Battling Homesickness on Mars: the relationship between relatedness, well-being, performance and displacement in a Mars simulation study.

Thomas Van Caelenberg
Tijdens interplanetaire ruimtereizen zullen astronauten voor enkele ongelooflijke uitdagingen komen te staan. Deze studie onderzoekt aan de hand van de zelf-determinatie theorie in welke mate betrokkenheid met anderen een invloed heeft op astronauten hun psychologisch welzijn, performantie en communicatie met mission support. Data werd verzameld tijdens een Mars simulatie studie van NASA.

Houston, are we there yet? Heimwee op Mars

Deelnemer van het experiment op ruimtewandeling.

Vier maanden voor zijn gepland vertrek naar het internationale ruimtestation (ISS), vroeg de Russische kosmonaut Yuri Malenchko zijn verloofde Ekaterina ‘Kate’ Dmitrieva ten huwelijk. Hun bruiloft stond gepland in augustus, na Yuri’s terugkeer naar de aarde. Eenmaal aan boord van het ISS werd de bemanning echter geïnformeerd dat de missie verlengd zou worden tot eind oktober. Het koppel besloot hun huwelijk niet uit te stellen, en op 10 augustus 2003, trouwden Yuri en Kate via satellietcommunicatie. Hij ongeveer 400 km boven Nieuw-Zeeland met een strikje bovenop zijn ruimtepak, zij in Texas in een wit kleed, vergezeld van een levensgrote foto van de kosmonaut. Het jonge echtpaar deed hun geloften via videolink, deden zelf hun trouwring om en verzegelden hun huwelijk met een blaaskusje.

Dit onwaarschijnlijke verhaal en vele andere beruchte anekdotes uit de ruimtevaart vallen onder de verantwoordelijkheid van NASA’s Astronaut Family Support Office. Een instelling die er hoofdzakelijk op toeziet dat er geen missiedoelen in het gedrang kunnen komen omwille van familiale problemen of verminderde persoonlijke relaties tijdens langdurige ruimtemissies. Weldra zullen zij voor een nieuwe, ongekende uitdaging staan.

Bemande, interplanetaire reizen zullen binnenkort niet meer tot sciencefiction behoren en astronauten zullen langer dan ooit weg zijn van huis. Want de mensheid gaat naar Mars.

Mars is altijd al een populaire bestemming geweest in fictie literatuur. In 2015 bijvoorbeeld werd The Martian verfilmd, naar de bestseller van Andy Weir. Een boek dat opent met de volgende drie zinnen: “I’m pretty much fucked. That’s my considered opinion. Fucked.” Een bestseller van formaat, maar hoe voorkomen we dit, en hoe maken we het leven op Mars wél dragelijk?

Life on Mars. Een tweede ‘space race’ lijkt nabij, met grote beloftes en sterke prestaties van o.a. NASA, SpaceX, China, India en zelfs Google. Mooi, maar hoewel ze onze buurplaneet is, is Mars nog steeds ongelooflijk ver van ons verwijderd. De afstand tussen de aarde en Mars fluctueert naargelang de posities van beide planeten en bedraagt tussen 55 en 400 miljoen kilometer. 400 miljoen kilometer, dat is zo onwaarschijnlijk ver dat radiogolven (die aan lichtsnelheid reizen!) er ongeveer 24 minuten over doen waardoor er communicatievertraging ontstaat. Dat betekent: geen directe communicatie met hun collega’s op aarde (mission support), geen telefoongesprekken met vrienden en familie en al zeker geen Skypehuwelijken. Neen, de astronauten onderweg naar Mars zullen gedurende één tot drie jaar met niemand anders live interactie hebben dan met hun medebemanningsleden. Niemand in de geschiedenis van de mensheid zal ooit zo ver weg van huis geweest zijn als zij. Bovendien zullen deze astronauten ook lange tijd samenwerken en samenleven in een erg krap ruimteschip. Recent onderzoek schrijft 25m³ leefbare ruimte per astronaut voor, dit gedurende meerdere jaren, voor zowel kantoorruimte, labo’s, slaapkamers, keuken, etc. Het probleem van sociale isolatie is dus tweedelig: door het gebrek aan contact met vrienden en familie en het beperkt aantal gesprekspartners, vormt niet alleen eenzaamheid, maar ook conflict en irritatie een risico voor de missie.

 Under the dome. Deze thesis onderzoekt de psychologische problemen die samen gaan met zulke langdurige ruimtemissies. We bestudeerden zes “astronauten” die zich vrijwillig opgaven om deel te nemen aan een experiment van NASA. Een jaar lang woonden zij geïsoleerd van alle beschaving aan de voet van een verlaten vulkaan. Hier leefden en werkten ze zoals astronauten dat op Mars zouden doen, inclusief een communicatievertraging van 20 minuten met de buitenwereld en een verplicht ruimtepak als ze zich buiten hun wooneenheid wilden begeven.

Space blues. Gedurende dit experiment vonden we onder meer dat de sociale isolatie die de astronauten ondergingen, samengaat met minder positieve emoties en meer stress. Bovendien beïnvloedt sociale isolatie ook de kwaliteit van het werk dat de astronauten leveren. Als laatste onderzochten we ook hoe de communicatie verliep tussen de bemanning en hun mission support team. Hieruit blijkt dat wanneer er conflict speelt tussen de bemanningsleden, er ook meer kans is op een minder vlotte samenwerking met mission support. Wanneer er spanning heerst in een kleine, gesloten groep is het geen goed idee om dit te laten escaleren, zeker niet als je nog een jaar moet samenleven. Emoties worden dus automatisch opgekropt en later geprojecteerd op mensen die verder verwijderd zijn van de groep.

