Politieke ideologie en merkvoorkeur

Dimitri Bert
Politieke voorkeur beïnvloedt supermarktaankopenHet klinkt misschien ongeloofwaardig, maar uw politieke overtuiging kan zelfs bij alledaagse beslissingen een rol spelen, zoals welke merken u aankoopt in de supermarkt. Politiek rechts ingestelde personen blijken namelijk een grotere neiging te vertonen om voor A-merken te kiezen dan linksgeoriënteerden.

Politieke ideologie en merkvoorkeur

Politieke voorkeur beïnvloedt supermarktaankopen

Het klinkt misschien ongeloofwaardig, maar uw politieke overtuiging kan zelfs bij alledaagse beslissingen een rol spelen, zoals welke merken u aankoopt in de supermarkt. Politiek rechts ingestelde personen blijken namelijk een grotere neiging te vertonen om voor A-merken te kiezen dan linksgeoriënteerden. Nieuw masterproefonderzoek aan de Universiteit Gent biedt een mogelijke verklaring voor deze merkwaardige vaststelling.

Vrijwel elke supermarktketen geeft haar klanten de keuze tussen nationaal verkrijgbare A-merken en de eigen huismerken, zoals Everyday van Colruyt of 365 van Delhaize. Er is reeds heel wat onderzoek verricht naar de elementen die bij deze keuze van belang kunnen zijn. Zo oefenen de vertrouwdheid van de consument met huismerken, zijn mening over hun prijs-kwaliteitsverhouding en zijn inkomen allemaal invloed uit. In een recente Amerikaanse studie is echter een op het eerste zicht eigenaardige nieuwe factor aan het licht gekomen: iemands politieke ideologie. Het marktaandeel van huismerken vertoont er namelijk een negatief verband met de mate waarin kiesdistricten rechts stemmen, zelfs wanneer rekening gehouden wordt met andere mogelijk beïnvloedende variabelen.

Het onderzoek van Dimitri Bert, master in de toegepaste economische wetenschappen, probeerde daarom na te gaan of er ook in Vlaanderen een relatie bestaat tussen politieke ideologie en merkvoorkeur en ging op zoek naar de reden hiervoor.

Politieke ideologie en consumentengedrag

De ideologische termen “links” en “rechts” ziet u waarschijnlijk wel af en toe eens opduiken. Ze duiden aan waar iemands sociaal-culturele en sociaal-economische standpunten zich situeren in het politieke spectrum. Een linkse visie op cultureel vlak accepteert vrijheid in het maatschappelijke leven, terwijl een rechtse opvatting sterker vasthoudt aan gedragsregels en tradities. De economische linkerzijde staat voor meer gelijkheid en een actieve, herverdelende rol van de overheid in de economie; de rechterzijde pleit voor minder overheidsinmenging. Hoewel de economische en culturele dimensie in principe los van elkaar staan, gaat in westerse landen een rechts-economische positie vaak samen met een rechts-culturele en een links-economische met een links-culturele.

Bovendien blijken deze ideologische overtuigingen doorgaans geassocieerd te zijn met bepaalde karaktertrekken. Zo zijn rechtsgeoriënteerden erg gesteld op orde en structuur, terwijl linksgeoriënteerden vaker diversiteit en nieuwe ervaringen nastreven. Een ander belangrijk verschil is dat rechtse personen een grotere drang hebben om risico’s te vermijden. Ze zijn ook meer begaan met het naleven van sociale normen, terwijl links ingestelde personen vaker rebels en niet-conformistisch zijn. Ook in het consumentengedrag zouden deze eigenschappen tot uiting kunnen komen.

Aan het kopen van producten is namelijk een zeker risico verbonden: het product kan bijvoorbeeld niet voldoen aan de verwachtingen, een teleurstellende prijs-kwaliteitsverhouding bieden, of zelfs de gezondheid schaden. Consumptie kent tevens een sociaal aspect: groepen waarmee mensen zich verbonden voelen of vergelijken, kunnen hun productkeuzes beïnvloeden. Dit is niet onbelangrijk, want hoewel huismerken de afgelopen jaren vorderingen gemaakt hebben op vlak van kwaliteit en commercieel succes, blijken ze ook vandaag nog als risicovoller en minder sociaal aanvaard te worden gezien dan A-merken. Daarom werd verondersteld dat ideologisch rechtse personen ook in Vlaanderen eerder voor A-merken zouden kiezen.

Onderzoek

Om na te gaan of dit effectief het geval was en wat hiervan de oorzaak zou kunnen zijn, werd een enquête opgesteld. Respondenten kregen eerst enkele stellingen over sociaal-economische en sociaal-culturele thema’s voorgelegd. Tevens werd hen gevraagd hoe politiek links of rechts ze zichzelf zouden omschrijven en op welke partij ze zouden stemmen als er die dag verkiezingen zouden plaatsvinden. Daarnaast kreeg één groep deelnemers vragen over hun houding tegenover huismerken en de andere groep over hun houding tegenover A-merken, zodat de antwoorden elkaar niet konden beïnvloeden. Tot slot werd gepeild naar de mate waarin de respondenten risico’s proberen te vermijden in hun consumptiegedrag en naar hoeveel rekening ze houden met de mening van anderen bij hun aankopen.

In lijn met de verwachtingen werd inderdaad een positief verband vastgesteld tussen rechtsgeoriënteerdheid en de aankoopintentie voor A-merken. Hoewel verondersteld, kon het effect nochtans niet verklaard worden door de hogere risicoafkerigheid van rechts ingestelde personen. Een gedeeltelijke reden ervoor werd wel gevonden in een hogere vertrouwdheid met A-merken. De oorzaak hiervan kan niet worden afgeleid uit de huidige studie, maar het is aannemelijk dat hun mate van vertrouwdheid een bevorderend effect heeft: bij vertrouwde, bekende producten blijven is een manier om orde en structuur te bereiken op het vlak van consumptie. Deze relatie wordt nog verder versterkt doordat een hogere mate van vertrouwdheid ook indirect de aankoopintentie voor A-merken stimuleert via een positievere indruk over de prijs-kwaliteitsverhouding.

Conclusie

Dit is de eerste paper die een mogelijke relatie tussen politieke ideologie en merkvoorkeur bestudeerde op individueel niveau. De bevindingen van het onderzoek zijn dan ook erg interessant. Ze geven aan dat politieke overtuigingen ook in Vlaanderen wel eens tot uiting zouden kunnen komen in het consumentengedrag. Gezien deze overtuigingen bovendien een goede overeenkomst vertoonden met de stemintenties, is het voor marketeers wellicht geen slecht idee om de vorige verkiezingsuitslagen eens wat diepgaander te analyseren. Misschien laten sommige klanten huismerken wel links liggen omdat ze rechts zijn?

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Universiteit of Hogeschool
Toegepaste economische wetenschappen
Publicatiejaar
2014
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