The role of the EU Border Agency in the European Union’s Border Policy and its Impact on the Fundamental Rights of Migrants

Evelien Wauters
Een analyse van de rol van het huidige en toekomstige grensbewakingsagentschap van de Europese Unie vanuit een mensenrechtelijk perspectief.

Frontex+ dekmantel voor strenger grensbeleid

Om het hoofd te bieden aan de vluchtelingencrisis jaagt de Europese Unie in ijltempo een verordening door zijn cenakels om een nieuw en robuuster grensbewakingsagentschap op te zetten, een Frontex+. Na grondige analyse concludeert de auteur van deze thesis dat bij het nieuwe Frontex de nadruk ligt op een strenger grensbeleid en dat het voorstel amper of geen oplossing biedt voor de migranten zelf.

Europa wordt geconfronteerd met de grootste vluchtelingencrisis uit zijn geschiedenis. Niet alleen de aantallen bemoeilijken de situatie, maar ook de gemengde samenstelling van de migratiestromen. De migranten worden gedreven door uiteenlopende drijfveren maar gebruiken dezelfde migratiekanalen. Het stelt de solidariteit tussen de lidstaten zwaar op de proef en plaatst de EU en haar agentschap voor een zware uitdaging. De auteur wil met haar thesis nagaan wat de rol is van het huidige Frontex in het EU-grensbeleid en deze rol toetsen aan de mensenrechten van migranten. In het laatste deel wordt naar de toekomst gekeken, door middel van een analyse van het Europese voorstel van december 2015 dat de basis moet vormen voor het nieuwe Frontex, de European Border and Coast Guard (EBCG).

Frontex werd in het leven geroepen om de controle van de Europese buitengrenzen te ondersteunen. De focus bij de oprichting lag dus op de coördinatie tussen de verschillende, voornamelijke nationale, controlerende instanties. Echter, al van bij de start werd Frontex ingehaald door de realiteit. Opeenvolgende noodsituaties verplichtten Frontex zijn takenpakket uit te breiden. Zodat het grensbewakingsagentschap al snel operaties te land, ter zee en in de lucht zou gaan coördineren, brandjes blussen, assisteren bij het terugkeerbeleid en ter hulp worden geroepen om de 'hotspots' in Griekenland en Italië in belangrijke mate mee te beheren.

Na jarenlange druk wordt de werking van Frontex in 2011 bijgesteld met een ‘Fundamental Rights Officer’ en het ‘Consultative Forum’ met de bedoeling de mensenrechten van migranten op de agenda te plaatsen. Maar het blijft mangelen aan structurele verankering, met als achillespees de responsabilisering bij eventuele inbreuken op de mensenrechten van migranten. Door een gebrek aan transparantie in de werking van Frontex is het niet altijd evident een verantwoordelijke aan te wijzen. Bovendien is het zeer moeilijk voor een migrant om een forum te vinden waarbij hij herstel kan bekomen voor de schending van zijn fundamentele rechten.

In het laatste deel analyseert deze thesis het EBCG-voorstel dat eind 2015 werd geïnitieerd om een antwoord te bieden op de problemen die in de eerste twee delen werden blootgelegd. Het voorstel ambieert onder andere de solidariteitskwestie tussen de verschillende lidstaten aan te pakken. Met als ultieme mogelijkheid het opleggen van EU-geleide grensbewaking aan onwillige of tekortschietende lidstaten om de vluchtelingenstroom te kanaliseren.

De sleutel van het ‘solidariteitsplan’ wordt in belangrijke mate gelegd bij een efficiënt terugkeerbeleid in combinatie met de ‘hotspots’. Maar zonder toegang tot de nationale asielprocedures kunnen de kandidaat-vluchtelingen nergens heen en valt het plan vroeg of laat in duigen. Bovendien blijft het opnemen van vluchtelingen vanuit de ‘hotspots’ ook in het nieuwe voorstel de facto gebaseerd op vrijwilligheid.

Het voorstel biedt onvoldoende antwoord op de pijnpunten die in het tweede deel worden opgeworpen. Er is een onzeker engagement tot meer transparantie, nochtans een noodzaak voor het implementeren van een afdoend responsabiliseringsbeleid. Het dient dan ook geconcludeerd dat het risico op een verdere versnippering van de verantwoordelijkheden in het nieuwe Frontex alleen maar vergroot en dat de mensenrechten nog meer onder druk zullen komen te staan. Positief is dat het voorstel voorziet in de oprichting van een klachtenmechanisme. Maar voor de goede werking van dergelijk mechanisme is een onafhankelijke structuur nodig die waakt over de onpartijdige bescherming van de mensenrechten. Daarvan is geen sprake in het voorstel. De behandeling van de klachten ligt in handen van de Uitvoerende Directeur van het Agentschap.

Los van haar opmerkingen bij de technische finesses van het voorstel, pleit de auteur van de thesis voor het volledig omgooien van de structuur van het EU-grensbewakingsagentschap. Het voorstel vormt de uitgelezen kans om met een propere lei te beginnen. De auteur formuleert aan het einde van haar analyse dan ook enkele aanbevelingen voor het nieuwe agentschap.

Doordat het nieuwe Frontex de mogelijkheden tot legale migratie niet bevordert, bestaat een gegronde vrees dat de alternatieve migratieroutes nog aan belang zullen winnen. Met alle gevolgen vandien: een hogere menselijke tol en een toename van de kosten voor grensbewaking en reddingsoperaties.

Het lijkt erop dat de Europese Unie die gestoeld is op universele waarden en rechten zoals menselijke waardigheid, vrijheid, gelijkheid, solidariteit en de rechten van de mens, de voeling met het laatste ergens onderweg is verloren. Het grensbeleid moet dringend worden herbekeken en de focus moet komen te liggen op respect voor de menselijke waardigheid, transparantie en solidariteit tussen de lidstaten. Echter, zolang Frontex en het EU-grensbeleid worden geregeerd door de nationale belangen van de lidstaten is de kans op heroriëntering gering.

Bibliografie

International, regional and supranational organisations 

United Nations 

I. Treaties, conventions, etc. 

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 10 December 1948, 217 A (III) (‘UDHR’) 

Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, 28 July 1951, 189 UNTS 150 (‘Refugee Convention’). 

International Convention on Salvage, 28 April 1989, 1953 UNTS 165. 

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 21 December 1965, 660 UNTS 195. 

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 16 December 1966, 999 UNTS 171 (‘ICCPR’). 

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 16 December 1966, 993 UNTS 3 (‘ICESCR’). 

Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees, 31 January 1967, 606 UNTS 267. 

Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1 November 1974, 1184 UNTS 278. 

International Convention on maritime Search and Rescue, 27 April 1979, 1405 UNTS 97. 

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 18 December 1979, 1249 UNTS 13. 

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 10 December 1982, 1833 UNTS 3. 

Convention on the Rights of the Child, 20 November 1989, 1577 UNTS 3. 

II. Other documents 

Human Rights Council, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants, François Crépeau, ‘Banking on mobility over a generation: follow-up to the regional study on the management of the external borders of the European Union and its impact on the human rights of migrants’, 8 May 2015, A/HRC/20/24. 

International Law Commission (‘ILC’) (2011), ‘Draft articles on the Responsibility of International Organizations, with commentaries’, UN Doc A/66/10. 

ILC (2001), ‘Draft Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts’, UN Doc A/56/10. 

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IOM (2015), ‘Key Migration Terms’, <https://www.iom.int/key-migration-terms#Migrant&gt; accessed 11 November 2015.  

 

IOM (2015), ‘Migration Flows Europe – Missing migrants’, <http://migration.iom.int/europe/&gt; accessed 17 November 2015. 

UNHCR (2015), ‘Mediterranean Sea Arrivals in 2015’ <http://tinyurl.com/jeoh84t&gt; accessed 5 April 2016. 

UNHCR, 'The sea route to Europe: the Mediterranean passage in the age of refugees', 1 July 2015, <http://unhcr.org/5592bd059.html&gt; accessed 12 November 2015. 

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UNHCR (2016), ‘Refugees/Migrants Emergency Response – Mediterranean: Greece’ <http://data.unhcr.org/mediterranean/country.php?id=83&gt; accessed 3 July 2016. 

UNHCR (2016), ‘Refugees/Migrants Emergency Response – Mediterranean: Italy’ < http://data.unhcr.org/mediterranean/country.php?id=105&gt; accessed 3 July 2016. 

UNHCR (2016), ‘Refugees/Migrants Emergency Response – Mediterranean: regional overview’ < http://data.unhcr.org/mediterranean/regional.php&gt; accessed 3 July 2016. 

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (‘OECD’) 

OECD, 'Evolution of the distribution of asylum-seekers in the EU by main countries and territories of origin and by destination countries, 2013 -2015', N° 7 September 2015 <http://www.oecd.org/migration/Is-this-refugee-crisis-different.pdf, 2> accessed 12 November 2015. 

Council of Europe 

Council of Europe, European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, as amended by Protocols Nos. 11 and 14, 4 November 1950, ETS 5 (‘ECHR’). 

Council of Europe, Protocol 4 to the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, securing certain Rights and Freedoms other than those already included in the Convention and in the First Protocol thereto, 16 September 1963, ETS 46 (‘Protocol 4 ECHR’). 

Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights, ‘The Human Rights of Irregular Migrants’, Issue Paper, CommDH/IssuePaper (2007)1, Strasbourg, 17 December 2007. 

Parliament of the Council of Europe (‘PACE’), ‘The Interception and rescue at sea of asylum-seekers, refugees and irregular migrants‘, 21 June 2011, Resolution 1821, para 5.4. 

PACE, ‘Frontex: Human Rights responsibilities’, 25 April 2013, Resolution 1932, para 9.5.  

 

The European Union 

I. Treaties, conventions, etc. 

Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement of 14 June 1985 between the Governments of the States of the Benelux Economic Union, the Federal Republic of Germany and the French Republic on the gradual abolition of checks at their common borders [2000] OJ L 239/19. 

Consolidated Version of the Treaty on European Union [2008] OJ C115/13 (‘TEU’). 

Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union [2010] OJ C 83/02 (‘EU Charter’). 

Consolidated Version of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union [2012] C 326/01 (‘TFEU’). 

II. Regulations 

Council Regulation (EC) 1049/2001 of 30 May 2001 regarding public access to European Parliament, Council and Commission documents [2001] OJ L 145/43. 

Council Regulation (EC) 2007/2004 of 26 October 2004 establishing a European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union [2004] OJ L 349/1 (‘Frontex regulation’). 

Council Regulation (EC) 2133/2004 of 13 December 2004 on the requirement for the competent authorities of the Member States to systematically stamp the travel documents of third-country nationals when they cross the external borders of the Member States and amending the provisions of the Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement and the common manual to this end [2004] OJ L 369/5. 

Regulation (EC) 562/2006 establishing a Community Code on the rules governing the movement of persons across borders [2006] OJ L 105/1 (‘Schengen Borders Code’). 

Regulation (EC) 863/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council, establishing a mechanism for the creation of rapid border intervention teams (RABIT) and amending Council Regulation (EC) No. 2007/2004 in regard to that mechanism and regulating the tasks and powers of guest officers [2007] OJ L199/30 (‘RABIT Regulation’). 

Regulation (EU) No. 1168/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2011 amending Council Regulation (EC) No. 2007/2004 establishing a European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union [2011] OJ L 304/1 (‘Frontex Recast’). 

III. Decisions 

Council Decision 2004/581/EC of 29 April 2004 determining the minimum indications to be used on signs at external border crossing points [2004] OJ L 261/119. 

Council Decision (EU) 2015/1601 of 22 September 2015 establishing provisional measures in the area of international protection for the benefit of Italy and Greece [2015] OJ L 248/80.  

 

IV. Other documents 

Council of the European Union, ‘Plan for the management of the external borders of the Member States of the European Union’, 14 June 2002, 10019/02. 

Council of the European Union, ‘Conclusions on the Main Elements of the Commission Proposal for a Council Regulation Establishing a European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union’, 28 November 2003, 15446/03. 

Council of the European Union, ‘Regulation (EU) No 1053/2013 of 7 October 2013 establishing an evaluation and monitoring mechanism to verify the application of the Schengen acquis and repealing the Decision of the Executive Committee of 16 September 1998 setting up a Standing Committee on the evaluation and implementation of Schengen”, 6 November 2013, OJ L 295/27 (‘Schengen evaluation mechanism Regulation’). 

Council of the European Union, ‘Mandate for negotiations with the European Parliament on the European Border Guard regulation’, 8 April 2016, 7649/16 (‘the Council’s Negotiating Position’) <http://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST-7649-2016-INIT/en/pdf&gt; accessed on 15 April 2016. 

Council of the European Union, ‘Outcome of the Justice and Home Affairs Council Meeting’, 21 April 2016, 8065/16 <http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/meetings/jha/2016/04/21/&gt; accessed on 21 June 2016. 

European Commission ‘Towards integrated management of the external borders of the Member States of the European Union’, 07 May 2002, COM (2002) 233 final. 

European Commission, ‘Proposal for a Council Regulation Establishing a European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders’, 11 November 2003, COM (2003) 687. 

European Commission, ‘Proposal for a Regulation of the Parliament and the Council on the European Border and Coast Guard and repealing Regulation (EC) No 2007/2004, Regulation (EC) No 863/2007 and Council Decision’ 2005/267/EC COM(2015), 15 December 2016, 671 final (‘EBCG Proposal’). 

European Commission, Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, A European Agenda on Migration, 13 May 2015, COM(2015) 240. 

European Commission, Next operational steps in EU-Turkey cooperation in the field of migration, 16 March 2016, COM(2016) 166. 

European Commission, ‘Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the European Council and the Council: First Report on the progress made in the implementation of the EU-Turkey Statement’, 20 April 2016, COM(2016) 231 final. 

European Commission, ‘Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the European Council, the Council and the European Investment Bank on establishing a new Partnership Framework with third countries under the European Agenda on Migration’, 7 June 2016, COM(2016) 385 final. 

European Council, ‘Presidency conclusions European Council Meeting Laeken 14 and 15 December 2001’, 00300/1/01. 

European External Action Service (‘EEAS’), ‘Shared Vision, Common Action: A Stronger Europe - A Global Strategy for the European Union’s Foreign and Security Policy’, 28 June 2016 < http://eeas.europa.eu/top_stories/pdf/eugs_review_web.pdf&gt; accessed 1 July 2016. 

European Ombudsman, Case OI/5/2012/BEH-MHZ, Letter from the European Ombudsman to the Frontex concerning his draft recommendation, 9 April 2013. 

European Ombudsman, Case OI/5/2012/BEH-MHZ, Decision of the European Ombudsman closing own-initiative inquiry OI/5/2012/BEH-MHZ concerning the European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union (Frontex), 7 November 2013.  

 

European Ombudsman, Case 0I/5/2012/BEH-MHZ, Special Report of the European Ombudsman in own-initiative inquiry OI/5/2012/BEH-MHZ concerning Frontex, 12 November 2013. 

European Ombudsman, Case OI/9/2014/MHZ, Decision of the European Ombudsman closing her own-initiative inquiry OI/9/2014/MHZ concerning the European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union (Frontex), 4 May 2015. 

European Parliament, ‘European Parliament resolution of 2 December 2015 on the Special Report of the European Ombudsman in own-initiative inquiry OI/5/2012/BEH-MHZ concerning Frontex (2014/2215(INI))’, 2 December 2015, P8_TA(2015)0422. 

European Parliament, ‘Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs Draft Report on the proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the European Border and Coast Guard and repealing Regulation (EC) No 2007/2004, Regulation (EC) No 863/2007 and Council Decision 2005/267/EC (COM(2015)0671 – C8-0408/2015 – 2015/0310(COD))’, 22 March 2016, PE578.803 (‘LIBE’s Draft Report’). 

European Parliament, ‘Draft European Parliament Legislative Resolution on the proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the European Border and Coast Guard and repealing Regulation (EC) No 2007/2004, Regulation (EC) No 863/2007 and Council Decision 2005/267/EC (COM(2015)0671 – C8-0408/2015 – 2015/0310(COD))’, 6 June 2016, A8-0200/2016 (‘Draft European Parliament Legislative Resolution’). 

European Parliament, ‘European Parliament legislative resolution of 6 July 2016 on the proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the European Border and Coast Guard and repealing Regulation (EC) No 2007/2004, Regulation (EC) No 863/2007 and Council Decision 2005/267/EC (COM(2015)0671 – C8-0408/2015 – 2015/0310(COD))’, 6 July 2016, P8_TA(2016)0305 (‘European Parliament Legislative Resolution’). 

Eurostat (2015), ‘Asylum and new asylum applicants – monthly data’, <http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/tgm/table.do?tab=table&init=1&language=en&…; accessed 17 November 2015. 

Eurostat, ‘Asylum quarterly report’, 15 June 2016 <http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Asylum_quar…; accessed 3 July 2016. 

Frontex (2006), ‘Frontex Annual Report 2006: Coordination of intelligence driven operational cooperation at EU level to strengthen security at external borders’ <http://frontex.europa.eu/assets/About_Frontex/Governance_documents/Annu…; accessed 9 June 2016. 

Frontex, Operation Division – Joint Operations Unit, ‘Concept of reinforced joint operation tackling the migratory flows towards Italy: JO EPN triton to better control irregular and contribute to SAR in the Mediterranean Sea’, 28 August 2014, Reg. No 2014/JOU Limited <https://www.proasyl.de/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/JOU_Concept_on_EPN-TR…; accessed 9 July 2016. 

Frontex (2015), ‘Trends and routes – Migratory routes map’, <http://frontex.europa.eu/trends-and-routes/migratory-routes-map/&gt; accessed 12 November 2015. 

Frontex, ‘Frontex Risk Analysis for 2016’, 5 April 2016 <http://frontex.europa.eu/assets/Publications/Risk_Analysis/Annula_Risk_…; accessed 9 April 2016. 

Fundamental Rights Agency of the European Union (‘FRA’), ‘The fundamental rights of migrants in an irregular situation in the European Union’, November 2011 <http://fra.europa.eu/sites/default/files/fra_uploads/1827 FRA_2011_Migrants_in_an_irregular_situation_EN.pdf> accessed 1 July 2016.  

 

Non-governmental organisations 

Amnesty International, ‘Human Cost of Fortress Europe – Human Rights Violations against Migrants and Refugees at Europe’s Borders’, July 2014 < http://www.amnesty.eu/content/assets/Reports/EUR_050012014__Fortress_Eu…; accessed 6 June 2015. 

Amnesty International, ‘Europe’s Gatekeeper: unlawful detention and deportation of refugees from Turkey’, 16 December 2015 <https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/eur44/3022/2015/en/&gt; accessed 11 March 2016. 

Amnesty International, International Commission of Jurists and ECRE, ‘Joint briefing on the European Border and Coast Guard regulation’, 4 April 2016 < http://www.amnesty.eu/content/assets/Docs_2016/ReportsBriefings/EBCGReg…; accessed 20 April 2016. 

Asylum Information Database (2016), ‘Registration of the asylum application’ < http://www.asylumineurope.org/reports/country/hungary/asylum-procedure/…; accessed 3 July 2016. 

European Council on Refugees and Exiles (‘ECRE’), ‘Defending Refugees’ Access to Protection in Europe’, December 2007 <http://www.ecre.org/component/downloads/downloads/60.html&gt; accessed 18 November 2015. 

ECRE, ‘ECRE strongly opposes legitimizing push-backs by declaring Turkey a ‘safe third country’, 29 January 2016 <http://ecre.org/component/content/article/70-weekly-bulletin-articles/1…; accessed 11 March 2016. 

Human Rights Watch, ‘The EU’s Dirty Hands: Frontex Involvement in Ill‐Treatment of Migrant Detainees in Greece’, September 2011 <https://www.hrw.org/report/2011/09/21/eus-dirty-hands/frontex-involveme…; accessed 20 July 2016. 

Human Rights Watch, ‘Turkey: Syrians Pushed Back at the Border’, 23 November 2015 <https://www.hrw.org/news/2015/11/23/turkey-syrians-pushed-back-border&gt; accessed 11 March 2016. 

Human Rights Watch, ‘EU/Balkans/Greece: Border Curbs Threaten Rights: discriminatory actions causing chaos, crisis’, 1 March 2016 <https://www.hrw.org/news/2016/03/01/eu/balkans/greece-border-curbs-thre…; accessed 8 March 2016. 

Platform for international cooperation on undocumented migrants (‘PICUM’) (2014), ‘PICUM Bulletin – 27 January 2014’ <http://picum.org/en/news/bulletins/42771/&gt; accessed 9 June 2015. 

Statewatch, ‘Why Turkey is not a ‘safe country’, February 2016 <http://www.statewatch.org/analyses/no-283-why-turkey-is-not-a-safe-coun…; accessed 11 March 2016. 

Vluchtelingenwerk Vlaanderen (2014), ‘Kosovo – landenfiche 2014’, <http://www.vluchtelingenwerk.be/sites/default/files/landenfiche_kosovo…; accessed 17 November 2015. 

Jurisprudence 

I. ICCPR Human Rights Committee 

HRC, Osman Jasin v Denmark CCPR/C/114/D/2360/2014, 22 July 2015. 

HRC, Lilian Celiberti de Casariego v. Uruguay CCPR/C/13/D/56/1979, 29 July 1981.  

 

II. European Court of Human Rights 

ECtHR, Loizidou v. Turkey Application Application no. 15318/, 23 February 1995. 

ECtHR, Soering v. The United Kingdom Application no. 14038/88, 7 July 1989. 

ECtHR, Xhavara & Ors v. Italy & Albania Application no. 39473/98, 11 January 2001. 

ECtHR, M.S.S. v Belgium and Greece Application No. 30696/09, 21 January 2011. 

ECtHR, Al-Skeini and Others v. United Kingdom Application no. 55721/07, 7 July 2011. 

ECtHR, Hirsi Jamaa and others v Italy Application no. 27765/09, 23 February 2012. 

ECtHR, Khlaifia and Others v. Italy Application no. 16483/12, 1 September 2015. 

III. Court of Justice of the European Union 

Case C-132/77 Société pour l’Exportation des Sucres [1978] ECR 1061. 

Case C‑77/05 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland v Council of the European Union [2007] ECR I – 11501. 

Legal doctrine 

I. Books 

BALDACCINI, A., ‘Extraterritorial Border Controls in the EU: The Role of Frontex in Operations at Sea’ in RYAN, B., and MITSILEGAS, V. (eds), Extraterritorial Immigration Control: Legal Challenges (Leiden, Martinus Nijhoff 2010) 229–255. 

CHEBEL D’APPOLLONIA, A., REICH, S. (eds), Immigration, Integration, and Security: America and Europe in Comparative Perspective (Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Press 2008) (New York, Routledge 2009). 

COLLINSON, S., Beyond Borders: West European Migration Policy Towards the 21st Century (London, Royal Institute of International Affairs 1993). 

GOODWIN-GILL, G.S. and MCADAM, J., The refugee in international law (Oxford, 3rd edn, Oxford University Press 2007). 

DEN HEIJER, M., ‘Europe beyond its borders: Refugee and Human Rights Protection in Extraterritorial Immigration Control’ in RYAN, B., and MITSILEGAS, V. (eds), Extraterritorial Immigration Control: Legal Challenges (Leiden, Martinus Nijhoff 2010) 169-198. 

WOLFF, S., and SCHOUT, A., ‘Frontex as Agency: More of the Same?’ in KAUNERT, C., LÉONARD, S. and OCCHIPINTI J.D., Justice and Home Affairs Agencies in the European Union (London, 1st edn, Routledge 2015) 33-53. 

MARIN, L., ‘Protecting the EU’s borders from … Fundamental Rights? Squaring the Circle between Frontex’s Border Surveillance and Human Rights’ in R. L. HOLZHACKER and P. LUIF (eds), Freedom, Security and Justice in the European Union (New York, Springer Science+Business Media 2014) 75-99. 

MONAR, J., ‘The External Shield of the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice: Progress and Deficits of the Integrated Management of External EU Borders’ in DE ZWAAN, J., and GOUDAPPEL, F. (eds), Freedom, Security and Justice in the European Union: Implementation of the Hague Programme (The Hague, T. M. C. Asser Press 2006) 73-88. 

MONAR, J., ‘The Project of a European Border Guard: Origins, Models and Prospects in the Context of the EU’s Integrated External Border Management’, in CAPARINI, M. and MARENIN, O. (eds), Borders and Security Governance: Managing Borders in a Globalised World (Geneva, Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF) 2006) 193-208. 

MITSILEGAS, V., ‘Border Security in the European Union: Towards Centralised Controls and Maximum Surveillance’, in BALDACCINI, A., GUILD, E. and TONER, H. (eds), Whose Freedom, Security and Justice? EU Immigration and Asylum Law and Policy (Oxford, Hart 2007) 359-394. 

MUNGIANU, R., Frontex and Non-Refoulement: International Responsibility of the EU (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press 2016). 

PAPASTAVRIDIS, E., ‘The EU and the obligation of non-refoulement at sea’, in IPPOLITO, F. AND TREVISANUT, S. (eds) Migration in the Mediterranean: Mechanisms of International Cooperation (Cambridge University Press, 2016). 

PEERS, S., EU Justice and Home Affairs Law (Oxford, 3rd edn, Oxford University Press 2011). 

II. Journals 

BORELLI, S. and STANFORD, B., ‘Troubled waters in the Mare Nostrum: Interception and push-backs of migrants in the Mediterranean and the European Convention on Human Rights’ (2014) 10 Uluslararası Hukuk ve Politika – Review of International Law and Politics 29-69. 

CARRERA, S., DEN HERTOG, L. and PARKINA, J., ‘The Peculiar Nature of EU Home Affairs Agencies in Migration Control: Beyond Accountability versus Autonomy?’ (2013) 15(4) European Journal of Migration and Law 337-358. 

EKELUND, H., ‘The establishment of FRONTEX: a new institutionalist approach’ (2014) 36(2) European integration 99-116. 

FINK, M., ‘Sharing Responsibility in Times of Crisis - Challenges at Europe‘s External Border’ (2015) 3 Global View 11-12. 

FISCHER-LESCANO, A., LÖHR, T. and TOHIDIPUR, T., ‘Border Controls at Sea: Requirements under International Human Rights and Refugee Law’ (2009) 21(2) IJRL 256-296. 

HUYBREGHTS, G., ‘The Schengen Convention and the Schengen acquis: 25 years of evolution’ (2015) 16 ERA Forum 379-426 or <http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12027-015-0402-3#/page-1&gt; accessed 8 February 2016. 

KAUNERT, C., LÉONARD, S., OCCHIPITI, J.D., ‘Agency Governance in the European Union’s Area of Freedom Security and Justice’ (2013) 14 (3) Perspectives on European Politics and Society 273-284. 

LEGOMSKY, S.H., ‘Secondary Refugee Movements and the Return of Asylum-seekers to Third Countries: The Meaning of Effective Protection’ (2003) 15 International Journal of Refugee Law 565-677. 

LEONARD, S., ’The Creation of FRONTEX and the Politics of Institutionalisation in the EU External Borders Policy’ 2009 5 (3) Journal of Contemporary European Research 371-388. 

MARIN, L., ‘Policing the EU’s External Borders: A Challenge for the Rule of Law and Fundamental Rights in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice? An Analysis of Frontex Joint Operations at the Southern Maritime Border’ 2011 7(4) Journal of Contemporary European Research 468-487. 

NEAL, A. W., ‘Securitization and Risk at the EU Border: The Origins of FRONTEX*’ (2009) 47(2) Journal of Common Market Studies 333-356. 

POLAK, J. and SLOMINSKI, P., ‘Experimentalist but not accountable governance? The Role of Frontex in Managing the EU’s External Borders’ (2009) 32 (5) West European Politics 904-924.  

RIJPMA, J., ‘EU border management after the Lisbon Treaty’ (2009) 5 Croation yearbook of European Law and Policy 121-149. 

STONE SWEET, A. and SANDHOLTZ, W., ‘European Integration and Supranational Governance’ (1997) Journal of European Public Policy 297-317. 

WOLFF, S. and SCHOUT, A., ‘Frontex as Agency: More of the Same?’ (2013) 14 (3) Perspectives on European Politics and Society 305-324 <http://www.tandfonline.com.kuleuven.ezproxy.kuleuven.be/doi/pdf/10.1080… 013.817809> accessed 9 June 2015. 

III. Websites and blogs 

FINK, M., ‘Salami Slicing Human Rights Accountability: How the European Border and Coast Guard Agency may inherit Frontex’ genetic defect.’ (EJIL, 10 March 2016) <http://www.ejiltalk.org/salami-slicing-human-rights-accountability-how-…; accessed 9 April 2016. 

HEYNS, C. and PROBERT, T., ‘Securing the Right to Life: A cornerstone of the human rights system’ (EJIL, 11 May 2016) <http://www.ejiltalk.org/securing-the-right-to-life-a-cornerstone-of-the…; accessed 1 July 2016. 

KELLER, S., ‘More Power for Frontex – No Boost to Human Rights: The New European Border and Coast Guard System’ (Ska Keller, 7 May 2016) <http://www.skakeller.de/en/topics/refugees-migration/more-power-for-fro…; accessed 21 May 2016. 

PEERS, S., ‘The Reform of Frontex: Saving Schengen at Refugees’ Expense?’ (Eu Law Analysis, 16 December 2015) <http://eulawanalysis.blogspot.be/2015/12/the-reform-of-frontex-saving-s…; accessed 15 January 2016. 

ZIEBRITZKI, C., ‘Chaos in Chios: Legal questions regarding the administrative procedure in the Greek Hotspots’ (EU Migration Law Blog, 26 June 2016) <http://eumigrationlawblog.eu/chaos-in-chios-legal-questions-regarding-t…; accessed 1 July 2016. 

IV. Think thanks and other policy research organisations 

CARRERA, S., and GUILD, E., ‘Joint Operation RABIT 2010’ – FRONTEX Assistance to Greece’s Border with Turkey: Revealing the Deficiencies of Europe’s Dublin Asylum System’, Papers in Liberty and Security in Europe (34) (Brussels, CEPS 2010) <http://aei.pitt.edu/15186/1/No_34_Carrera_&_Guild_on_RABIT_2010.pdf&gt; accessed 9 June 2015. 

CARRERA, S. and DEN HERTOG, L., ‘A European Border and Coast Guard: What’s in a name?’, Papers in Liberty and Security in Europe (88) (Brussels, CEPS March 2016) <https://www.ceps.eu/publications/european-border-and-coast-guard-what%E…; accessed 9 April 2016. 

COGOLATI, S., VERLINDEN, N. and SCHMITT, P., ‘Migrants in the Mediterranean: Protecting human rights’ (Leuven Global Centre for Governance Studies, October 2015) < https://ghum.kuleuven.be/ggs/publications/research_reports/migrants-in-…; accessed 10 June 2015. 

MARTIN, S. F., ‘New issues in refugee research - Global migration trends and asylum’, New Issues in Refugee Research, Working Paper No. 41, April 2001, <http://www.unhcr.org/3af66ccc4.pdf&gt; accessed 14 November 2015. 

NEVILLE, D., ‘Study: On the frontline: the hotspot approach to managing migration’ (EP Policy Department C: Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs, May 2016) <http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2016/556942/IPOL_STU(…; accessed 1 July 2016. 

SHREEVES, R., ‘Gender aspects of migration and asylum in the EU: An overview’, Briefing European Parliament (European Parliamentary Research Service Blog, March 2016) < http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2016/579072/EPRS_BRI(…; accessed 9 April 2016. 

RIJPMA, J., ‘Study for the LIBE Committee: The proposal for a European Border and Coast Guard: evolution or revolution in external border management?’ (EP Policy Department C: Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs, March 2016) <http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2016/556934/IPOL_STU(…; accessed 1 April 2016. 

SINGLETON, A., ‘Migration and asylum data for policy-making in the European Union: the problem with numbers’, Papers in Liberty and Security in Europe (89) (Brussels, CEPS March 2016) <https://www.ceps.eu/system/files/LSE%2089%20AS%20Migration%20and%20Asyl…; accessed 9 April 2016. 

Other sources 

I. Newspaper or agency articles 

‘UN's François Crépeau on the refugee crisis: “Instead of resisting migration, let's organise it”' The Guardian (London, 22 April 2015) <http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/apr/22/uns-francois-crepeau-on-th…- instead-of-resisting-migration-lets-organise-it?CMP=share_btn_tw> accessed 8 June 2015. 

“Migrant crisis: Turkish guards hit migrant boat with sticks” BBC News Online (12 March 2016) <http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-35794563&gt; accessed 20 March 2016. 

“EU-Turkey readmission deal in doubt” EU Observer (6 June 2016) <https://euobserver.com/migration/133712&gt; accessed 11 July 2016. 

“Hungary passes law to tighten asylum rules” Reuters (6 July 2016) <http://www.reuters.com/article/us-europe-migrants-hungary-idUSKCN0PG10E…; accessed 6 July 2016. 

II. Press releases 

Council of the European Union, ‘European Border and Coast Guard: Council confirms agreement with Parliament’ (Press release, 22 June 2016) <http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2016/06/22-borde…; accessed on 23 June 2016. 

European Council, ‘Statement of the EU Heads of State or Government of 7 March 2016’ (Press release, 8 March 2016) <http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2016/03/07-eu-tu…; accessed 8 March 2016. 

European Commission, ‘Relocation and Resettlement: EU Member States urgently need to deliver’ (Press release, 16 March 2016) < http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-16-829_en.htm&gt; accessed 1 July 2016. 

European Commission, ‘Establishing a European Agency for the management of the operational cooperation at the external borders’ (Press release, 11 November 2003) < http://europa.eu/rapid/pressrelease_IP-03-1519_en.htm?locale=en&gt; accessed 9 June 2015. 

European Commission, ‘A European Border and Coast Guard to protect Europe's External Borders’ (Press release, 15 December 2015) < http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-15-6327_en.htm&gt; accessed 16 June 2015. 

European Commission (2015), ‘Factsheet on the European Border and Coast Guard’ <http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/home-affairs/what-we-do/policies/securing-eu-bo…; accessed 22 June 2015. 

European Commission (2015), ‘Factsheet on the hotspot approach to managing exceptional migratory flows’ <http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/home-affairs/what-we-do/policies/european-agend…; accessed 22 June 2015. 

European Commission, ‘EU-Turkey Agreement: Question and Answers’ (Press release, 19 March 2016) <http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-16-963_en.htm&gt; accessed 20 March 2016. 

European Commission, ‘Relocation and resettlement – state of play’ (Press release, 15 June 2016) < http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/home-affairs/what-we-do/policies/european-agend…; accessed 1 July 2016. 

European Parliament, ‘MEPs back plans to pool policing of EU external borders’ (Press release, 6 July 2016) <http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//NONSGML+TA+…; accessed 6 July 2016. 

Frontex, ‘FRAN Quarterly – Number of illegal border-crossings at record high in Q4’ (Press release, 10 March 2016) <http://frontex.europa.eu/news/fran-quarterly-number-of-illegal-border-c…; accessed 24 March 2016. 

Frontex, ‘Frontex seeks 1500 police officers, 50 readmission officers to Greece’ (Press release, 21 March 2016) <http://frontex.europa.eu/news/frontex-seeks-1-500-police-officers-50-re…; accessed 24 March 2016. 

Frontex (2016), ‘Frontex’s role in the EU-Turkey Agreement (FAQ)’ < http://frontex.europa.eu/pressroom/faq/frontex-s-role-in-eu-turkey-agre…; accessed 1 July 2016. 

Frontex (2016), ‘Situation at external border (FAQ)’ <http://frontex.europa.eu/pressroom/faq/situation-at-external-border//&gt; accessed 1 July 2016. 

Frontex, ‘Number of Migrants arriving in Greece dropped 90% in April’ (Press release, 13 May 2016) <http://frontex.europa.eu/news/number-of-migrants-arriving-in-greece-dro…; accessed 3 July 2016. 

Frontex, ‘Central Med Remained under migratory pressure in May’ (Press release, 16 June 2016) < http://frontex.europa.eu/pressroom/news/central-med-remained-under-migr…; accessed 3 July 2016. 

IOM, ‘Mediterranean Migrant Arrivals in 2016: 227,316; Deaths: 2,920’ (Press release, 7 May 2016) < https://www.iom.int/news/mediterranean-migrant-arrivals-2016-227316-dea…; accessed 3 July 2016. 

United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (‘OHCHR’), ‘Italy’s migrant hotspot centres raise legal questions’ (Press release, 2 August 2016) <http://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/LegalQuestionsOverHotspots.asp…; accessed 2 August 2016. 

UNHCR, ‘UNHCR expresses concern over new restrictions for Syrian refugees in Egypt’ (Press release, 12 July 2013) <http://www.unhcr.org/51e03ff79.html&gt; accessed 17 November 2015. 

UNHCR, ‘News stories - Worldwide displacement hits all-time high as war and persecution increase’ (Press release, 18 June 2015) <http://www.unhcr.org/558193896.html&gt; accessed 12 November 2015. 

UNHCR, ‘UNHCR viewpoint: ‘Refugee’ or ‘migrant’ – Which is right?’ (Press release, 11 July 2016) < http://www.unhcr.org/news/latest/2016/7/55df0e556/unhcr-viewpoint-refug…; accessed 20 July 2016. 

III. Conferences and lectures 

High Level Lecture Series on Human Rights, Permanent Mission of Belgium to the EU in Brussels, Belgium, 29th October 2015. 

KJAERUM, M. (Former Director FRA), ‘Crisis? What crisis? How Europe has coped with refugee surge in the past and what it can do today' (High Level Lecture Series on Human Rights, Permanent Mission of Belgium to the EU in Brussels, 29th October 2015). 

Frontex: legal questions and current controversies, Weicker Building Université de Luxembourg, Luxembourg, 27th November 2015. 

GOODWIN-GILL, G.S., Keynote lecture (Frontex: legal questions and current controversies, Weicker Building Université de Luxembourg, Luxembourg, 27th November 2015). 

MUNGIANU, R. (Assistant Professor University of Copenhagen Visiting Researcher at Max Plancke Institute), ‘Frontex’s Operational Cooperation: between intergovernmental governance and supranationalisation’ (Frontex: legal questions and current controversies, Weicker Building Université de Luxembourg, Luxembourg, 27th November 2015). 

FERNANDEZ, I. (Frontex’s Fundamental Rights Officer), ‘Frontex and human rights an insider’s view’ (Frontex: legal questions and current controversies, Weicker Building Université de Luxembourg, Luxembourg, 27th November 2015). 

SCHUMACHER, P. (Ministry Foreign Affairs Luxembourg), ‘Frontex: accountability and respect for human rights’ (Frontex: legal questions and current controversies, Weicker Building Université de Luxembourg, Luxembourg, 27th November 2015). 

FINK, M. (PhD researcher Leiden University and University of Vienna), ‘Legal accountability for human rights violations that may occur during Frontex-coordinated operations’ (Frontex: legal questions and current controversies, Weicker Building Université de Luxembourg, Luxembourg, 27th November 2015). 

VENTRELLA, M. (Senior Lecturer in Law at University Wolverhampton (UK)), ‘Frontex: smuggling of migrants and human trafficking’ (Frontex: legal questions and current controversies, Weicker Building Université de Luxembourg, Luxembourg, 27th November 2015). 

Universiteit of Hogeschool
Master of Laws
Publicatiejaar
2016
Promotor(en)
Prof. Dr. Koen Lemmens
Kernwoorden
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