Deze en andere problemen die gepaard gaan met interplanetaire ruimtereizen zullen ons als mensheid voor een enorm grote uitdaging stellen, waardoor interdisciplinaire samenwerking noodzakelijk zal zijn. Niet enkel krachtige raketten en nieuwe ruimteschepen, maar ook bijvoorbeeld de psychologische kwesties moeten verder onderzocht worden. In de woorden van de arts die deelnam aan het Mars experiment: “Een cruciale les die we geleerd hebben, is dat technologie niet onze grootste zorg is. Mechanische oplossingen om een bemanning levend daar en terug te krijgen zullen gevormd worden naargelang tijd en geld het toelaat. Wat we echter niet kunnen ontwerpen of aanpassen zijn mensen zelf.” Het is waar dat we het menselijk ontwerp niet kunnen veranderen, maar wat we wel kunnen doen, is astronauten onderzoeken om hen beter te ondersteunen, iets waar deze masterproef dieper op ingaat.

Bibliografie

Albery, W. B., Armstrong, H. G., Roe, M. M., Goodyear, C. D., & McCloskey, K. A. (1988). The Effects of Biodynamic Stress on Workload in Human Operators. Proceedings of the Human Factors Society Annual Meeting, 32(19), 1409–1413. doi: 10.1177/154193128803201922

Amos, J. (2014, September 24). Why India's Mars mission is so cheap - and thrilling. BBC News. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com

Anderson, C. (2007). ISS Expedition 15: Journals. Retrieved from https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition15/jou…

Assor, A., Roth, G., & Deci, E. (2004). The emotional costs of parents’ conditional regard: A Self-Determination Theory analysis. Journal of Personality, 72, 47-88. doi: 10.1111/j.0022-3506.2004.00256.x

Baard, P. P., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2004). Intrinsic need satisfaction: A motivational basis of performance and well-being in two work settings. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34, 2045-2068. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2004.tb02690.x

Ball J. R., & Evans C. H. (2001). Safe passage: Astronaut care for exploration missions. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Bassingthwaighte, T. (2016). Answers to space questions, life on Mars. Retrieved from https://artchitecturefrommars.com/2016/01/27/answers-to-space-questions…

Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497-529. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.117.3.497

Baumeister, R. F., Finkenauer, C., & Vohs, K. D. (2001). Bad is stronger than good. Review of General Psychology. 5(4): 323–370. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.5.4.323.

Bennet, G. (1983). Beyond Endurance. Survival at the Extremes. London: Secker & Warbeck.

Bessone, L., & Vennemann, D. (2004). CDF Study Report, Human Missions to Mars, Overall Architecture Assessment. (Report No. ESA-CDF-20.A). Retrieved from http://emits.sso.esa.int/emits-doc/1-5200-RD20-HMM_Technical_Report_Fin…

Bock O., Fowler B., & Comfort D. (2001). Human sensorimotor coordination during spaceflight: an analysis of pointing and tracking responses during the "Neurolab" Space Shuttle mission. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 72(10), 877-883. Retrieved from https://www.asma.org/journal

Britt, T. W., & Bliese, P. D. (2003). Testing the stress-buffering effects of self engagement among soldiers on a military operation. Journal of personality, 71(2), 245–265. doi: 10.1111/1467-6494.7102002

Byrne, D. (1971). The attraction paradigm. New York, NY: Academic Press.

Cerasoli, C., Nicklin, J., & Nassrelgrgawi, A. (2016). Performance, incentives and need for autonomy, competence and relatedness: a meta-analysis. Motivation and Emotion, 40, 781–813. doi: 10.1007/s11031-016-9578-2

Chen, Q., Hughes, J. N., Liew, J., & Kwok, O. M. (2010). Joint contributions of peer acceptance and peer academic reputation to achievement in academically at risk children: Mediating processes. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 31, 448–459. doi: 10.1016/j.appdev.2010.09.001

Chianara, M., & Bentein, K. (2016). Linking servant leadership to individual performance: Differentiating the mediating role of autonomy, competence and relatedness need satisfaction. Leadership Quarterly, 27(1), 124-141. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2015.08.004

Columbia accident investigation board. (2003). Report Volume 1. Washington, DC: NASA and Government Printing Office.

Crary, P. (2016). Relatedness matters. Holistic nursing practice, 30 (6), 345-350. doi: 10.1097/hnp.0000000000000177

Culbertson, F. (2001). Excerpts from a letter reflecting on the events of September 11. Retrieved from: http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/station/crew/exp3/culbertsonletter.html

Curtis, K., Beven, G., Holland, A., Sipes, W., & Vander Ark, S. (2014). Astronaut Family Support Office [PowerPoint presentation]. Retrieved from https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20140005012.pdf

Datu, J. A. D. (2017). Sense of relatedness is linked to higher grit in a collectivist setting. Personality and Individual Differences, 105, 135-138. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.09.039

De Dreu, C. K. W., & Weingart, L. R. (2003). Task versus relationship conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction: a meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(4), 741–749. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.88.4.741

Deci, E. L., Olafsen, A. H., & Ryan, R. M. (2017). Self-Determination Theory in Work Organizations: The State of a Science. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 4, 19–43. doi: 10.1146/annurev-orgpsych

Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M., Gagné, M., Leone, D. R., Usunov, J., & Kornazheva, B. P. (2001). Need Satisfaction, Motivation, and Well-Being in the Work Organizations of a Former Eastern Bloc Country: A Cross-Cultural Study of Self-Determination. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27 (8), 930-942. doi: 10.1177/0146167201278002

Diseth, A., Danielsen, A., G., & Samdal, O. (2012). A path analysis of basic need support, self-efficacy, achievement goals, life satisfaction and academic achievement level among secondary school students. Educational Psychology, 32(3), 335-354. doi: 10.1080/01443410.2012.657159

Dooley, E. (2016, September 27). SpaceX Unveils Plan for Manned Mars Mission. ABC News. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com

Drake, B. G. (1998). Reference Mission Version 3.0 Addendum to the human exploration of Mars: The reference mission of the NASA Mars exploration study team (Report No. NASA-EXI3-98-036). Retrieved from https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19980218778.pdf

Duchateau, L., Janssen, P., & Rowlands, G. L. (1998). Linear Mixed Models. An Introduction with Applications in Veterinary Research. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute).

Dunn, M. (2017). Sax in space: French astronaut delighted with birthday gift. Retrieved from https://phys.org/news/2017-03-sax-space-french-astronaut-birthday.html

Edwards, B. D., Day, E. A., Arthur Jr. W., & Bell, S. T. (2006) Relationships among team ability composition, team mental models, and team performance. Journal of applied psychology, 91(3), 727–736. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.91.3.727

Enders, C. K., & Tofighi, D. (2007). Centering predictor variables in cross-sectional multilevel models: a new look at an old issue. Psychological Methods, 12(2), 121-38. doi: 10.1037/1082-989x.12.2.121

Endo, T., Ohbayashi, S., Yumikura, S., & Sekiguchi, C. (1994). Astronaut psychiatric selection procedures: a Japanese experience. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 65, 916–919. Retrieved from https://www.asma.org/journal

Esser, J. K., & Lindoerfer, J. L. (1989). Groupthink and the space shuttle Challenger accident: Toward a quantitative case analysis. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 2, 167–177. doi: 10.1002/bdm.3960020304

Fernet, C., Austin, S., Trepanier, S. G., & Dussault, M. (2013). How do job characteristics contribute to burnout? Exploring the distinct mediating roles of perceived autonomy, competence, and relatedness. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 22(2), 123- 137. doi: 10.1080/1359432x.2011.632161

Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Fisher, R. J. (1993). Social desirability bias and the validity of indirect questioning. Journal of Consumer Research, 20(2), 303-315. doi: 10.1086/209351

Gains, D. (2015). NASA’s Journey to Mars. Retrieved from https://www.nasa.gov/content/nasas-journey-to-mars

Garan, R. (2012, March 21). IAmA NASA Astronaut that recently returned to Earth after a 1/2 year in space. I'm brand new to reddit (like hours ago) AMA [Online forum content]. Retrieved from https://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/r62jp/iama_nasa_astronaut_that_r…

Gifford, S. (2015). My Blog - Live from Mars [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://sheynagifford.com/index.php/2015/07/12/my-blog-live-from-mars

Gifford, S. (2016). Life on Mars. Retrieved from https://aeon.co/essays/what-i-ve-learned-so-far-from-living-in-a-mars-s…

Gillet, N., Berjot, S., & Gobance, L. (2009). A motivational model of performance in the sport domain. European Journal of Sport Science, 9(3), 151-158. doi: 10.1080/17461390902736793

Goemaere, S., Vansteenkiste, M., & Van Petegem, S. (2016). Gaining deeper insight into the psychological challenges of human spaceflight: The role of motivational dynamics. Acta Astronautica, 121, 130-143. doi: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2015.12.055

Gottman, J. M. (1994). What predicts divorce? The relationship between marital processes and marital outcomes. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Grant, A. M. (2008). Does intrinsic motivation fuel the prosocial fire? Motivational synergy in predicting persistence, performance, and productivity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 48–58. doi: 10. 1037/0021-9010.93.1.48.

Greguras, G. J., & Diefendorff, J. M. (2009). Different Fits Satisfy Different Needs: Linking Person-Environment Fit to Employee Commitment and Performance Using Self-Determination Theory. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(2), 465-477. doi: 10.1037/a0014068

Groemer, G., Losaik, A., Soucek, A., Plank, C., Zanardini L., Sejklora, N., & Sams, S. (2016). The AMADEE-15 Mars Simulation. Acta Astronautica, 129, 277-290. doi: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2016.09.022

Gushin, V. I., Zaprisa, N. S., Kolenitchenko, T. B., Efimov, V. A., Smirnova, T. M., Vinokhodova, A. G., & Kanas, N. (1997). Content analysis of the crew communication with external communicants under prolonged isolation. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 68, 1093–1098. Retrieved from https://www.asma.org/journal

Gushin, V., Shved, D., Ehmann, B., Balazss, L., & Komarevtsev, S. (2012). Crew-MC interactions during communication delay in Mars-500. In Proceedings of the 63th International Astronautical Congress (Paper No. IAC- 12-A1.1.2).  Naples: IAF (International Astronautical Federation).

