Gekluisterd aan het scherm: mediagebruik en het uitstellen van slaap

Daphne Roskams Liese Exelmans
Door middel van een verkennende, kwantitatieve studie werd er een verband tussen mediagebruik en het uitstellen van slaap blootgelegd. Daarbij werd de invloed van zelfcontrole op dit verband bekeken.

Gekluisterd aan het scherm: mediagebruik en het uitstellen van slaap

De doelstelling van deze masterproef was door middel van een verkennende, kwantitatieve studie een verband tussen mediagebruik en het uitstellen van slaap blootleggen. De literatuurstudie gaf een beeld van de mate waarin media in de avond gebruikt werd. Daarbij werd het concept uitstellen van bedtijd blootgelegd en de mogelijke invloed van zelfcontrole hierop. Ondanks dat er verschillende studies terug te vinden zijn die de invloed van mediagebruik in bed op slaap bestudeerden, werd er nog geen link gelegd met het uitstellen van slaap. Deze conceptualisering werd zelf tot stand gebracht gedurende het onderzoek. We begrepen bedtijd als het tijdstip waarop men naar bed gaat, en slaaptijd als het tijdstip waarop men effectief wil gaan slapen. Er werden drie onderzoeksvragen opgesteld die testten of het uitstellen van bedtijd en slaaptijd bestonden en in welke mate deze voorspeld konden worden door mediagebruik. Daarnaast werd de invloed van zelfcontrole op deze verbanden nagegaan en werd er gekeken of ze slaapkwaliteit konden voorspellen. Om de data te verzamelen werd er een online vragenlijst opgesteld. Deze werd ingevuld door 360 jongvolwassenen tussen 18 en 25 jaar. Uit de resultaten kwam naar voren dat er gemiddeld 41 minuten zaten tussen de bedtijd en slaaptijd van de respondenten. Er bleek een sterker effect aanwezig van mediagebruik op het uitstellen van slaaptijd dan op het uitstellen van bedtijd. Voor het verband tussen mediagebruik in bed en het uitstellen van slaaptijd was er zowel een direct effect als interactie-effect van zelfcontrole aanwezig, terwijl er bij het uitstellen van bedtijd enkel een interactie-effect aanwezig was. Dit wil zeggen dat mensen met een hoge zelfcontrole meer grip hebben op het op tijd in hun bed gaan liggen en daardoor hun slaap initieel niet uitstellen, maar zodra ze in hun bed liggen wel nog media gebruiken en daardoor toch hun slaap uitstellen. Ten slotte werd er gekeken naar de gevolgen van het uitstellen van bedtijd en slaaptijd. Hieruit bleek dat het uitstellen van bedtijd en slaaptijd de relatie tussen gsm-gebruik en slaapkwaliteit medieerde. Dit betekent dat gsm-gebruik door het uitstellen van bedtijd en slaaptijd ervoor kan zorgen dat de slaapkwaliteit verslechterd.

Bibliografie

Adachi-Meji, A.M., Edwards, P.M., Gilbert-Diamond, D., Greenough, G.P., & Olson, A.L. (2014). TXT me      I’m only sleeping: adolescents with mobile phones in their bedroom. Family & Community Health, 37(4), pp. 252-257.

Adam, E.K., Snell, E.K., & Pendry, P. (2007). Sleep timing and quantity in ecological and family context: a nationally representative time-diary study. Journal of Family Psychology, 21(1), pp. 4–19.

Agras, W. S., Hammer, L. D., McNicholas, F., & Kraemer, H. C. (2004). Risk factors for childhood overweight: A prospective study from birth to 9.5 years. Journal of Pediatrics, 145(1), pp. 20 –25.

Alloy Media and Marketing (2009, November 12). 9th annual college explorer sur- vey: Totally wired campus: The class of 2013 gets high “Tech” grades. Alloy media þ marketing. Retrieved from: http://www.mediapost.com/publications/article/ 117012/.

Arber, S., Bote, M., & Meadows, R. (2009). Gender and socio-economic patterning of self-reported sleep problems in Britain. Social Science & Medicine, 68(2), pp. 281-289.

Astill, R. G., Van der Heijden, K. B., Van Ijzendoorn, M. H., & Van Someren, E. J. W. (2012). Sleep, cognition, and behavioral problems in school-age children: A century of research meta-analyzed. Psychological Bulletin138(6), pp. 1109–1138.

