Black Feminism in America: An Overview and Comparison of Black Feminism’s Destiny through Literature and Music up to Beyoncé

Charlotte Theys
Beyoncé in het Voetspoor van Afro-Amerikaanse Feministen?“Feminist: a person who believes in the social, political and economic equality of the sexes” (“***Flawless”, Beyoncé 2013)Als kers op de taart van haar feministisch getint oeuvre, profileert de Afro-Amerikaanse zangeres Beyoncé zich expliciet als feministe op haar laatste album Beyoncé (2013). Dat album lokt echter veel kritiek uit bij het vrouwelijk publiek dat haar feministische identiteit in vraag stelt en de manier waarop zij het feminisme belichaamt afkeurt.

Black Feminism in America: An Overview and Comparison of Black Feminism’s Destiny through Literature and Music up to Beyoncé

Beyoncé in het Voetspoor van Afro-Amerikaanse Feministen?

“Feminist: a person who believes in the social, political and economic equality of the sexes” (“***Flawless”, Beyoncé 2013)

Als kers op de taart van haar feministisch getint oeuvre, profileert de Afro-Amerikaanse zangeres Beyoncé zich expliciet als feministe op haar laatste album Beyoncé (2013). Dat album lokt echter veel kritiek uit bij het vrouwelijk publiek dat haar feministische identiteit in vraag stelt en de manier waarop zij het feminisme belichaamt afkeurt. Om te achterhalen of die houding terecht is, zal dit artikel nagaan welke Afro-Amerikaanse literatuur en muziek heeft bijgedragen tot het feministische gedachtegoed en of Beyoncé’s werk daar ook toe behoort.

De Eerste Feministische Golf in Amerika

Vanaf 1866 ontstaan de eerste organisaties van feministen (ook wel suffragettes genoemd) in het Victoriaanse Amerika. Hoewel de Amerikaanse Burgeroorlog (1861-1865) een jaar eerder een einde heeft gemaakt aan slavernij die de ongelijkheid tussen blank en zwart in stand hield, bestaan de eerste feministische verenigingen zo goed als uitsluitend uit blanke vrouwen. Toch zijn er enkele vrouwelijke ex-slaven, zoals Sojourner Truth, die het voortouw mogen nemen in de overwegend blanke vrouwenorganisaties. Truth kan beschouwd worden als een van de meest invloedrijke Afro-Amerikaanse woordvoersters van de eerste feministische golf omdat ze erin is geslaagd de specifieke problematiek van de zwarte vrouw aan te kaarten door te focussen op de nadelige kruising van gender én ras (ook wel intersectionele discriminatie genoemd).

Ook vrouwelijke zwarte auteurs, zoals Harriet Jacobs[1] en Harriet Wilson[2], zoomen in op meervoudige discriminatie. Zo combineren zij genreconventies van de sentimentele roman (door en voor blanke vrouwen geschreven) en de slavenautobiografie (geschreven vanuit het standpunt van de mannelijke slaaf) om een specifiek genre te creëren dat de wantoestanden van de negentiende-eeuwse Afro-Amerikaanse vrouw centraal stelt. Anders dan Truth en Jacobs, focust Wilson op de intersectionele discriminatie van ras, gender én klasse. Voorts zijn zowel elementen van de sentimentele roman, in het bijzonder het verdriet dat veroorzaakt wordt door gebroken familierelaties, als thema’s van slavenverhalen, zoals het psychologisch, fysiek en seksueel misbruik van vrouwelijke slaven op katoenplantages, ook aanwezig in slavenliederen.

Vrouwenemancipatie tijdens de Black Woman’s Era en de Harlem Renaissance

Evenals Harriet Wilson maakt de Afro-Amerikaanse schrijfster Anna Julia Cooper[3] tijdens de Black Woman’s Era (1890-1910) gebruik van de driedelige discriminatie om de problematiek van zwarte vrouwen aan te kaarten. Dat thema duikt wederom op tijdens de Harlem Renaissance (1918-37) in zowel de Afro-Amerikaanse literatuur van Zora Neale Hurston als de muziek van blueszangeres Bessie Smith en jazz artieste Billie Holiday.

Anders dan hun voorgangers, belichten Hurston[4], Smith en Holiday de rassen-, gender- en klassenproblematiek van zwarte vrouwen binnen de blanke én zwarte Amerikaanse gemeenschap. Eerst en vooral veroordelen zij het racisme en het ‘colorisme’ (d.i. discriminatie op basis van gradaties in huidskleur). Daarnaast hekelen de Harlem Renaissance-artiesten seksisme, overspel en mishandeling van zwarte vrouwen en propageren zij openheid over seksualiteit. Tot slot bekritiseren zij de inferieure positie van de zwarte vrouw zowel binnen het Amerikaanse klassensysteem als het Afro-Amerikaanse huwelijk.

De Tweede Feministische Golf in Amerika: het Ontstaan van het Zwart Feminisme

Tijdens de tweede helft van de twintigste eeuw ontstaat er naast de traditionele (nog steeds overwegend blanke) feministische groepering een autonome zwarte vrouwenbeweging. Alice Walker, een van de belangrijkste vertegenwoordigsters en schrijfsters van die beweging, hanteert de term ‘womanisme’ in plaats van het begrip ‘feminisme’ omdat dat laatste te sterk gelinkt zou zijn aan een blanke vrouwenbeweging. In haar roman The Color Purple[5] verwerkt Alice Walker niet alleen haar theoretisch ‘womanisme’-concept, maar beschrijft ze ook, evenals haar voorgangers, de intersectionele discriminatie van zwarte vrouwen zowel binnen de blanke als zwarte maatschappij.

Ook in de songs van Gloria Gaynor en Aretha Franklin is Walker’s ‘womanisme’ te herkennen. Dat verklaart waarom songs zoals “I Will Survive”, “Respect”, “Think” en “Sisters Are Doin’ It For Themselves” aanslaan bij vrouwenbewegingen van de tweede golf en uiteindelijk uitgroeien tot dé hymnes van het feminisme van de jaren ’70 en ’80.

De Derde Feministische Golf in Amerika onder Leiding van Beyoncé

In het midden van de jaren ’90 ontstaat er een derde feministische golf in Amerika die een zo groot mogelijk vrouwelijk publiek tracht aan te spreken. Dat doet de beweging op twee manieren. Enerzijds staat ze open voor alle vormen van vrouwelijke identiteit, ook al zijn die in strijd met het stereotype beeld van de vrouw. Anderzijds gaat ze praktijkgericht te werk om de emancipatieboodschap zo goed mogelijk te verspreiden (bijvoorbeeld via muziek). Ondanks die vernieuwingen waardeert de beweging het feministische gedachtegoed van de eerste en tweede golf en tracht ze die te verenigen met haar eigen ideologie.

Hoewel het oeuvre van de Afro-Amerikaanse zangeres Beyoncé grotendeels gebaseerd is op de traditionele meervoudige discriminatie en ook naar Walker’s ‘womanisme’ verwijst, brengt Beyoncé toch enkele radicale vernieuwingen aan. Zo benadrukt de zangeres niet langer het negatieve racisme en ‘colorisme’, maar verheerlijkt ze juist haar vrouwelijke zwarte rondingen. Daarnaast dompelt de artieste zich onder in de vrouwonvriendelijke hip-hop wereld en probeert ze de denigrerende attitude tegenover vrouwen in dat milieu te veranderen. Bovendien streeft Beyoncé ernaar de seksuele identiteit bij Afro-Amerikaanse vrouwen aan te wakkeren.

Doordat Beyoncé zich op haar laatste album profileert als een feministe die er niet voor terugdeinst haar fysieke lichaam en seksualiteit te adoreren of grove rap te hanteren, verloochent zij volgens het vrouwelijke publiek het feministische gedachtegoed dat vrouwen traditioneel bestempelt als bescheiden slachtoffers. Dat publiek vergeet echter dat het feminisme geen vaststaand, theoretisch concept is, maar eerder beschouwd moet worden als een beweging die zich doorheen de geschiedenis continue aanpast aan de nieuwe behoeftes van vrouwen. Vandaar dat ook de zelfbewuste en dominante vrouw die Beyoncé verkondigt deel uitmaakt van het Afro-Amerikaanse feminisme.

 

[1] Harriet Jacobs – Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, Written By Herself (1861)

[2] Harriet Wilson – Our Nig; or Sketches from the Life of a Free Black (1859)

[3] Anna Julia Cooper – A  Voice From the South: by a Woman from the South (1892)

[4] Zora Neale Hurston – Their Eyes Were Watching God (1937)

[5] Alice Walker – The Color Purple (1982)

 

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Beyoncé. “Baby Boy Lyrics.” Beyoncé. Beyoncé, n.d. Web. 28 May 2015 <             http://www.beyonce.com/album/dangerously-in-love/?media_view=songs >

---.       “Beautiful Liar Lyrics.” Beyoncé. Beyoncé, n.d. Web. 25 May 2015. <             http://www.beyonce.com/album/bday/?media_view=songs >

---.       “Blow Lyrics.” Beyoncé. Beyoncé, n.d. Web. 31 May 2015. <             http://www.beyonce.com/album/beyonce/?media_view=songs >

---.       “Blue (Feat. Blue Ivy) Lyrics.” Beyoncé. Beyoncé, n.d. Web. 27 May 2015. <             http://www.beyonce.com/track/ >

---.       “Check On It Lyrics.” Genius. Genius, n.d. Web. 29 May 2015. <            http://genius.com/4792455 >

---.       “Check On It Music Video.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 2 Oct. 2009. Web. 29 May 2015. < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q1dUDzBdnmI >

---.       “Dance For You Lyrics.” Beyoncé. Beyoncé, n.d. Web. 28 May 2015. <             http://www.beyonce.com/album/4/?media_view=songs >

---.       “Dance For You Music Video.” Online video clip. Beyoncé. Beyoncé, n.d. Web. 28 May           2015. < http://www.beyonce.com/album/4/?media_view=video >

---. “Diva Lyrics.” Beyoncé. Beyoncé, n.d. Web. 23 May 2015. < http://www.beyonce.com/album/i-am-sasha-fierce/?media_view=songs >

---.       “Diva Music Video.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 2 Oct. 2009. Web. 23         May 2015. < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rNM5HW13_O8 >

---.       “Drunk in Love Lyrics.” Beyoncé. Beyoncé, n.d. Web. 30 May 2015. <             http://www.beyonce.com/album/beyonce/?media_view=songs >

---.       “Drunk in Love Music video.” Online video clip. Beyoncé. Beyoncé, n.d. Web. 30 May 2015. < http://www.beyonce.com/album/beyonce/?media_view=songs >

---.       “Ego Lyrics.” Beyoncé. Beyoncé, n.d. Web. 29 May 2015. <         http://www.beyonce.com/album/i-am-sasha-fierce/?media_view=songs >

---.       “***Flawless Lyrics.” Beyoncé. Beyoncé, n.d. Web. 30 May 2015. <             http://www.beyonce.com/album/beyonce/?media_view=songs >

---.       “Grown Woman Lyrics.” A-ZLyrics. A-ZLyrics, n.d. Web. 26 May 2015. <             http://www.azlyrics.com/lyrics/beyonceknowles/grownwoman.html >

---.       “Grown Woman Music Video.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 24 Nov. 2015.   Web. 29 May 2015. < https://www.google.be/webhp?sourceid=chrome-  instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8#q=beyonce+grown+woman >

---.       “Haunted.” Beyoncé. Beyoncé, n.d. Web. 31 May 2015. <             http://www.beyonce.com/album/beyonce/?media_view=songs >

---.       “If I Were a Boy Lyrics.” Beyoncé. Beyoncé, n.d. Web. 25 May 2015. <             http://www.beyonce.com/album/i-am-sasha-fierce/?media_view=songs >

---.       “If I Were a Boy Music Video.” Online video clip. Beyoncé. Beyoncé, n.d. Web. 25       May 2015. < http://www.beyonce.com/album/i-am-sasha-fierce/?media_view=video >

---.       “Irreplaceable Lyrics.” Beyoncé. Beyoncé, n.d. Web. 22 May 2015. <             http://www.beyonce.com/album/bday/?media_view=songs >

---.       “Kitty Kat Lyrics.” Beyoncé. Beyoncé, n.d. Web. 31 May 2015. <             http://www.beyonce.com/album/bday/?media_view=songs >

---.       “Me, Myself and I lyrics.” Beyoncé. Beyoncé, n.d. Web. 31 May 2015. <             http://www.beyonce.com/album/dangerously-in-love/?media_view=songs >

---.       “Mine (Feat. Drake) Lyrics.” Beyoncé. Beyoncé, n.d. Web. 23 May 2015. <                 http://www.beyonce.com/album/beyonce/?media_view=songs >

---.       “Mine (Feat. Drake) Music Video.” Online video clip. Beyoncé. Beyoncé, n.d. Web. 24 May 2015. < http://www.beyonce.com/album/beyonce/?media_view=video >

---.       “Naughty Girl Music Video.” Online video clip. Beyoncé. Beyoncé, n.d. Web. 28 May   2015. < http://www.beyonce.com/album/dangerously-in-love/?media_view=video >

---.       “Pretty Hurts Lyrics.” Beyoncé. Beyoncé, n.d. Web. 23 May 2015. <                 http://www.beyonce.com/album/beyonce/?media_view=songs >

---.       “Pretty Hurts Music Video.” Online Video Clip. Beyoncé. Beyoncé, n.d. Web. 23 May  2015. < http://www.beyonce.com/album/beyonce/?media_view=video >

---.       “Ring the Alarm Lyrics”. Beyoncé. Beyoncé, n.d. Web. 22 May. 2015. <             http://www.beyonce.com/album/bday/?media_view=songs >

---.       “Ring the Alarm Music Video.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 3 Oct. 2009.      Web. 22 May 2015. < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eY_mrU8MPfI >

---.       “Rocket Lyrics.” Beyoncé. Beyoncé, n.d. Web. 31 May 2015. <             http://www.beyonce.com/album/beyonce/?media_view=songs >

---.       “Rocket Music Video.” Online video clip. Beyoncé. Beyoncé, n.d. Web. 31 May 2015. < http://www.beyonce.com/album/beyonce/?media_view=songs >

---.       “Run the World (Girls) Lyrics.” Beyoncé. Beyoncé, n.d. Web. 26 May 2015. <             http://www.beyonce.com/album/4/?media_view=songs >

---.       “Run the Wolrd (Girls) Music Video.” Online video clip. Beyoncé. Beyoncé, n.d. Web. 26 May 2015. < http://www.beyonce.com/album/4/?media_view=video >

---.       “Single Ladies (Put a Ring on It) Lyrics.” Beyoncé. Beyoncé, n.d. Web. 26 May 2015.   < http://www.beyonce.com/album/i-am-sasha-fierce/?media_view=songs >

---.       “Suga Mama Lyrics.” Beyoncé. Beyoncé, n.d. Web. 22 May 2015. <                                http://www.beyonce.com/album/bday/?media_view=songs >

---.       “Suga Mama Music Video.” Online video clip. Beyoncé. Beyoncé, n.d. Web. 22 May     2015. < http://www.beyonce.com/album/bday/?media_view=video >

---.       “Upgrade U Lyrics.” Beyoncé. Beyoncé, n.d. Web. 30 May 2015. <             http://www.beyonce.com/album/bday/?media_view=video >

---.       “Upgrade U Music Video.” Online video clip. Beyoncé. Beyoncé, n.d. 30 May 2015.     < http://www.beyonce.com/album/bday/?media_view=video >

---.       “Why Don’t You Love Me Lyrics.” MetroLyrics. MetroLyrics, n.d. Web. 26 May 2015.             < http://www.metrolyrics.com/why-dont-you-love-me-lyrics-beyonce-knowles.html >

---.       “Why Don’t You Love Me Music Video.” Online video clip. Beyoncé. Beyoncé, n.d.     Web. 26 May 2015.                                                                                                             < http://www.beyonce.com/album/i-am-sasha-fierce/?media_view=video >

---.       “Yoncé Lyrics.” Beyoncé. Beyoncé, n.d. Web. 30 May 2015. <             http://www.beyonce.com/album/beyonce/?media_view=songs >

---.       “Yoncé Music Video.” Online video clip.  Beyoncé. Beyoncé, n.d. Web. 30 May 2015. < http://www.beyonce.com/album/beyonce/?media_view=video >   

Billie Holiday. “Ain’t Nobody’s Business if I Do Music Video.” YouTube. YouTube, 28 May   2014. Web. 1 June 2015. < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G0AIdxGPVYs >

 ---.      “God Bless the Child Lyrics.” LyricsFreak. LyricsFreak, n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2015. <             http://www.lyricsfreak.com/b/billie+holiday/god+bless+the+child_20018000.html >

---.       “God Bless the Child Music Video.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 13 Sept.     2009. Web. 1 June 2015. < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EpN40V0s4_E >

---.       “Mean to Me Lyrics.” MetroLyrics. MetroLyrics, n.d. Web. 25 Feb. 2015. <             http://www.metrolyrics.com/mean-to-me-lyrics-billie-holiday.html >

---.       “Mean to Me Music Video.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 12 June 2012.Web.             1 June 2015. < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oN9niwhEEn8 >

---.       “My Man Lyrics.” Songteksten. Songteksten, n.d. Web. 25 Feb. 2015. <             http://www.songteksten.nl/songteksten/117227/billie-holiday/my-man.htm >

---.       “My Man Music Video.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 15 April 2012. Web.     1 June 2015. < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xEppOZ6ge60 >

---.       “Now or Never Lyrics.” MetroLyrics. MetroLyrics, n.d. Web. 25 Feb. <             http://www.metrolyrics.com/now-or-never-lyrics-billie-holiday.html >

---.       “Now or Never Music Video.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 20 Feb. 2013.      Web. 1 June 2015. < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NNoATm8DtRo >

---.       “Please Don’t Talk About Me When I’m Gone Lyrics.” LyricsFreak. LyricsFreak, n.d.   Web. 25 Feb. 2015. <           http://www.lyricsfreak.com/b/billie+holiday/please+dont+talk+about+me+when+im+            gone_20291673.html >

---.       “Please Don’t Talk About Me When I’m Gone Lyrics.” Online video clip. YouTube.       YouTube, 8 May 2014. Web. 1 June 2015. <        https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YBd5Bev5yt0 >

---.       “Strange Fruit Lyrics.” MetroLyrics. MetroLyrics, n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2015. <             http://www.metrolyrics.com/strange-fruit-lyrics-billie-holiday.html >

---.       “Strange Fruit Music Video.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 27 May 2014.        Web. 1 June 2015. < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0mO92ll_q0k >

---.       “When a Woman Loves a Man Lyrics.” LyricsFreak, LyricsFreak, n.d. Web. 25 Feb.     2015. <             http://www.lyricsfreak.com/b/billie+holiday/when+a+woman+loves+a+man_2001794    0.html >

---.       “When a Woman Loves a Man Music Video.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube,     27 April 2014. Web. 1 June 2015. < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kKf9ug1I1Qo >

Destiny’s Child. “Bills, Bills, Bills Lyrics.” MetroLyrics. MetroLyrics, n.d. Web. 21 May 2015. < http://www.metrolyrics.com/bills-bills-bill-lyrics-destinys-child.html >

---.       “Bills, Bills, Bills Music Video.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 25 Oct. 2009.   Web. 28 May 2015. < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NiF6-0UTqtc >

---.       “Bootylicious Lyrics.” MetroLyrics. MetroLyrics, n.d. <     http://www.metrolyrics.com/bootylicious-lyrics-destinys-child.html >

---.       “Bootylicious Music Video.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 25 Oct. 2009.         Web. 31 May 2015. < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IyYnnUcgeMc >

---.       “Bug a Boo Lyrics.” Songteksten. Songteksten, n.d. Web. 21 May 2015. <             http://www.songteksten.nl/songteksten/10425/destiny-s-child/bug-a-boo.htm >

---.       “Bug a Boo Music Video.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 25 Oct. 2009. Web. 28 May 2015.            < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9i-y0G8nNA8 >

---.       “Girl Lyrics.” MetroLyrics. MetroLyrics, n.d. Web. 28 May 2015. <             http://www.metrolyrics.com/girl-lyrics-destinys-child.html >

---.       “Girl Music Video.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 25 Oct. 2009. Web. 28 May 2015.<https://www.google.be/webhp?sourceid=chrome-nstant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8#q=destiny%27s+child+girl >

---.       “Independent Women Part I Lyrics.” MetroLyrics. MetroLyrics, n.d. Web. 20 May         2015. < http://www.metrolyrics.com/independent-women-lyrics-destinys-child.html >

---.       “Independent Woman Part I Music Video.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 24   Nov. 2009. Web. 25 May 2015. < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0lPQZni7I18 >

---.       “Jumpin’ Jumpin’ Lyrics.” Songteksten. Songteksten, n.d. Web. 25 May 2015. <             http://www.songteksten.nl/songteksten/10549/destiny-s-child/jumpin-jumpin.htm >

---.       “Jumpin’ Jumpin’ Music Video.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 25 Oct. 2009.   Web. 25 May 2015. < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vjw92oUduEM >

---.       “Lose My Breath Lyrics.” Songteksten. Songteksten, n.d. Web. <             http://www.songteksten.nl/songteksten/47269/destiny-s-child/lose-my-breath.htm >

---.       “Lose My Breath Music Video.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 25 Oct. 2009.   Web. 27 May. 2015. < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AqeIiF0DlTg >

---.       “Nasty Girl Lyrics.” MetroLyrics. MetroLyrics, n.d. Web. 20 May. 2015. <             http://www.metrolyrics.com/nasty-girl-lyrics-destinys-child.html >

---.       “Nasty Girl Music Video.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 15 March 2014. Web.           25 May 2015. < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dos5pf5OMNM >

---.       “Say My Name Lyrics.” MetroLyrics. MetroLyrics, n.d. Web. 25 May. 2015. <             http://www.metrolyrics.com/say-my-name-lyrics-destinys-child.html >

---.       “Say My Name Music Video.” YouTube. YouTube, 25 Oct. 2009. Web. 25 May 2015. < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sQgd6MccwZc >

---.       “Soldier Lyrics.” LetsSingIt. LetsSingIt, 31 Oct. 2011. Web. 27 May 2015. <          http://artists.letssingit.com/destinys-child-lyrics-soldier-radio-edit-feat-lil-wayne-and-     ti-vw5jd51#axzz3bjAXwJFM >

---.       “Soldier Music Video.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 25 Oct. 2009. Web. 27   May 2015. < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qFJ3VKnwmJw >

----.      “Survivor Lyrics.” MetroLyrics. MetroLyrics, n.d. Web. 25 May 2015. <             http://www.metrolyrics.com/survivor-lyrics-destinys-child.html >

---.       “Survivor Music Video.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 25 Oct. 2009. Web. 28             May. 2015. < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wmc8bQoL-J0 >

Donna Summer. “Love to Love You Baby Music Video.” Online video clip. YouTube.   YouTube,        19 May 2012. Web. 28 May 2015. < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4C4j6q6PQc0             >

Gloria Gaynor. “I Will Survive Lyrics.” Songteksten. Songteksten, n.d.13 April. 2015. <             http://www.songteksten.nl/songteksten/15241/gloria-gaynor/i-will-survive.htm >

Major Lazor. “Pon de Floor Music Video.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 15 Jun.         2009. Web. 26 May 2015. < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bz6bF8HikIM >

Universiteit of Hogeschool
Taal-en Letterkunde
Publicatiejaar
2015
Kernwoorden
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