Hamlin, J. K., Wynn, K., & Bloom, P. (2010). Three-month-olds show a negativity bias in their social evaluations. Developmental Science, 13(6), 923-929. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2010.00951.x

Haney, C. (2003). Mental health issues in long-term solitary and ‘supermax’ confinement. Crime Delinquency, 49(1), 124–156. doi: 10.1177/0011128702239239 

Harrison, D. A., Price, K. H., & Bell, M. P. (1998). Beyond relational demography: time and effects of surface- and deep-level diversity on work group cohesion. Academy of Management Journal, 41(1), 96–107. doi: 10.2307/256901

Hein, V., Koka, A., & Hagger, M. S. (2015). Relationships between perceived teachers' controlling behaviour, psychological need thwarting, anger and bullying behaviour in high-school students. Journal of Adolescence, 42, 103-114. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2015.04.003

Heinicke, C. (2016). Erde an Mars. Retrieved on 20/06/2017 from https://scilogs.spektrum.de/leben-auf-dem-mars/erde-an-mars

Heinicke, C. (2016). Wie realistisch war die Simulation? Retrieved on 28/06/2017 from https://scilogs.spektrum.de/leben-auf-dem-mars/wie-realistisch-war-die-…

Herring, L. (1997). Astronaut draws attention to psychology. Human Performance in Extreme Environments, 2, 42–47. Retrieved from http://jhpee.org

Heuer, H., Manzey, D., Lorenz, B., & Sangals, J. (2003). Impairments of manual tracking performance during spaceflight are associated with specific effects of microgravity on visuomotor transformations. Ergonomics, 46(9), 920–934. doi: 10.1080/0014013031000107559

Hirschfeld, R. R., Jordan, M. H., Field, H. S., Giles, W. F., & Armenakis, A. A. (2006) Becoming team players: team member's mastery of teamwork knowledge as a predictor of team task proficiency and observed teamwork effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(2), 467–474. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.91.2.467

Hockey, G. (1983). Stress and Fatigue in Human Performance. Chichester: Wiley.

Hoffman S. J., & Kaplan, D. I. (1997). Human Exploration of Mars: The Reference Mission of the NASA Mars Exploration Study Team. Retrieved from http://www.nss.org/settlement/mars/1997-NASA-HumanExplorationOfMarsRefe…

Hollingham, R. (2015). The grim and gory reality of surgery in space. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20151125-the-challenges-of-carrying-out…

House, J. S. (2001). Social isolation kills, but how and why? Psychosomatic Medicine, 63(2), 273–274. doi: 10.1097/00006842-200103000-00011

Ito, T. A., Larsen, J. T., Smith, N. K., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1998). Negative information weighs more heavily on the brain: The negativity bias in evaluative categorizations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(4), 887-900. doi:  10.1037//0022-3514.75.4.887

Jehn, K. A., & Mannix, E. A. (2001). The dynamic nature of conflict: a longitudinal study of intragroup conflict and performance. Academic Management Journal, 44(2), 238–251. doi: 10.2307/3069453

Jenner, N. (2017). 4th Rock from the Sun: the Story of Mars. New York, NY: Bloomsbury Sigma.

Jiang, S. (2017, January 5). China: We will be on Mars by the end of 2020. CNN News. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com

Johannes, B., Salnitski, V. P., Polyakov, V. V., & Kirsch, K. A. (2006). Changes in the autonomic reactivity pattern to psychological load under long- term microgravity—twelve men during 6-month spaceflights. Aerospace and Environmental Medicine, 37(3), 6–16. Retrieved from https://www.asma.org/journal

Johnson, P. J. (2010). The roles of NASA, U.S. astronauts and their families in long-duration missions. Acta Astronautica, 67, 561–571.  doi: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2010.05.001

Johnston, C. (2015). 10 steps to surviving on sMars. Retrieved from https://snowballschanceonmars.wordpress.com/2015/09/20/10-steps-to-surv…

Kalery, A., Sorokin, I., & Tyurin, M. (2010). Human space exploration beyond the international space station: role of relations of human, machine and the “Earth”. Acta Astronautica, 67, 925–933. doi: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2010.06.009

Kanas, N. (1998). Psychiatric issues affecting long duration space missions. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 69, 339-361. doi: 10.1016/s0094-5765(98)00130-1

Kanas, N. (2014). Psychosocial issues during an expedition to Mars. Acta Astonautica, 103, 73-80. doi: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2014.06.026

Kanas, N. (2015). Humans in Space: The Psychological Hurdles. New York, NY: Springer.

Kanas, N., & Manzey D. (2008). Space Psychology and Psychiatry. Microcosm Press-Springer, El Segundo, California.

Kanas, N., Salnitskiy, V. P., Ritshera, J. B., Gushin, V. I., Weiss, D. S., Saylor, S. A., Kozerenko, O. P., & Marmar, C. R. (2007). Psychological interactions during ISS missions. Acta Astronautica, 60, 329, 335. doi 10.1016/j.actaastro.2006.09.001

Kanas, N., Salnitskiy, V., Grund, E. M., Weiss, D. S., Gushin, V., Bostrom, A., … Marmar, C. R. (2001). Psychological issues in space: results from Shuttle/MIR. Gravitational and Space Biology Bulletin, 14(2), 35-45. Retrieved from http://gravitationalandspacebiology.org/index.php/journal

Kanas, N., Weiss, D. S., & Marmar, C. R. (1996). Crew member interactions during a Mir space station simulation, Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 67, 969–975. doi: 10.2514/6.2001-4905

Kelly, A. D., & Kanas, N. (1992). Crewmember communication in space: a survey of astronauts and cosmonauts. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 63, 721-726. Retrieved from https://www.asma.org/journal

Kelly, A. D., & Kanas, N. (1993). Communication between space crews and ground personnel: a survey of astronauts and cosmonauts. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 64, 795–800. Retrieved from https://www.asma.org/journal

Kelly, A. D., & Kanas, N. (1994). Leisure time activities in space: a survey of astronauts and cosmonauts. Acta Astronautica 32, 451-457. doi: 10.1016/0094-5765(94)90045-0

King, R. B. (2015). Sense of relatedness boosts engagement, achievement, and well-being: A latent growth model study. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 42, 26–38. doi:10.1016/j.cedpsych.2015.04.002.

Klapp, O. E. (1986). Overload and Boredom: Essays on the Quality of Life in the Information Society. New York, NY: Greenwood Press.         

Kumar, R. (2011). Research Methodology. Washington, DC: Sage.

LaGuardia, J. G., & Patrick, H. (2008). Self-determination theory as a fundamental theory of close relationships. Canadian Psychology, 49, 201–209. doi:10.1037/a0012760

Launius, R. (2004). Frontiers of space exploration. Westport: Greenwood Press.

Lebedev, V. (1988). Diary of a Cosmonaut: 211 Days in Space. College Station, TX: Phytoresource Research Information Service.

León, J., & Liew, J. (2017). Profiles of adolescents’ peer and teacher relatedness: Differences in well-being and academic achievement across latent groups. Learning and Individual Differences, 54, 41–50. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2017.01.009

Lieberman, H., Tharion, W., Shukitt-Hale, B., Speckman, K., & Tulley, R. (2002). Effects of caffeine, sleep loss and stress on cognitive performance and mood during U.S. Navy SEAL training. Sea-Air-Land, Psychopharmacologia, 164, 250–261. doi: 10.1007/s00213-002-1217-9

Likert, R. (1932). A Technique for the Measurement of Attitudes. Archives of Psychology, 140, 1–55. Retrieved from https://legacy.voteview.com/pdf/Likert_1932.pdf

Lind, R. (2012). Mars Program Planning Group. Retrieved from https://www.nasa.gov/offices/marsplanning

Lugg, D. J. (1977). Physiological adaptation and health of an expedition in Antarctica, with comment on behavioural adaptation. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Lugg, D. J. (2005). Behavioural health in Antarctica: implications for long-duration space missions. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 76(6), 74–77. Retrieved from https://www.asma.org/journal

Manzey, D. (2004) Human missions to Mars: new psychological challenges and research issues, Acta Astronautica. 55, 781–790. doi: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2004.05.013

Manzey, D., Lorenz, T. B., Heuers, H., & Sangals, J. (2000). Impairments of manual tracking performance during spaceflight: more converging evidence from a 20-day space mission. Ergonomics, 43(5), 589–609. doi: 10.1080/001401300184279

Marcus, R. F., & Sanders-Reio, J. (2001). The influence of attachment on school completion. School Psychology Quarterly, 16, 427–444. doi:10.1521/scpq.16.4.427.19894.

Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370–396. doi: 10.1037/h0054346

McAuley, E., Wraith, S., & Duncan, T. E. (1991). Self-efficacy, perceptions of success, and intrinsic motivation for exercise. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 21(2), 139-155. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.1991.tb00493.x

McGrath, J. E. (1984). Groups: interaction and processes. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.

Mcphee J., & Charles J. (2009). Human health and performance risks of space exploration missions. Houston, TX: NASA.

Monteiro, V., Mata, L., & Peixoto, F. (2015). Intrinsic Motivation Inventory: Psychometric Properties in the Context of First Language and Mathematics Learning. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 28(3), 434-443. doi: 10.1590/1678-7153.201528302

Moorhead, G., Ference, R., & Neck, C. P. (1991). Group decision fiascoes continue: Space shuttle Challenger and a revised groupthink framework. Human Relations, 44, 539–550. doi: 10.1177/001872679104400601

Muscatello, A. C., Hintze, P. E., Caraccio, A. J., Bayliss, J. A., Karr, L. J., Paley, M. S., … Berggren 14, M. (2016). Mars Atmospheric In Situ Resource Utilization Projects at the Kennedy Space Center. Retrieved from https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20160005187.pdf

Myasnikov, V. I., & Zamaletdinov, I. S. (1996). Chapter 19. Psychological States and Group Interactions of Crew Members in Flight. Space Biology and Medicine - Volume III Books 1 & 2 - Humans in Spaceflight, 419–432. doi:10.2514/5.9781624104671.0419.0432

NASA (1987). Effects of confinement, social isolation, and diurnal disruption of crew adjustment and performance in long duration space missions (Report No. NASA/JSC-CR-188280).  Houston, TX: NASA.

NASA (2012). How astronauts get along. Retrieved from https://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2002/21oct_getalo…

NASA (2014). International Space Station Timelines (November 2014). Retrieved from https://www.nasa.gov/content/international-space-station-timelines-nove…

NASA (n.d.). Just Like Home. Retrieved from https://www.nasa.gov/audience/foreducators/k-4/features/F_Just_Like_Home

NASA (n.d.). Space Shuttle flights by orbiter. Retrieved from https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/launch/orbiter_flights.html

Neisser, U., & Harsch, N. (1989). Phantom flashbulbs: False recollections of hearing the news about Challenger. Affect and Accuracy in Recall, 9–31. doi: 10.1017/cbo9780511664069.003

Nicholas, J. M. (1989). Interpersonal and group-behavior skills training for crews on space station. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 60(6), 603–608. Retrieved from https://www.asma.org/journal

Nie Y., Chua B. L., Yeung, A. S., Ryan, R. M., & Chan, W. Y. (2015). The importance of autonomy support and the mediating role of work motivation for well-being: testing self-determination theory in a Chinese work organisation. International Journal of Psychology, 50(4), 245–255. doi: 10.1002/ijop.12110

Northon, K. (2017). NASA’s Newest Astronaut Recruits to Conduct Research off the Earth, For the Earth and Deep Space Missions. Retrieved from https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-s-newest-astronaut-recruits-to-…

Notarius, C., & Markman, H. (1993).We can work it out: Making sense of marital conflict. New York, NY: G. P. Putnam’s Sons.

NRC, Space Studies Board. (1998). A strategy for research in space biology and medicine in the new century. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Obama, B. (2016, October 12). Barack Obama: America will take the giant leap to Mars. CNN News. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com

Ormston, T. (2012). Time delay between Mars and Earth. Retrieved from http://blogs.esa.int/mex/2012/08/05/time-delay-between-mars-and-earth

Osborne, J. W. (2000). Advantages of hierarchical linear modeling. Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation, 7(1), 1-3. Retrieved from http://pareonline.net/

Otto, C. A. (2007). Antarctica: analog for spaceflight. Presentation to NASA BHP. Wyle Integrated Science and Engineering Group, Houston.

Palinkas, L. A., Gunderson, E. K. E., Holland, A. W., Miller, C., & Johnson, J. C. (2000) Predictors of behavior and performance in extreme environments: the Antarctic space analogue program. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 71, 619–625. Retrieved from https://www.asma.org/journal

Pattyn, N., Migeotte, P., Demaesselaer, W., Kolinsky, R., Morais, J., & Zizi, M. (2005) Investigation human cognitive performance during space- flight. Journal of Gravitational Physiology. 12, 39–40. doi: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2009.01.063

Peake, T. (2016). Hello, is this planet Earth?: My View from the International Space Station. London: Century.

Peldszus, R., Dalke, H., Pretlove, S., & Welch, C. (2014). The perfect boring situation - Addressing the experience of monotony during crewed deep space missions through habitability design. Acta Astronautica, 94(1), 262–276. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2013.04.024

Pelled, L. H., Eisenhardt, K. M., & Xin, K. R. (1999). Exploring the black box: an analysis of work group diversity, conflict, and performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44, 1-28. doi: 10.2307/2667029

Plumer, B., Resnick, B., & Zarracina, J. (2017). The top 7 ways a trip to Mars could kill you, illustrated [Illustration]. Retrieved from https://www.vox.com/science-and-health/2016/9/30/13099898/mars-death-ri…

Porath, C., & Erez, A. (2007). Does rudeness really matter? The effects of rudeness on task performance and helpfulness. Academy of Management Journal, 50, 1181–1197. doi: 10. 2307/20159919.

Porath, C., & Erez, A. (2009). Overlooked but not untouched: How rudeness reduces onlookers’ performance on routine and creative tasks. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 109, 29–44. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2009.01.003.

Porter, T. W., & Lilly, B. S. (1996). The effects of conflict, trust, and task commitment on project team performance. International Journal of Conflict Management, 7, 361–376. doi: 10.1108/eb022787 

Pössel, P., Rudasill, K. M., Sawyer, M. G., Spence, S. H., & Bjerg, A. C. (2013). Associations between teacher emotional support and depressive symptoms in Australian adolescents: A 5-year longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 49(11), 2135–2146. doi: 10.1037/a0031767.

Proctor, S. (2012). Original call for applicants. Retrieved from http://hi-seas.org/?p=430

Proctor, S. (2013). The HI-SEAS Habitat [Photographs]. Retrieved from https://hi-seas.org/?p=1278

Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Reis, H. T., Sheldon, K. M., Gable, S. L., Roscoe, J., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). Daily Well-Being: The Role of Autonomy, Competence, and Relatedness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26(4), 419-435. doi: 10.1177/0146167200266002

Rogers, W. P., Acheson, D. C., Feynman, R. P., Kutyna, D. J., Rummel, R. W., Walker, A. B. C., … Yeager, C. E. (1986). Presidential commission on the space shuttle Challenger accident. Washington, DC: NASA.

Rozin, P., & Royzman, E. B. (2001). Negativity bias, negativity dominance, and contagion. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 5(4): 296-320. doi: 10.1207/S15327957PSPR0504_2

Rueger, S. Y., Malecki, C. K., & Demaray, M. K. (2010). Relationship between multiple sources of perceived social support and psychological and academic adjustment in early adolescence: Comparisons across gender. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39(1), 47–61. doi: 10.1007/s10964-008-9368-6.

Russian Spaceweb. (2008). Missions to Mir in 1991. Retrieved from http://www.russianspaceweb.com/mir_1991.html

Ryan, R. M. (1982). Control and information in the intrapersonal sphere: An extension of cognitive evaluation theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 450-461. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.43.3.450

Ryan, R. M., & Connell, J. P. (1989). Perceived locus of causality and internalization: Examining reasons for acting in two domains. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 749-761. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.57.5.749

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-Determination Theory and the Facilitation of Intrinsic Motivation, Social Development, and Well-Being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68-78. doi: 10.1037//0003-066x.55.1.68

Salotti, J. M., Heidmann, R., & Suhir, E. (2014). Crew Size Impact on the Design, Risks and Cost of a Human Mission to Mars. IEEE Aerospace Conference. doi: 10.1109/AERO.2014.6836241

Sandal, G. M. (2000). Coping in Antarctica: is it possible to generalize results across settings? Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine. 71(9), 37–43. Retrieved from https://www.asma.org/journal

Sandal, G. M. (2012). «Groupthink» on a mission to Mars: results from a 520 days space simulation study. In, Proceedings of the 63rd International Astronautical Conference (p. 18). Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc.

Sandal, G. M., Bye, H. H., & Van De Vijver, F. J. R. (2011). Personal values and crew compatibility: Results from a 105 days simulated space mission. Acta Astronautica, 69, 141-149. doi: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2011.02.007

Sandal, G. M., Vaernes, R., & Ursin, H. (1995). Interpersonal relations during simulated space missions, Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 66, 617–624. Retrieved from https://www.asma.org/journal

Sandal, G.M., Vaernes, R., Bergan, T., Warncke, M., & Ursin, H. (1996). Psychological reactions during polar expeditions and isolation in hyperbaric chambers. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 67,227–234. Retrieved from https://www.asma.org/journal

Santy, P. A., Endicott, J., Jones, D. R., Rose, R. M., Patterson, J., Holland, A. W., Faulk, D. M., & Marsh, R. (1993). Results of a structured psychiatric interview to evaluate NASA astronaut candidates. Military Medicine, 158, 5–9. Retrieved from http://militarymedicine.amsus.org

Santy, P.A., Holland, A.W., Looper, L., & Marcondes-North, R. (1993). Multicultural factors in the space environment: results of an international shuttle crew debrief. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine. 64, 196–200. Retrieved from https://www.asma.org/journal

Schierholz, S., & Huot, D. (2015). NASA Astronaut Kjell Lindgren Completes Space Station Mission, Safely Returns to Earth [Photograph]. Retrieved from https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-astronaut-kjell-lindgren-comple…

Sells, S. B. (n.d.). Military small group performance under isolation and stress: An annotated bibliography: III. Environmental stress and behavior ecology. PsycEXTRA Dataset. doi: 10.1037/e480452008-001

Semjen, A., Leone, G., & Lipshits, M. (1998). Motor timing under microgravity. Acta Astronautica, 42, 303–321. doi: 10.1016/s0094-5765(98)00127-1

Sheldon, K. M., & Filak, V. (2008). Manipulating autonomy, competence, and relatedness support in a game-learning context: new evidence that all three needs matter, British Journal of Social Psychology, 47, 267–283. doi: 10.1348/014466607x238797

Sheldon, K. M., Williams, G., & Joiner, T. (2008). Self-determination theory in the clinic: Motivating physical and mental health. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Sheldon, K. M., Zhaoyang, R., & Williams, M. J. (2013). Psychological need-satisfaction, and basketball performance. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14, 675–681. doi:10.1016/j. psychsport.2013.05.006.

Shepanek M. (2005). Human behavioural research in space: quandaries for research subjects and researchers. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 76(6), 25–30. Retrieved from https://www.asma.org/journal

Solcova, I. P., Lacev, A., & Solcova, I. (2014). Study of individual and group affective processes in the crew of a simulated mission to Mars: Positive affectivity as a valuable indicator of changes in the crew affectivity. Acta Astronautica, 100, 57-67. doi: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2014.03.016

Sparks, C., Dimmock, J., Whipp, P., Lonsdale, C., & Jackson, B. (2015). “Getting Connected”: High School Physical Education Teacher Behaviors That Facilitate Students’ Relatedness Support Perceptions. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 4(3), 219–236. doi: 10.1037/spy0000039

Standage, M., & Emm, L. G. (2014). Relationships within physical activity settings. In N. Weinstein, Human motivation and interpersonal relationships: Theory, research, and applications. Dordrecht: Springer.

Stewart, A. (2015). Alumnus Andrzej Stewart Selected for Yearlong Mars Simulation Mission. Retrieved from http://www.ae.utexas.edu/news/890-andrzej-stewart-mars-simulation

Suedfeld, P. (1991). Groups in Isolation and Confinement: Environments and Experiences. From Antarctica to Outer Space, 135–146. doi:10.1007/978-1-4612-3012-0_14

Suedfeld, P. (2005). Invulnerability, coping, salutogenesis, integration: four phases of space psychology, Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 76(6), 61–66. Retrieved from https://www.asma.org/journal

Suedfeld, P., & Steel, G., D. (2000). The environmental psychology of capsule habitats. Annual review of psychology, 51, 227–253. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.51.1.227

Summers, R., Johnston, S., Marshburn, T., & Williams, D. (2005) Emergencies in space. Annals of emergency medicine, 45, 177-184. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2005.02.010

Tafforin, C. (2013). The Mars-500 crew in daily life activities: An ethological study. Acta Astronautica, 91, 69-76. doi: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2013.05.001

Ursin, H., Comet, B., & Soulez-Larivière, C. (1991). An attempt to determine the ideal psychological profiles for crews of long term space missions. Advances in Space Research, 12(1), 301–314. doi: 10.1016/0273-1177(92)90298-c

Uysal, A. Lin, H. L., & Knee, C. R. (2010). The Role of Need Satisfaction in Self-Concealment and Well-Being. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36(2), 187-199. doi: 10.1177/0146167209354518

Van Baarsen, B. (2013). Person autonomy and voluntariness as important factors in motivation, decision making, and astronaut safety: First results from the Mars500 LODGEAD study. Acta Astronautica, 87, 139-146. doi: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2013.02.006

Van Den Broeck, A., Ferris, D. L., Chang, C., & Rosen, C. C. (2016). A Review of Self-Determination Theory’s Basic Psychological Needs at Work. Journal of Management, 42(5), 1195 – 1229. doi: 10.1177/0149206316632058

Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., De Witte, H., & Lens, W. (2008). Explaining the relationships between job characteristics, burnout and engagement: The role of basic psychological need satisfaction. Work and Stress, 22, 277–294. doi: 10.1080/02678370802393672 

Vansteenkiste, M., Simons, J., Soenens, B., & Lens, W. (2004). How to become a persevering exerciser? Providing a clear, future intrinsic goal in an autonomy-supportive way. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology 26, (2), 232–49. doi: 101.1123/jsep.26.2.232

Verseux, C. (2016). Hazy time [Web log post]. Retrieved from https://walking-on-red-dust.com/2016/04/05/hazy-time

Vinograd, S. P., Belleville, R., Halstead, T. W., Pulliam, J. E., Pleasant, L., Dalsimer, I., … Harell, M. (1974). Studies of social group dynamics under isolated conditions. Objective summary of the literature as it relates to potential problems of long duration space flight (Report No. NASA/JSC-CR-2496). Retrieved from https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19750007236.pdf

Viswesvaran, C., Sanchez, J. I., & Fisher, J. (1999). The role of social support in the process of work stress: A meta-analysis. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 54, 314–334. doi: 10.1006/jvbe.1998.1661

Walford, R. L., Bechtel, R., MacCallum, T., Paglia, D. E., & Weber, L. J. (1996). “Biospheric medicine” as viewed from the two-year first closure of Biosphere 2. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, 67, 609–617. Retrieved from https://www.asma.org/journal

Watson, L. A., Dritschel, B., Obonsawin, M. C., & Jentzsch, I. (2007). Seeing yourself in a positive light: Brain correlates of the self-positivity bias. Brain Research, 1152, 106-110. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2007.03.049

Watt, D. G. D. (1997). Pointing at memorized targets during prolonged microgravity. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 68(2), 99–103. Retrieved from https://www.asma.org/journal

Webster, G., Cantillo, L., & Tabor, A. (2017). NASA’s Curiosity rover sharpens paradox of ancient Mars. Retrieved from https://mars.nasa.gov/news/2017/nasas-curiosity-rover-sharpens-paradox-…

Wentzel, K. R., & Muenks, K. (2016). Peer influence on students' motivation, academic achievement, and social behavior. In K. R. Wentzel, and G. B. Ramani (Eds.), Handbook of social influence on social-emotional, motivation, and cognitive outcomes in school con- texts. New York, NY: Routledge.

Whitmire, A., Leveton, L., & Broughton, H. (2015). Minimum Acceptable Net Habitable Volume for Long-Duration Exploration Missions (Report No. NASA/TM-2015-218564). Retrieved from https://ston.jsc.nasa.gov/collections/trs/_techrep/TM-2015-218564.pdf

Whitmore, M., McQuilkin, M. L., & Woolford, B. J. (1998). Habitability and performance issues for long duration spaceflights. Human Performance in Extreme Environments, 3(1), 64–74. Retrieved from http://jhpee.org

Williams, G. C., Frankel, R. M., Campbell, T. L., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Research on relationship-centered care and healthcare outcomes from the Rochester Biopsychosocial Program: A self- determination theory integration. Families, Systems, & Health, 18, 79–90. doi:10.1037/h0091854.

Woltman, H., Feldstain, A., Mackay, J. C., & Rocchi, M. (2012). An introduction to hierarchical linear modeling. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 8(1), 52–69. doi: 10.20982/tqmp.08.1.p052

Woolf, N. (2016, September 28) SpaceX founder Elon Musk plans to get humans to Mars in six years. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com

Wormington, S. V., Corpus, J., H., & Anderson, K. G. (2012). A person-centered investigation of academic motivation and its correlates in high school. Learning and Individual Differences, 22(4), 429-438. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2012.03.004

Wright, S. L., Burt, C. D., & Strongman, K. T. (2006). Loneliness in the workplace: Construct definition and scale development. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 35, 59–68. Retrieved from https://nzjp.scholasticahq.com

Yuhas, A. (2017, April 30). Trump has grand plan for mission to Mars but NASA advises: cool your jets. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com

Ziv, S. (2016, February 18). Astronaut Scot Kelly to host two hour third rock radio program from space station. Newsweek. Retrieved from http://www.newsweek.com

Universiteit of Hogeschool
Master of Science: Klinische Psychologie
Publicatiejaar
2017
Promotor(en)
Wim Beyers
Kernwoorden
Share this on: