Wat als atleetprestaties de zelfwaarde van de coach bepalen? Atleetgebonden contingente zelfwaarde en de coachingsstijl van jeugdsportcoaches nader onderzocht.

Raf Lambrecht
In deze studie werd de coachingsstijl van 374 jeugdsportcoaches uit heel Vlaanderen onderzocht. Meer specifiek werd gekeken naar mogelijke factoren die een bepaalde coachingsstijl kunnen verklaren zoals de zelfwaarde van de coach, de aanwezigheid van onvervulde dromen bij de coach en druk vanuit zijn sportieve context. Bovendien werd voor het eerst in de sportpsychologie een vergelijking gemaakt tussen coaches actief op vier verschillende niveaus (recreatief, provinciaal, nationaal en internationaal).

De modelbouw van de sportcoach... en hoe die onder druk kan komen te staan

Alle Belgen hadden tijdens het EK in Frankrijk een uitgesproken mening over onze bondscoach. De ene vond hem te weinig bezig met tactiek, de ander vond hem teveel bezig met de karakters van de spelers. Maar wat maakt een bondscoach tot een goede bondscoach? Welke onderdelen zouden we in de modelbouwwinkel moeten kiezen om de ideale coach te krijgen? En welke laten we beter links liggen?

Image removed.We kennen het fenomeen allemaal: de coach die aan de zijlijn zijn sporters staat toe te schreeuwen. “Komaan, komaan, tempo maken... sneller... in de diepte...”. De positief bedoelde aanmoedigingen kunnen snel omslaan in teveel druk zetten op spelers. Wat zou dan de juiste balans zijn voor de coach op deze dunne grens? Sportpsychologisch onderzoek heeft aangetoond dat teveel druk zetten, niet alleen nadelige effecten heeft op sporters maar ook snel té controlerend aanvoelt. Niet toevallig wordt deze aanpak ook de controlerende coachingsstijl genoemd. Helaas komt het toch nog vaak voor dat coaches zich teveel bemoeien met het privéleven van hun sporters, hen negeren als ze niet goed presteren of geldbeloningen beloven. De Masterproef van Raf Lambrecht onderzocht hoe het zou komen dat coaches zo reageren en wat aan de basis zou kunnen liggen van deze controlerende coachingsstijl. Hiervoor werd over heel Vlaanderen een bevraging gedaan bij 374 coaches uit 33 sportdisciplines. 

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“You make me proud!” Het zijn woorden die een coach na winst tegen zijn sporter vaak uitspreekt. Uiteraard is het logisch dat een coach meer gevoelens van trots, blijdschap en voldoening ervaart wanneer zijn ploeg wint dan wanneer die verliest. Toch is er een keerzijde aan de medaille wanneer coaches te veel bezig zijn met de prestaties van hun sporters. Sommige coaches zullen veel positiever naar zichzelf kijken wanneer hun sporters het goed doen en negatiever wanneer die falen. Dit zijn coaches met een hoge mate van atleetgebonden contingente zelfwaarde (AGCZW), wat wil zeggen dat ze hun zelfwaardegevoel sterk laten afhangen van de prestaties van hun atleet. Uit het onderzoek blijkt dat coaches die hoog scoorden op deze fragiele vorm van zelfwaarde een meer controlerende coachingsstijl hanteerden naar hun atleten. Het lijkt dus dat een hoge mate van AGCZW de coach vatbaarder maakt voor controlerend coachingsgedrag.

Image removed.Onvervulde dromen. Een coach die door een blessure nooit verder is geraakt dan provinciaal niveau of net tekort kwam om in de beslissende matchen uit te blinken, kan jaren later nog altijd teleurgesteld zijn of spijt hebben dat hij zijn ultieme droom niet heeft kunnen waarmaken. Onvervulde dromen zijn ambities en verlangens die men in het verleden koesterde, maar nooit heeft kunnen realiseren. In dit onderzoek werd aangetoond dat coaches met meer onvervulde dromen ook een meer controlerende coachingsstijl hanteerden naar hun spelers. Een mogelijke verklaring hiervoor kan zijn dat coaches hun onvervulde dromen en verlangens op een zeer krampachtige manier vasthouden en ingevuld willen zien door hun spelers. Het was bijgevolg niet verwonderlijk dat coaches met meer onvervulde dromen ook hun zelfwaarde meer lieten afhangen van de prestaties van hun sporters (hoge AGCZW). Hieruit blijkt dat niet alleen kinderen foutief kunnen ingezet worden om de dromen van de ouders waar te maken, maar ook sporters het verlengstuk Image removed.van de dromen van de coach kunnen worden.

Druk vanuit de context. “Winnen als je moet winnen is het moeilijkste.” Zo kaderde Roberto Martinez, de nieuwe bondscoach van de Rode Duivels, hoe druk een bijkomende moeilijkheid vormt om goed te presteren. Als coach wordt er vaak van je verwacht dat je ploeg goed presteert. Zo niet, wordt je ontslag wel door de media voorgesteld. Het onderzoek vond dat de externe druk die coaches vanuit hun sportieve context ervoeren, ook gepaard ging met een meer controlerende coachingsstijl. Tijdsdruk, druk om geëvalueerd te worden, druk door collega’s en de club maar ook druk door werk-privéconflicten... allemaal lijken ze de coachingsstijl van de coach op een negatieve manier te beïnvloeden. Een signaal dat beter niet kan genegeerd worden, des te meer omdat op die manier ook de prestaties en het welbevinden van sporters hier onrechtstreeks onder lijden. De druk vanuit de club en de omgeving lijkt zo als het ware te worden doorgegeven via de coach naar de atleet.

Amateur vs. topsportcoach? Maar is druk wel overal even hard aanwezig? Het lijkt logisch dat druk op topsportniveau een stuk groter is dan op amateurniveau. Maar is dit buikgevoel wel juist? En wat met de verschillen op vlak van coachingsstijl? Uit het onderzoek blijkt dat er inderdaad verschillen zijn tussen coaches op recreatief, provinciaal, nationaal en internationaal niveau. De resultaten lijken het buikgevoel te bevestigen. Coaches op lagere niveaus gaven aan minder druk vanuit de context te ervaren, terwijl coaches op hoger niveau opvallend meer druk vanuit de context voelden, zoals conflicten tussen werk en privé. Ondanks de grote druk bleken coaches op de hoogste niveaus toch minder controlerend te coachen dan coaches op lager niveau. Een mogelijke verklaring hiervoor kan zijn dat deze coaches doorheen hun opleiding geleerd hebben hoe op een goede manier te coachen en dus professioneler zijn in hun aanpak. Het enige controlerende coachingsgedrag dat deze topcoaches wel stelden, was zich bemoeien met het privéleven van hun spelers. Kortom, stel dat we in de modelbouwwinkel een coach zouden uitkiezen, is het belangrijk de doelgroep steeds in ons achterhoofd te houden.

Het beste en duurzaamste modelbouwpakket van een coach kan dus beter geen controlerend coachingsgedrag bevatten. Wanneer we ons modelbouwpakket samenstellen, kunnen we beter twee keer nadenken of onze coach geen fragiele zelfwaarde of onvervulde dromen heeft én zo min mogelijk druk vanuit de context ervaart. Als we in de winkel staan, kiezen we best voor een ABC-coach met een autonomie-ondersteunde aanpak. Dit is de coach die zijn spelers inspraak geeft (Autonomie), een goede relatie heeft met zijn sporters (Binding/verbondenheid) en laat voelen dat hij in de kwaliteiten van zijn sporters gelooft (Competentie). Meer weten over dergelijke autonomie-ondersteunende aanpak of zelf een workshop in je buurt bijwonen? Surf naar www.mfactor.be.

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Universiteit of Hogeschool
Master of Science in de psychologie
Publicatiejaar
2016
Promotor(en)
Prof. Dr. Maarten Vansteenkiste
Kernwoorden
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