Basner, M., Fomberstein, K., Razavi, F., Banks, S., William, J., Rosa, R., & Dinges, D. (2007). American time use survey: sleep time and its relationship to waking activities. Sleep, 30(9), pp. 1085-1095.

Baumeister, R. (2002). Yielding to temptation: self-control Failure, Impulsive Purchasing, and Consumer Behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 28(4), pp. 670-676.

Baumeister, R., Bratslavsky, E., Muraven, M., & Tice, D. (1998). Ego-depletion: is the active self a limited resource? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(5), pp. 1252-1265.

Baumeister, R., Muraven, M., & Tice, D. (2000). Ego depletion: A resource model of volition, self-regulation and controlled processing. Social Cognition, 18(2), pp. 130-150.

Baumester, R., Vohs, K., & Tice, D. (2007). The strength model of self-control. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(6), pp. 351-355.

Benesch, C., Frey, B. S., & Stutzer, A. (2010). TV channels, self control and happiness. The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, 10(1), artikel 86.

Bercedo, A., Redondo, C., Pelayo, R., Gómez, Z., Hernández, M., & Cadenas, N. (2005). Consumo de los medios de communicacion en la adolescencia. Anales de Pediatria, 63(6), pp. 516-525

Bjorvatn, B., & Pallesen, S. (2009). A practical approach to circadian rhythm sleep disorders. Sleep Medicine, 13(1), pp. 47-60.

Bonnet, M. H., & Arand, D. L. (2001). Impact of activity and arousal upon spectral EEG parameters. Physiology & Behavior, 74(3), pp. 291-298.

Borbély, A. & Achermann, P. (1999). Sleep homeostasis and models of sleep regulation. Journal of Biology Rytms, 14(6), pp. 557-568.

Brunborg, G., Mentzoni, R., Molde, H., Myrseth, H., Skouverøe, K., Bjorvatn, B., & Pallesen, S. (2011). The relationship between media use in the bedroom, sleep habits and symptoms of insomnia. Journal of Sleep Research, 20(4), pp. 569-575.

Bryant, J. & Zillmann, D. (1991). Responding to the screen: reception and reaction processes. Londen, Engeland: Routledge.

Buckhalt, J., El-Sheikh, M., Keller, P., & Kelly, R. (2009). Concurrent and longitudinal relations between children’s sleep and cognitive functioning: The moderating role of parent education. Child Development, 80(3), pp. 875-892.

Burazeri G., Gofine, J., & Kark, J. (2003). Over 8 hours of sleep-marker of increased mortality in mediterranean population: follow-up population study. Croation Medical Journal, 44(2), pp. 193-198.

Cain, N., & Gradisar, M. (2010) Electronic media use and sleep in school-aged children and adolescents: a review. Sleep Medicine 11(8), pp. 735-742.

Cajochen, C., Frey, S., Anders, D., Späti, J., Bues, M;, & Pross, A. (2011). Evening exposure to light-emitting diosed (LED)-backlit computer screen affects circadian physiology and cognitive performance. Journal of Applied Physiology, 110(5), pp. 1432-1438.

Calamaro C.J., Mason T., & Ratcliffe S.J. (2009). Adolescents living the 24/7 lifestyle: effects of caffeine and technology on sleep duration and daytime functioning. Pediatrics, 123(6), pp. 1005–1010.

Carskadon, M.A.,Harvey, K., Duke, P., et al. (1980). Pubertal changes in daytime sleepiness. Sleep, 2(4), pp. 453–460.

Chahal, H., Fung, C., Kuhle, S., & Veugelers, P. (2013). Availability and night-time use of electronic entertainment and communication devices are associated with short sleep duration and obesity among Canadian children. Pediatrics Obesity, 8(1), pp. 42-51.

Chatzitheochari, S., & Arber, S. (2009). Lack of sleep, work and long hours culture, evidence from the UK Time Use Survey. Work employment and Society, 23(1), pp. 30-48.

Colwell, J., & Kato, M. (2005). Video game play in Britisch and Japanese adolescents. Simultation and gaming, 36(4), pp. 518-530.

Custers, K., & Van den Bulck, J. (2012). Television viewing, internet use, and self-reported bedtime and rise time in adults: implications for sleep hygiene recommendations for an exploratory cross-sectional study. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 10(2), pp. 96-105.

De Ridder, D., & De Wit, J. (2006). Self regulation of health behaviour: Concepts, theories and central issues. In: De Ridder D, De Wit, J (eds). Self-Regulation in Health Behaviour. Chichester: Wiley, pp. 1-23.

De Ridder, D., Lensvelt-Mulders, G., Finkenauer, C., Stok, M., & Baumeister, R. (2012). Taking stock of self-control: a meta-analysis of ow trait self-control relates to a wide range of behaviors. Pers. Soc. Psychol Rev., 16(1), pp. 76-99.

Devís-Devísa, J., Peiró-Velertb, C., Beltrán-Carrilloc, V., & Tomásd, J. (2009). Screen media time usage of 12-16 year-old Spanish school adolescents: Effects of personal and socioeconomic factors, season and type of day. Journal of Adolescence, 32(2), pp. 213-231.

Dollman, J., Ridley, K., Olds, T., & Lowe, E. (2007). Trends in the duration of school-day sleep among 10- to 15-year-old South Australians between 1985 and 2004. Acta Paediatr, 96(7), pp. 1011–1014.

Eggermont, S., & Van den Bulck, J. (2006). Nodding off or switching off? The use of popular media as a sleep aid in secondary-school children. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 42(7-8), pp. 428–33.

Elkin, A. J., & Murray, D. J. (1974). The effects of sleep loss on short-term recognition memory. Canadian Journal of Psychology/Revue Canadienne De Psychologie28(2), pp. 192–198.

El-Sheikh, M., Buckhalt, J. A., Cummings, E. M., & Keller, P. (2007). Sleep disruptions and emotional insecurity are pathways of risk for children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry48(1), pp. 88–96.

El-Sheikh, M., Kelly, R., Buckhalt, J., & Hinnant, J. (2010). Children’s sleep and adjustment over time: The role of socioeconomic context. Child Development, 81(3), pp. 870-883.

El-Sheikh, M., & Arsiwalla, D. D. (2011). Children's sleep, skin conductance level and mental health. Journal of Sleep Research, 20(2), pp. 326–337.

Eggermont, S., & Van den Bulck, J. (2006). Nodding off or switching off? The use of popular media as a sleep aid in secondary-school children. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 42(7-8), 428–433.

Exelmans, L. (7/12/2015). In de ban van het scherm: over slaaptekort, media en een emmer zand. [10/12/2015, KU Leuven Blogt: http://kuleuvenblogt.be/2015/12/07/in-de-ban-van-het-scherm-over-slaapt…]

Exelmans, L., & Van den Bulck, J. (2014). The Use of Media as a Sleep Aid in Adults. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, (ahead-of-print), pp. 1-13.

Exelmans, L., & Van den Bulck, J. (2014). Sleep quality is negatively related to video gaming volume in adults. Journal of Sleep Research, 24(2), pp. 189-196.

Exelmans, L., Van den Bulck, J. (2015). Technology and Sleep: How Electronic Media Exposure Has Impacted Core Concepts of Sleep Medicine. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 00, pp. 1-3.

Exelmans, L., & Van den Bulck, J. (2016). Bedtime mobile phone use and sleep in adults. Social Science & Medicine, 148, pp. 93-101.

Ferrari, J., O’Callaghan, J., & Newbegin, I. (2005). Prevalence of procrastination in the United States, United Kingdom and Australia: Arousal and avoidance delays among adults. North American Journal of Psychology, 7(1), pp. 1-6.

Fisher, R. (1993). Social desirability bias and the validity of indirect questioning. Journal of Consummer Research, 20(2), pp. 303-315.

Fiqueiro, M., Wood B., Plitnick, B., & Rea, M. (2011). The impact of light from computer monitors on melatonin levels in college studentes. Neuro Endocrinol Lett, 32(2), pp. 158-163.

Ford, E.S., Li, C., Wheaton, A.G., Chapman, D.P., Perry, G.S., & Croft, J.B. (2014). Sleep duration and body mass index and waist circumference among US adults. Obesity, 22(2), pp. 598-607.

Fossum, I., Nornes, L., Storemark, S., Bjorvatn, B., & Pallesen, S. (2014). The association between use of electronic media in bed before going to bed and insomnia symptoms, daytime sleepiness, morningness, and chronotype. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 12(5), pp. 343-357.

Friese, M., Hofmann, W., & Wänke, M. (2008). When impulses take over: moderated predictive validity of implicit and explicit attitude measures in predicting food choice and consumption behaviour. British Journal of Social Psychology, 47, pp. 397-419.

Fuligni, A. J., & Hardway, C. (2006). Daily variation in adolescents’ sleep, activities, and psychological well-being. Journal of Research on Adolescence16(3), pp. 353–378.

Gaina, A. et al. (2006). Epidemiological aspects of self-reported sleep onset latency in Japanese junior high school children. Journal of  Sleep Research, 15(3), pp. 266-275.

Gale, C., & Martyn, C. (1998). Larks and owls and health, wealth and wisdom. Britisch Medical Journal, 317, pp. 1675-1677.

Gamble, A.L., D'Rozario, A.L., Bartlett, D.J., Williams, S., Bin, Y.S., et al. (2014). Adolescent sleep patterns and night-time technology use: results of the Australian broadcasting corporation's big sleep survey. Plos one, 9(11), pp. 1-9.

Garcia-Continente, X, Pérez-Giménez, A., Espelt, A., & Adell, M. (2013). Factors associated with media use among adolescents: A multilevel approach. European Journal of Public Health, 24(1), pp. 5-10.

Garmy, P., Nyberg, P., & Jacobsson, U. (2012) Sleep and television and computer habits of Swedish school-age children. The Journal of School Nursing, 28(6), pp. 469-476.

Gellis, L.A., & Lichstein, K.L. (2009). Sleep hygiene practices of good and poor sleepers in the United States: An internet-based study. Behavior Therapy, 40(1), pp. 1-9.

Gentile, D. A., Lynch, P. J., Linder, J. R., & Walsh, D. A. (2004). The effects of violent video game habits on adolescent hostility, aggressive behaviors, and school performance. Journal of Adolescence, 27(1), pp. 5–22.

Grandner, M., Patel, N., Gehrman, P., Xie, D., Sha, D., Weaver, T., & Gooneratne, N. (2010). Who gets the best sleep? Ethnic and socioeconomic factors related to sleep disturbance. Sleep Medicine, 11(5), pp. 470-478.

Green, M. C., & Brock, T.C. (2000). The role of transportation in the persuasiveness of public narratives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(5), pp. 701-721.

Green, M.C. & Brock, T.C. (2004). Understanding media enjoyment: the role of transportation into narrative worlds. Communication Theory, 14(4), pp. 311-327.

Gross, E. F., Juvonen, J., & Gable, S. L. (2002). Internet use and wellbeing in adolescence. The Journal of Social Issues, 58, pp.75–90.

Gupta, N. J., Mueller, W. H., Chan, W., & Meininger, J. C. (2002). Is obesity associated with poor sleep quality in adolescents? American Journal of Human Biology, 14(6), pp. 762–768.

Hale, L., Berger, L.M., LeBourgeois, M.K., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2011). A longitudinal study of preschoolers’ language-based bedtime routines, sleep duration, and well-being. Journal of Family Psychology, 25(3), pp. 423-433.

Harada, T., Morikuni, M., Yoshii, S., Yamashita, Y., & Takeuchi, H. (2002). Usage of mobile phone in the evening or at night makes Japanese students evening-typed and night sleep uncomfortable. Sleep and Hypnosis, 4(4), pp. 149-153.

Hart, C. N., & Jelalian, E. (2008). Shortened sleep duration is associated with pediatric overweight. Behavioral Sleep Medicine6(4), pp. 251–267.

Heath, M., Sutherland, C., Bartel, K., Gradisar, M., Williamson, P., Lovato, N., et al. (2014). Does one hour of bright or short-wavelength filtered tablet screenlight have a meaningful effect on adolescents’ pre-bedtime alertness, sleep and daytime functioning? Chronobiology International, 31(4), pp. 496-505.

Higuchi, S., Motohashi, Y., Liu, Y., & Maeda, A. (2005). Effects of playing a computer game using bright display on presleep psychological variables, sleep latency, slow wave sleep and REM sleep. Journal of Sleep Research, 14(3), pp. 267-273.

Higuchi, S., Motohashi, Y., Ahara, M., & Kaneko, Y. (2003). Effects of VDT tasks with a bright display at night on melatonin, core temperature, heart rate and sleepiness. Journal of Applied Physiology, 94(5), pp. 1773-1776.

Hoch, S.J., & Loewenstein, G.F. (1991). Time-inconsistent preferences and consumer selfcontrol. Journal of Consumer Research, 17, pp. 492-507.

Hofmann, W., Rauch, W., Gawronski, B. (2007). And deplete us not into temptation: automatic attitudes, dietary restraint, and self-regulatory resources as determinants of eating behaviour. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43(3), pp. 497-504.

Hofmann, W., Vohs, K., & Baumeister, R. (2012). What people desire, feel conflicted about, and try to resist in everyday life. Psychological Science, 23(6), pp. 582-588.

Howell, A. J., Digdon, N. L., Buro, K., & Sheptycki, A. R. (2008). Relations among mindfulness, well-being, and sleep. Personality and Individual Differences45(8), pp. 773–777.

Huston, A. C., Donnerstein, E., Fairchild, H., Feshbach, N. D., Katz, P. A., Murray, J. P., et al. (1992). Big world, small screen: The role of television in American society. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Hysing, M. Pallesen, S. Stormark, K.M., et al. (2013). Sleep patterns and insomnia among adolescents: a population-based study. Journal of Sleep Research, 22(5), pp. 549-556.

Hysing, M., Stormark, K.M., Jakobsen, R., & Lundervold, A.J. (2015). Sleep and use of electronic devices in adolescence: results from a large population based study. BMJ Open, 5(1), pp. 1-8. 

Iglowstein, I., Jenni, O.G., Molinari, L., & Largo, R.H. (2003). Sleep duration from infancy to adolescence: reference values and generational trends. Pediatrics, 111(2), pp. 302–307.

Jaffe, M. P., Smolensky, M. H., & Wun, C. C. (1996). Sleep quality and physical and social well-being in North American petrochemical shift workers. Southern Medical Journal89(3), pp. 305–312.

Johnson, C.,& Lason, R. (1982). Bulimia: An analysis ofmoods and behavior. In: Baumeister, R.F, Muraven, M., & Tice, D.M. (2000). Social cognition, 18(2), pp. 130- 150.

Khalsa, S., Jewett, M., Cajochen, C., & Czeisler, C. (2003). A phase response curve to single bright light pulses in human subjects. The Journal of Physiology, 549(3), pp. 945-952.

King, D. L., Gradisar, M., Drummond, A., Lovato, N., Wessel, J., Micic, G., Douglas, P., & Delfabbro, D. (2012). The impact of prolonged violent video-gaming on adolescent sleep: An experimental study. Journal Of Sleep Research, 22(2), pp. 137-143.

Klackenberg, G. (1982). Sleep behaviour studied longitudinally. Acta Paediatr Scand, 71(3), pp. 501–506.

Knutson, K., & Lauderdale, D. (2009). Sociodemographic and behavioural predictors of bedtime and wake time among U.S. adolescents aged 15-17 years. Journal of Pediatrics, 154(3), pp. 426-430

Kraut, R., Patterson, M., Lundmark, V., Kiesler, S., Mukopadhyay, T., & Scherlis, W. (1998). Internet paradox: A social media that reduces social involvement and psychological wellbeing? The American Psychologist, 53, pp. 1017–1031.

Kroese, F., De Ridder, D., Evers, C., & Adriaanse, M. (2014). Bedtime procrastination: introducing a new area of procrastination. Frontiers in Psychology, Published online.

Kroese, F., Evers, C., Adriaanse, M, & De Ridder, D. (2014). Bedtime procrastination: A self-regulation perspective on sleep insufficiency in the general population. Journal of Health Psychology, [Epub ahead of print], pp. 1-10.

Krueger, P., & Friedman, E. (2009). Sleep duration in the United States: A cross-sectional population-based study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 169(9), pp. 1052-1063.

Kubey, R.W. (1986). Television use in everyday life: Coping with unstructured time. Journal of Communication, 36(3), pp. 108-123.

Kubey, R.W., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Television and the quality of life: How viewing shapes everyday experience. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Kubiszewski, V., Fontaine, R., Rusch, E., & Hazouard, E. (2013).  Association between electronic media use and sleep habits: an eight day follow-up study. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 19(3), pp. 395-407.

LaRose, R., Lin, C., & Eastin, M. (2003). Unregulated Internet usage: addiction, habit or deficient self-regulation? Media Psychology, 5(3), pp. 225-253.

Lauderdale, D. Knutson, K., Yan, L., Rathouz, P., Hulley, S., Sidney, S., Liu, K. (2006). Objectively measured sleep characteristics among early-middle-aged adults: the CARDIA study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 164(1), pp. 5-16.

Lemola, S., Perkinson-Gloor, N., Brand, S., Dewald-Kaufmann, J., & Grob, A. (2014). Adolescents’ electronic media use at night, sleep disturbance, and depressive symptoms in the smartphone age. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 15(4), pp. 405-418.

Lenhart, A., Ling, R., Campbell, S., & Purcell, K. (2010). Teens and mobile Phones. [12/12/2015, Pew Research Center: http://www.pewinternet.org/2010/04/20/teens-and-mobile-phones/].

Li, S., Jin, X., Wu, S., et al (2007). The impact of media use on sleep patterns and sleep disorders among school-aged children in china. Sleep, 30(3), pp. 361–367.

Li, S., Zhu, S., Jin, X., Yan, C., Wu, S., Jiang, F., & Shen, X. (2010). Risk factors associated with short sleep duration among Chinese school-aged children. Sleep Medicine, 11(9), pp. 907-916.

Mah, W. Y., Wu, T. C., Hui, D., Lam, P. S., Tse, Y. H., Yu, Y.W., & Wong, T. H. (2014). Association between screen viewing duration and sleep duration, sleep quality, and excessive daytime sleepiness among adolescents in Hong Kong. Internation Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11(11), pp. 11201-11219.

Marshall, S. J., Gorely, T., & Biddle, S. J. H. (2006). A descriptive epidemiology of screen-based media use in youth: A review and critique. Journal of Adolescence, 29, pp. 333–349.

Martella, D., Plaza, V., Estévez, A. F., Castillo, A., & Fuentes, L. J. (2012). Minimizing sleep deprivation effects in healthy adults by differential outcomes. Acta Psychologica, 139(3), pp. 391-396

McComb, M. (1972). Mass media in the marketplace. Journalism Monograph, 24, pp. 1-104

McCoy, J. G., & Strecker, R. E. (2011). The cognitive cost of sleep lost. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory96(4), pp. 564–582.

Meeker, M. (2015). Internet trends 2015 – Code Conforence.  USA: KPCB [27.05.2015, KPCB: http://www.kpcb.com/internet-trends].

Mezick, E., Matthews, K., Hall, M., et al. (2008). Influence of race and socioeconomic status on sleep: Pittsburgh SleepSCORE project. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70(4), pp. 410-416.

Minkel, J. D., Banks, S., Htaik, O., et al. (2012). Sleep deprivation and stressors: Evidence for elevated negative affect in response to mild stressors when sleep deprived. Emotion12(5), pp. 1015-1020.

Moruzzi, G., & Magoun, H.W. (1949). Brain stem reticular formation and activation of the EEG. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1(1-4), pp. 455-473.

Mukhopadhyay, A., Sengupta, J., & Ramanathan, S. (2008). Recalling past temptations: an information-processing perspective on the dynamics of self-control. Journal of Consumer Research, 35, pp. 586-599.

Munezawa, T., Kaneita, Y., Osaki, Y., Kanda, H., Minowa, M., & Suzuki, K. (2011). The association between use of mobile phones after lights out and sleep disturbances among Japanse adolescents: a nationwide cross-sectional survey. Sleep, 34(8), pp. 1013-1020.

Muraven, M., & Baumeister, R. (2000). Self-regulation and Depletion of Limited Resources: Does Self-Control Resemble a Muscle? Psychological Bulletin, 126(2), pp. 247-259.

Muraven, M., Tice, D.M., & Baumeister, R.F. (1998). Self-Control as Limited Resource: Regulatory Depletion Patterns. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(3), pp.774-789.

Muraven, M., Baumeister, R.F., &. Tice, D.M. (1999). Longitudinal Improvement of SelfRegulation Through Practice: Building Self-Control Strength Through Repeated Exercise. Journal of Social Psychology, 139(4), pp. 446-457.

Nag, C., & Pradhan, R. K. (2012). Impact of television on sleep habits. Biological Rhythm Research, 34(4), pp. 423-430.

National Sleep Foundation (2014). 2014 Sleep in America Poll: Sleep in the modern family. USA: Onbekend [29/10/2015, National Sleep Foundation: http://sleepfoundation.org/sites/default/files/2014-NSF-Sleep-in-Americ…].

Nielsen (30/11/2011). Television Audience Report 2010-2011. [29/10/2015, Nielsen: http://www.nielsen.com/content/dam/corporate/us/en/reports-downloads/20…].

Nielsen (03/12/2013). A look across the media: the cross-platform report Q3 2013. [25/11/2015, Nielsen: http://www.nielsen.com/us/en/insights/reports/2013/a-look-across-media-…].

Nielsen (23/06/2015). The total audience report: Q1 2015. [22/11/2015, Nielsen: http://www.nielsen.com/us/en/insights/reports/2015/the-total-audience-r…].

Nuutinen, T., Ray, C., & Roos, E. (2013). Do comuter use, TV viewing, and the presence of the media in the bedroom predict school-aged children’s sleep habits in a longitudinal study. BMC Public Health, 13, Published online.

Orzech, K.M., Grandner, M.A., Roance, B.M., & Carskadon, M.A. (2015). Digital media use in the 2 h before bedtime is associated with sleep variables in university students. Computers in Human Behaviour, 55(part A), pp. 43-50.

Oshima, N., Nishida, A., Shimodera, S., Tochigi, M., Ando, S., Yamasaki, S., et al. (2012). The suicidal feelings, self-injury, and mobile phone use after lights out in adolescents. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 37(9), pp. 1023-1030.

Owens J,. Maxim R., McGuinn M., Nobile C., & Msall M. (1999) Television-viewing habits and sleep disturbance in school children. Pediatrics, 104(3), pp.104-127.

Paavonen, E.J., Pennonen, M., Roine, M. et al. (2006). TV exposure associated with sleep disturbances in 5- to 6-year-old children. Journal of Sleep Research, 15(2), pp. 154–161.

Paavonen, E., Porkka-Heiskanen, T., & Lahikainen, A. R. (2009). Sleep quality, duration and behavioral symptoms among 5–6-year-old children. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry18(12), pp. 747–754.

Panek, E. (2013). Left to their own devices: college students’ “Guilty Pleasure” media use and time management. Communication Research, 41(4), pp. 561-577.

Pallesen S., Hetland J., Siverstsen B., et al. (2008). Time trends in sleep-onset difficulties among Norwegian adolescents: 1983-2005. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 36(8), pp. 889-895.

Pilcher, J. J., & Ott, E. S. (1998). The relationships between sleep and measures of health and well-being in college students: A repeated measures approach. Behavioral Medicine23(4), pp. 170–178.

Punamäki, R., Wallenius, M., Nygård, C., Saarni, L., & Rimpelä, A. (2007). Use of information and communication technology (ICT) and perceived health in adolescence: The role of sleeping habits and waking-time tiredness. Journal of Adolesxence, 30(4), pp. 569-585.

Polos, G., Bhat, S., Smith, I., Kabak, B., Neiman, E., Sillari, J., et al. (2010). The effect of Sleep Time related information and communication technology (STRICT) on sleep patterns and daytime functioning in children and young adults: a pilot study. Chest Journal 138(4), p. 911

Polos, P., Bhat, S., Gupta, D., O’Malley, R., et al. (2015). The impact of sleep time-related information and communication technology (STRICT) on sleep patterns and daytime functiniong in American adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 44, pp. 232-244.

Rideout, V., Foehr, U., & Roberts, D. (2010). Generation M 2 : Media in the lives of 8- to 18-year-olds. Menlo Park: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation.

Reynolds, C.M., Gradisar, M., Kar, K., Perry, A., Wolfe, J., & Short, M.A. (2015). Adolescents who perceive fewer consequences of risk-taking choose to switch off games later at night. Acta Peadiatrics, 104(5), pp. 222-227.

Saarenpaa-Heikkila, O.A., Rintahaka, P.J., et al. (2000). Subjective daytime sleepiness and related predictors in Finnish schoolchildren. Family Practices, 17(2), pp. 139-146.

Shiv, B., & Fedorikhin, A. (1999). Heart and mind in conflict: the interplay of affect and cognition in consumer decision making. Journal of Consumer Research, 26, pp. 278-292.

Snell, E. K., Adam, E. K., & Duncan, G. (2007). Sleep and the body mass index and overweight status of children and adolescents. Child Development, 78(1), pp. 309-323.

Solomon, L. & Rothblum, E. (1984). Academic procrastination: frequency and cognitive-behavioral correlates. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 33(4), pp. 503-509.

Stamatakis, E, Hillsdon, M., Mishra, G., Hamer, M., & Marmot, M. (2009). Television viewing and other screen-based entertainment in relation to multiple socioeconomic status indicators and area deprivation: The Scottisch Health Survey 2003. Journal of Epidemiological Community Health, 63(9), pp. 734-740.

Steel, P. (2007). The nature of procrastination: a meta-analytic and theoretical revieuw of quintessential self-regulatory failure. Psychological Bulletin, 133(1), pp. 65-94.

Steptoe, A., O'Donnell, K., Marmot, M., & Wardle, J. (2008). Positive affect, psychological well-being, and good sleep. Journal of Psychosomatic Research64(4), pp. 409–415.

Stunkard, A. J, Grace, W.J., & Wolff, H. G (1955). The night-eating syndrome: A pattern of food intake among certain obese patients. In: Baumeister, R.F., Muraven, M., & Tice, D.M. (2000). Social Cognition, 18(2), pp. 130-150.

Suganuma, N., Kikuchi, T., Yanagi, K., Yamamura, S., et al. (2007). Using electronic media before sleep can curtail sleep time and result in self-perceived insufficient sleep. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 5(3), pp. 204–214.

Szymczak, J.T., Jasinska, M., Pawlak, E., Zwierzykowska, M. (1993). Annual and weekly changes in the sleep–wake rhythm of school children. Sleep, 16(5), pp. 433–435.

Tanaka, H., Taira, K., Arakawa, M., Masuda, A., et al. (2002). An examination of sleep health, lifestyle and mental health in junior high school students. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences56(3), pp. 235–236.

Tang, N. K. Y., & Harvey, A. G. (2004). Effects of cognitive arousal and physiological arousal on sleep perception. Sleep, 27(1), pp. 69-78

Tangney, J., Baumeister, R., & Boone, A. (2004). High self-control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades and interpersonal success. Journal of Personality 72(2), pp. 271-324.

Tice, D., Baumeister, R., Shmueli, D., & Muraven, M. (20007). Restoring the self: Positive affect helps improve self-regulation following ego depletion. Journal of Experimentel Social Psychology, 43(3), pp. 379-384.

Tice, D., & Bratslavsky, E. (2000). Giving in to feel good: the place of emotion regulation in the context of general self-control. Psychological Inquiry, 11(3), pp. 149-159.

Tice, D. M., Bratslavsky, E., & Baumeister, R.F. (2001). Emotional distress regulation takes precedence over impulse control: if you feel bad, do it! Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(1), pp. 53-67.

Tomasi, D., Wang, R. L., Telang, F., Boronikolas, V., Jayne, M. C., Wang, G. J., et al. (2009). Impairment of attentional networks after 1 night of sleep deprivation. Cerebral Cortex, 19, pp. 233-240

Toyran, M., Ozmert, E., & Yurdakok, K. (2002) Television viewing and its effect on physical health of schoolage children. Turkish Journal of Pediatrics, 44(3) pp. 194-203.

Tyler, J., & Burns, K. (2008). After depletion: the replenishment of the self’s regulatory resources. Self and Identity, 7(3), pp. 305-321.

Tynjala, J., Kannas, L., & Valimaa, R. (1993). How young Europeans sleep. Health Education Research 8(1), pp. 69-80.

Van den Bulck, J. (2000). Is television bad for your health? Behavior and body image of the adolescent “couch potato”. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 29(3), pp. 273-288.

Van den Bulck, J. (2004). Television viewing, computer game playing, and internet use and self-reported time to bed and time out of bed in secondary-school children. Sleep, 27(1), pp. 101–104.

Webb, T.L, & Sheeran, P. (2003). Can implementation intentions help to overcome egodepletion? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39(3), pp. 297-286.

Westerik, H., Renckstorf, K., Wester, F., & Lammers, J. (2005). The situational and time-varying context of routines in television viewing: an event history analysis. Communications, 30(2), pp. 155-182.

Wuyts, J., De Valck, E., Vandekerckhove, M., Pattyn, N., Bulckaert, A., Berckmans, D., Haex, B., Verbraecken, J., & Cluydts, R. (2011). The influence of pre-sleep cognitive arousal on sleep onset processes. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 83(1), pp. 8-15.

Yen, C.F., Ko. C.H., Yen, J.Y., & Cheng, C.P. (2008) The multidimentional correlates associated with short nocturnal sleep duration and subjective insomnia among Taiwanese adolescents. Sleep, 31(11), pp. 1515-1525.

Yokomaku, A., Misao, K., Omoto, F., Yamagishi, R., Tanaka, K., Takada, K., … Kohyama, J. (2008). A study of the association between sleep habits and problematic behaviors in preschool children. Chronobiology International, 25(4), pp. 549–564.

Zeitzer, J., Dijk, D., Kronauer, R., Brown, E., & Czeisler, C. (2000). Sensitivity of the human circadian pacemaker to nocturnal light: melatonin phase resetting and suppression. The journal of Physiology, 526(3), pp. 695-702.

Universiteit of Hogeschool
Communicatiewetenschappen
Publicatiejaar
2016
Promotor(en)
Jan Van den Bulck
Kernwoorden
Share this on: