Preclassic Middens at Structure 9” in: D. W. Driver, H. L. Clagett & H. R. Haines (eds), The Blue Creek Project: Working Papers from the 1996 Field Season, San Antonio, 1997, p. 19-24.

H. R. Haines, Intra-Site Obsidian Distribution and Consumption Patterns in Northwestern Belize and the North-eastern Peten, Unpublished PhD Dissertation, London, 2000.

H. R. Haines & D. Wilhelmy, “Continued Excavations at the Structure 25 Courtyard”, in: David W. Driver, Helen R. Haines & Thomas H. Guderjan (eds), The Blue Creek Project: Working Papers of the 1997 Season, San Antonio, 1999, p. 49-57.

N. Hammond, “New Light on the Most Ancient Maya”, Man, New Series 28 (1986), p. 398-413.

N. Hammond, “Preclassic Maya Civilization” in: E. C. Danien & R. J. Sharer (eds), New Theories on the Ancient Maya, Philadelphia, 1992, p. 137-144.

N. Hammond, “The Origins of Maya Civilization – The Beginnings of Village Life”, in: N. Grube (ed.), Maya: Divine Kings of the Rainforest, Potsdam, 2006, p. 35-46.

G. Hammond, Water, Stone and Soil: A Preliminary Investigation into the Location of Selected Sites in Far North-west Belize in Relation to Critical Natural Resources, Unpublished Master Thesis, London, 2009.

N. Hammond, “Maya Miscitata”, Antiquity 83 (2009), p. 528-534.

N. Hammond & J. Cartwright-Gerhardt, “Early Maya Architectural Innovation at Cuello, Belize”, World Archaeology 21.3 (1990), p. 461-481.

N. Hammond, J. Cartwright-Gerhardt & S. Donahghey, “Stratigraphy and Chronology in the Reconstruction of Preclassic Development at Cuello”, in: N. Hammond (ed.), Cuello: An Early Maya Community in Belize, Cambridge, New York, Port Chester, Melbourne & Sydney, 1991, p. 23-55.

C. C. Hanratty, “2007 Excavations at Kín Tan”, in: T. H. Guderjan, S. Luzzadder-Beach, C. C. Hanratty, T. Preston & S. Shaw (eds), Blue Creek Archaeological Project: Report of 2007 Fieldwork, San Antonio, 2008, p. 31-40.

C. C. Hanratty & D. W. Driver, ““Excavations at the Structure 37 Courtyard”, in: D. W. Driver, H. L. Clagett & H. R. Haines (eds), The Blue Creek Project: Working Papers from the 1996 Field Season, San Antonio, 1997, p. 51-59.

T. S. Hare & M. A. Masson, “Intermediate-Scale Patterns in the Urban Environment of Postclassic Mayapan”, in: M. C. Arnauld, L. R. Manzanilla & M. E. Smith (eds), The Neighborhood as a Social and Spatial Unit in Mesoamerican Cities, Tuscon, 2012, p. 229-260.

P. D. Harrison & R. E. Fry, Pulltrouser Swamp: A Lowland Maya Community Cluster in Northern Belize; the Settlement Maps, Salt Lake City, 2000.

E. Harrison-Buck, “At the Crossroads in the Middle Belize Valley: Modeling Networks of Ritual Interaction in Belize from Classic to Colonial Times”, Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 7 (2010), p. 85-94.

W. A. Haviland, “Family Size, Prehistoric Population Estimates, and the Ancient Maya”, American Antiquity 37.1 (1972), p. 135-139.

J. A. Hendon, “The Preclassic Maya Compound as the Focus of Social Identity”, in: D. C. Grove & R. A. Joyce (eds), Social Patterns in Pre-Classic Mesoamerica, Washington D. C. 1999, p. 97-125.

J. A. Hendon, “Living and Working at Home: The Social Archaeology of Household Production and Social Relations”, in: L. Meskell & R. W. Preucel (eds), A Companion to Social Archaeology, Malden, Oxford &Victoria, 2004, p. 272-286.

K. Hirth, “Interregional Exchange as Elite Behavior: An Evolutionary Perspective”, in: D. Z. Chase & A. F. Chase (eds), Mesoamerican Elites, An Archaeological Assessment, Norman, 1992, p. 18-29.

I. R. Hodder, Entangled: An Archaeology of the Relationships between Humans and Things, West Sussex, 2012.

I. R. Hodder & C. Orton, Spatial Analysis in Archaeology, Cambridge, London, New York & Melbourne, 1976.

D. A. Hodell, M. Brenner, J. H. Curtis & T. Guilderson, “Solar Forcing of Drought Frequency in the Maya Lowlands”, Science 292, p. 1367-1370.

B. A. Houk & J. C. Lohse, “Northwestern Belize and the Central Lowland Classic World”, in: J. C. Lohse (ed.), Classic Maya Political Ecology: Resource Management, Class Histories, and Political Change in Northwestern Belize, Los Angeles, 2013, p. 25-41.

S. D. Houston, “Impersonation, Dance, and the Problem of Spectacle Among the Classic Maya”, in: T. Inomata & L. S. Coben (eds), Archaeology of Performance: Theaters of Power, Community, and Politics, Lanham, 2006, p. 135-155.

S. D. Houston & T. Inomata, The Classic Maya, Cambridge, 2009.

S. D. Houston & D. Stuart, “Peopling the Classic Maya Court”, in: T. Inomata & S. D. Houston (eds), Royal Courts of the Ancient Maya (Vol. 1: Theory, Comparison, and Synthesis), Boulder & Oxford, 2001, p. 54-83.

S. D. Houston, D. Stuart & K. A. Taube, The Memory of Bones: Body, Being, and Experience among the Classic Maya, Austin 2006.

J. W. Hurst, S. M. Tarka Jr, T. G. Powis, F. Valdez Jr & T. R. Hester, “Archaeology: Cacao Usage by the Earliest Maya Civilization”, Nature 418 (2002), p. 289-290.

T. Inomata, “The Spatial Mobility of Non-Elite Populations in Classic Maya Society and its Political Implications”, in: J. C. Lohse & F. Valdez Jr. (eds), Ancient Maya Commoners, Austin, 2004, p. 175-196.

T. Inomata, “Plazas, Performers, and Spectators: Political Theaters of the Classic Maya”, Current Anthropology 47.5 (2006), p. 805-842.

T. Inomata, “Politics and Theatricality in Mayan Society”, in: T. Inomata & L. S. Coben (eds), Archaeology of Performance: Theaters of Power, Community, and Politics, Lanham, 2006, p. 187-221.

T. Inomata & L. R. Stiver, “Floor Assemblages from Burned Structures at Aguateca, Guatemala: A Study of Classic Maya Households”, Journal of Field Archaeology 25.4 (1998), p. 431-452.

J. S. Jacob, “Ancient Maya Wetland Agricultural Fields in Cobweb Swamp, Belize: Construction, Chronology, and Function”, Journal of Field Archaeology 22.2 (1995), p. 175-190.

M. E. R. G. N. Jansen, “Archaeology and Indigenous Peoples: Attitudes towards Power in Ancient Oaxaca”, in: J. Bintliff (ed.) A Companion to Archaeology, Oxford, 2004, p. 235-252.

K. J. Johnston & N. Gonlin, “What do Houses Mean? Approaches to the Analysis of Classic Maya Commoner Residences”, in: S. D. Houston (ed.), Function and Meaning in Classic Maya Architecture, Washington, 1998, p. 141-185.

T. A. Kohler, “Complex Systems and Archaeology”, in: I. R. Hodder (ed.), Archaeological Theory Today: Second Edition, Cambridge & Malden, 2012, p. 93-123.

L. J. Kosakowsky, “The Formative Ceramic Sequences of Cuello, Belize”, in: P. M. Rice & R. J. Sharer (eds), Maya Ceramics, Papers from the 1985 Maya Ceramic Conference (Vol. 1), Oxford, 1987, p. 15-35.

L. J. Kosakowsky, Chan Cahal Structure Chronology, Unpublished Working Report, 2002.

L. J. Kosakowsky & J. C. Lohse, Investigating Multivariate Ceramic Attributes as Clues to Ancient Maya Social, Economic, and Political Organization in Blue Creek, Northwestern Belize, Research Report Submitted to the Ahau Foundation, 2003.

A. Kroll, “Agricultural Terraces at U Xulil Beh Beh: 2008 Field Season”, in: T. H. Guderjan, J. W. Barret &T. Preston (eds), Seventeenth Sojourn: The 2008 Season of the Blue Creek Archaeological Project, Forth Worth, 2009, p. 45-46.

E. B. Kurjack, “Palace and Society in the Northern Maya Lowlands”, in: J. J. Christie (ed.), Maya Palaces and Elite Residences: An Interdisciplinary Approach, Austin, 2003, p. 274-290.

M. Lamoureux St-Hilaire, The Last Inhabitants of Minanha: Examining the Differential Abandonment of an Ancient Maya Community, Unpublished Master Thesis, Ontario, 2011.

M. Lamoureux St-Hilaire, Interpreting Abandonment: A Behavioral-Contextual Approach to On-Floor Assemblages, Paper presented at the 18th European Maya Conference, Brussels, 2013.

E. Lemonnier, “Neighborhoods in Classic Lowland Maya Societies: Their Identification and Definition from the La Joyanca Case Study (Northwestern Petén, Guatemala), in: M. C. Arnauld, L. R. Manzanilla & M. E. Smith (eds), The Neighborhood as a Social and Spatial Unit in Mesoamerican Cities, Tuscon, 2012, p. 181-201.

G. Lene, “Geology of the Blue Creek Region”, in: D. W. Driver, H. L. Clagett & H. R. Haines (eds), The Blue Creek Project: Working Papers from the 1996 Field Season, San Antonio, 1997, p. 13-17.

C. Lévi-Strauss, The Way of the Masks (Original title: La Voie des Masques, Genève, 1975), translated by S. Modelski, Cape, 1982.

R. J. Lichtenstein, “The Blue Creek Testing Program”, in: W. D. Driver, H. R. Haines & T. H. Guderjan (eds), The Blue Creek Project: Working Papers from the 1997 Field Season, San Antonio, 1999, p. 59-70.

R. J. Lichtenstein, Settlement Zone Communities of the Greater Blue Creek Area (Maya Research Program Occasional Papers 2), Forth Worth, 2000.

J. C. Lohse, “Project Overview”, in: J. C. Lohse (ed.), Blue Creek Regional Economy Project: 2001 and 2002 Research Overviews, Austin, 2003, p. 3-19.

J. C. Lohse, “Commoner Ritual, Commoner Ideology: (Sub-)Alternate Views of Social Complexity in Prehispanic Mesoamerica”, in: N. Gonlin & J. C. Lohse (eds), Commoner Ritual and Ideology in Ancient Mesoamerica, Boulder, 2007, p. 1-32.

J. C. Lohse, “Alienating Ancient Maya Commoners”, Archaeological Papers of the American Anthropology Association 23.1 (2014), p. 81-94.

J. C. Lohse & K. A. Sagebiel, “Ritual Continuity, Ballcourts, and Community at Gran Cacao, Upper Northwestern Belize”, Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 3 (2006), p. 313-328.

J. C. Lohse, E. S. Cooper, J. Hennessee Cooper, T. B. Beach, S. Luzzadder-Beach, M. Wolf, K. Gardella & K. A. Cox, “Aerial Survey and Photogrammetric Documentation of Ancient Maya Canals in Northwestern Belize”, in: J. C. Lohse (ed.), Blue Creek Regional Economy Project: 2001 and 2002 Research Overviews, Austin, 2003, p. 53-70.

J. C. Lohse, K. L. Sagebiel & J. P. Baron, “The Ball Game, Community Ceremony, and Political Development In Northwestern Belize”, in: J. C. Lohse (ed.), Classic Maya Political Ecology: Resource Management, Class Histories, and Political Change in Northwestern Belize, Los Angeles, 2013, p. 99-125.

M. W. Love, “Style and Social Complexity in Southeastern Mesoamerica”, in: W. R. Fowler (ed.), The Formation of Complex Society in Southeastern Mesoamerica, Boca Raton, 1991, p. 47-76.

C. Loveluck & D. Tys, “Coastal Societies, Exchange and Identity Along the Channel and Southern North Sea Shores of Europe, AD 600–1000”, Journal of Maritime Archaeology 1 (2006), p. 140-169.

L. J. Lucero, “The Collapse of the Classic Maya: A Case for the Role of Water Control”, American Anthropologist, New Series 104.3 (2002), p. 814-826.

S. Luzzadder-Beach & T. B. Beach, “Water Chemistry Constraints and Possibilities for the Ancient and Contemporary Maya Lowlands”, in: T. H. Guderjan, S. Luzzadder-Beach, C. C. Hanratty, T. Preston & S. Shaw (eds), Blue Creek Archaeological Project: Report of 2007 Fieldwork, San Antonio, 2008, p. 43-54.

S. Luzzadder-Beach & T. B. Beach, “Arising from the Wetlands: Mechanisms and Chronology of Landscape Aggradation in the Northern Coastal Plain of Belize”, Annals of the Association of American Geographers 99.1 (2009), p. 1-26.

S. Luzzadder-Beach, T. B. Beach & N. P. Dunning, “Wetland Fields as Mirrors of Drought and the Maya Abandonment”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109.10 (2012), p. 3646-3651.

M. A. Masson & C. Peraza Lope, “Commoners in Postclassic Maya Society: Social Versus Economic Class Constructs”, in: J. C. Lohse & F. Valdez Jr. (eds), Ancient Maya Commoners, Austin, 2004, p. 197-223.

J. Marcus, “Maya Commoners: The Stereotype and the Reality”, in: J. C. Lohse & F. Valdez Jr. (eds), Ancient Maya Commoners, Austin, 2004, p. 255-283.

S. Martin & N. Grube, Chronicle of the Maya Kings and Queens: Deciphering the Dynasties of the Ancient Maya, London, 2008 (2nd ed.).

M. Mauss, “Essai sur le Don, Forme et Raison de l'Echange dans les Sociétés Archaïques” L'Année Sociologique 12 (1925), p. 30-186.

P. A. Mcanany, “Water Storage in the Puuc Region of the Northern Maya Lowlands: A Key to Population Estimates and Architectural Variability”, in: P. T. Culbert & D. S. Rice (eds), Precolumbian Population History in the Maya Lowlands, Albuquerque, 1990, p. 263-284.

P. A. McAnany, Living with the Ancestors: Kinship and Kingship in Ancient Maya Society, Austin, 1995.

P. A. McAnany & S. L. López Varela, “Re-creating the Formative Maya Village of K’axob: Chronology, Ceramic Complexes, and Ancestors in Architectural Context”, Ancient Mesoamerica 10 (1999), p. 147-168.

H. I. McKillop, “Ancient Maya Trading Ports and the Integration of Long-Distance and Regional Economies: Wild Cane Cay in South-Coastal Belize”, Ancient Mesoamerica 7 (1996), p. 49-62.

H. I. Mckillop, The Ancient Maya: New Perspectives, Santa Barbara, 2004.

M. E. Miller & K. A. Taube, An Illustrated Dictionary of the Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya, London, 1993.

S. G. Morley & G. W. Brainerd, The Ancient Maya, Stanford, 1956 (3rd ed.).

J. Nielsen, “The Queen’s Mirrors: Interpreting the Iconography of Two Teotihuacan Style Mirrors from the Early Classic Margarita Tomb at Copan”, PARI Journal 6.4 (2006), p. 1-8.

A. C. Novotny & L. J. Kosakowsky, “Burials and Caches from the Chan Site E-Group: A Bioarchaeological Perspective on Ritual and Social Complexity at an Ancient Maya Farming Community”, Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 6 (2009), p. 73-81.

J. R. Oliver, Caciques and Cemí Idols: The Web Spun by Taíno Rulers between Hispaniola and Puerto Rico, Tuscaloosa, 2009.

D. V. Pastrana, “An Analysis of the Jades of the Structure 4 Shaft Cache”, in: W. D. Driver, H. R. Haines & T. H. Guderjan (eds), The Blue Creek Project: Working Papers from the 1997 Season, San Antonio, 1999, p. 95-114.

M. C. Peel, B. L. Finlayson & T. Y. McMahon, “Updated World Map of the Koppen-Geiger Climate Classification”, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 11, 2007, p. 1633-1644.

D. M. Pendergast, Excavations at Altun Ha, Belize, 1964-1970 (Vol. 2), Toronto, 1982.

D. A. Philips & W. L. Rathje, “Streets Ahead: Exchange Values and the Rise of the Classic Maya”, in: N. Hammond (ed.), Social Process in Maya Prehistory: Studies in Honour of Sir Eric Thompson, London, New York & San Francisco, 1977, p. 103-112.

C. P. Popson, An Evaluation of Evidence for Formative Economic Behavior: Artifact Assemblage Diversity at Chan Cahal, Blue Creek, Northwestern Belize, Unpublished Master Thesis, New York, 2000.

C. P. Popson & H. L. Clagett, “Excavations at Chan Cahal, Blue Creek: The 1997 Field Season”, in: W. D. Driver, H. R. Haines & T. H. Guderjan (eds), The Blue Creek Project: Working Papers from the 1997 Field Season, San Antonio, 1999, p. 71-83.

C. P. Popson, J. P. Mower, D. E. Currid & O. N. Farr, Chan Cahal Investigations: 1998 Field Season, Unpublished Research Report, 1998.

T. G. Powis, “The Role of Pottery and Food Consumption among Late Preclassic Maya Commoners at Lamanai, Belize”, in: J. C. Lohse & F. Valdez Jr. (eds), Ancient Maya Commoners, Austin, 2004, p. 49-72.

T. Preston, “The Rosita Community: Examining Power Heterarchies within a Maya Polity”, in: T. H. Guderjan, T. Preston, T. P. Beach & S. Luzzadder-Beach (eds), Blue Creek Archaeological Project: Report of 2006 Fieldwork, Forth Worth, 2007, p. 12-64.

T. Preston, “Report on Excavations at Chum-Balaam-Nal (Blue Creek) 2010”, in: T. H. Guderjan (ed.), The 19th Annual Report of the Blue Creek Archaeological Project, Forth Worth, 2011, p. 11-25.

T. Preston & T. Majewski, “Birds of Paradise Field House”, in: T. H. Guderjan (ed.), The 2009 Season of the Blue Creek Archaeological Project, Forth Worth, 2010, p. 51-56.

T. Preston & G. Mastropietro, “Summary of Fieldwork Excavations on the CBN-13 Courtyard Group Undertaken During the 2009 Field Season”, in: T. H. Guderjan (ed.), The 2009 Season of the Blue Creek Archaeological Project, Forth Worth, 2010, p. 29-35.

A. K. Pyburn, “Maya Cuisine: Hearths and the Lowland Economy”, in: P. A. McAnany & B. L. Isaac (eds), Prehistoric Maya Economies of Belize, Greenwich & London, 1989, p. 325-344.

R. A. Rappaport, Ritual and Religion in the Making of Humanity, New York, 1999.

D. Reents-Budet, “Classic Maya Concepts of the Royal Court: An Analysis of Renderings on Pictorial Ceramics”, in: T. Inomata & S. D. Houston (eds), Royal Courts of the Ancient Maya (Vol. 1: Theory, Comparison, and Synthesis), Boulder & Oxford, 2001, p. 195-233.

K. Reese-Taylor, M. Zender & P. L. Geller, “Fit to be Tied: Funerary Practices among the Prehispanic Maya”, in: J. Guernsey & K. F. Reilly III (eds), Sacred Bundles: Ritual Acts of Wrapping and Binding in Mesoamerica, Barnardsville, 2006, p. 40-58.

L. Reyes, “Excavations at the RS-9 Patio Group”, in: T. H. Guderjan, J. W. Barret &T. Preston (eds), Seventeenth Sojourn: The 2008 Season of the Blue Creek Archaeological Project, Forth Worth, 2009, p. 35-39.

D. S. Rice & P. T. Culbert, “Historical Contexts for Population Reconstruction”, in: P. T. Culbert & D. S. Rice (eds), Precolumbian Population History in the Maya Lowlands, Albuquerque, 1990, p. 1-36.

R. Robertson, “Functional Analysis and Social Process in Ceramics: The Pottery from Cerros, Belize”, in: R. M. Leventhal & A. L. Kolata (eds), Civilization in the Ancient Americas: Essays in Honor of Gordon W. Riley, Albuquerque, 1983, p. 105-142.

D. L. Robichaux, “Residence Rules and Ultimogeniture in Tlaxcala and Mesoamerica”, Ethnology 36.2 (1997), p. 149-171.

C. Robin, Preclassic Maya Burials at Cuello, Belize, Oxford, 1989.

C. Robin, “Whose Complexity? Ancient Maya Sociopolitical Organization and Complexity: A View from the Farm”, Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 6 (2009), p. 25-31.

V. L. Scarborough, “Ecology and Ritual: Water Management and the Maya” Latin American Antiquity 9.2 (1998), p. 135-159.

M. J. Schaefer, “Archaeology, Political Economy, and the Ancient Maya Commoner”, in: Illinois State University: Department of Sociology and Anthropology (online), s.d. http://soa.illinoisstate.edu/downloads/anthro_theses/schaefer_michael.p… (Accessed on April 9th, 2014).

L. Schele & D. Freidel, A Forest of Kings: The Untold Story of the Ancient Maya, New York, 1990.

L. Schele & M. E. Miller, The Blood of Kings: Ritual and Dynasty in Maya Art. London & New York, 1986.

K. R. Schwarz, “Architecture, Materialization and the Duality of Structure: A Maya Case Study of Structurally Shaped Innovation”, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 23.2 (2013), p. 307-332.

S. Schwartzkopf, Maya Power and State Culture: Community, Indigenous Politics, and State Formation in Northern Huehuetenango, Guatemala, 1800-1871, Unpublished PhD Dissertation, Ann Arbor, 2008.

A. R. Senft, Species Diversity Patterns at Ecotones, Unpublished Master Thesis, Chapel Hill, 2009.

L. C. Shaw, “The Elusive Maya Marketplace: An Archaeological Consideration of the Evidence”, Journal of Archaeological Research 20 (2012), p. 117-155.

P. Sheets & S. E. Simmons, “Household Production and Specialization at Cerén”, in: P. Sheets (ed.), Before the Volcano Erupted: The Ancient Cerén Village in Central America, Austin, 2002, p. 178-183.

R. V. Sidrys & J. M. Andresen, “A Second Round Structure from Northern Belize, Central America”, Man, New Series 13. 4 (1978), p. 638-650.

A. H. Siemens, “Prehispanic Agricultural Use of the Wetlands of Northern Belize”, in: K. V. Flannery (ed.), Maya Subsistence, Studies in Memory of Dennis E. Puleston, New York, 1982, p. 205-225.

A. Stone & M. Zender, Reading Maya Art: A Hieroglyphic Guide to Ancient Maya Painting and Sculpture, London, 2011.

D. Stuart & G. Stuart, Palenque: Eternal City of the Maya, London, 2008.

L. A. Sullivan & F. Valdez Jr. , “Northwest Belize: A Regional Perspective on Culture History”, Research Reports on Belizean Archaeology 1 (2004), p. 185-196.

L. A. Sullivan & F. Valdez Jr. , “The Late Preclassic to Early Classic Transition in the Three Rivers Region”, Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 3 (2006), p. 79-98.

J. M. Taggart, “Ideal and Real Behavior in the Mesoamerican Nonresidential Extended Family”, American Ethnologist 2.2 (1975), p. 347-357.

K. A. Taube, W. A. Saturno & D. Stuart, “Identifación Mitológica de los Personajes en el Muro Norte de la Piramide de las Pinturas Sub-1, San Bartolo, Petén”, in: J. P.de la Porte, B. Arroyo & H. E. Mejía (eds), XVIII Simposio de Investigaciones Arqueológicas en Guatemala, Guatemala-City, 2004, p. 852-861.

V. Tiesler, “Head Shaping and Dental Decoration Among the Ancient Maya: Archeological and Cultural Aspects”, in: Mesoweb (online), 1999, http://www.mesoweb.com/features/tiesler/media/headshaping.pdf (Accessed on April 10th, 2014).

C. Tilley, “Economy and Society: What Relationship?”, in: A. Sheridan & G. Bailey (eds), Economic Archaeology, Towards an Integration of Ecological and Social Approaches, Oxford, 1981, p. 131-148.

B. L. Turner & P. Harrison, “Implications from Agriculture for Maya Prehistory”, in: P. Harrison & B. L. Turner (eds), Prehispanic Maya Agriculture, Albuquerque, 1978, p. 337-373.

D. Van den Notelaer, Social Stratification at Blue Creek (Belize) During the Late and Terminal Classic Period, Unpublished Bachelor Dissertation, Brussels, 2013.

B. Voorhies, “An Ecological Model of the Early Maya of the Central Lowlands”, in: K. V. Flannery (ed.), Maya Subsistence, Studies in Memory of Dennis E. Puleston, New York, 1982, p. 65-95.

M. Weber, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft, Tübingen, 1922.

D. Webster, The Fall of the Ancient Maya: Solving the Mystery of the Maya Collapse, London, 2002.

D. Webster & A. Freter, “The Demography of Late Classic Copan”, in: P. T. Culbert & D. S. Rice (eds), Precolumbian Population History in the Maya Lowlands, Albuquerque, 1990, p. 37-61.

D. Webster & N. Gonlin, “Household Remains of the Humblest Maya”, Journal of Field Archaeology 15.2 (1988), p. 169-190.

J. Yaeger, “The Social Construction of Communities in the Classic Maya Countryside, Strategies of Affiliation in Western Belize”, in: M. A. Canuto & J. Yaeger (eds), The Archaeology of Communities, A New World Perspective, London & New York, 2000, p. 123-141.

J. Yaeger & C. Robin, “Heterogenous Hinterlands: The Social and Political Organization of Commoner Settlements near Xunantunich, Belize”, in: J. C. Lohse & F. Valdez Jr. (eds), Ancient Maya Commoners, Austin, 2004, p. 147-173.

J. Yaeger, S. Kurnick, C. Dykstra & M. Peuramaki-Brown, “Charting the Histories of Hinterland Settlements around Buenavista del Cayo”, Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 9 (2012), p. 15-28.

G. Zaro & J. C. Lohse, “Ancient Agricultural Rhytms and Rituals: Ancient Maya Solar Observation in Hinterland Blue Creek, Northwestern Belize”, Latin American Antiquity 16.1 (2005), p. 81-98.

Universiteit of Hogeschool
Kunstwetenschappen en Archeologie
Publicatiejaar
2014
Kernwoorden
Share this on: