Een vergelijkende studie naar het effect van biologische en conventionele landbouw op aquatische biodiversiteit van kleine waterlichamen.

Saar Delmoitie
Landbouw is cruciaal voor de huidige voedselvoorziening maar heeft ook een sterk negatieve impact op het milieu. Dit onderzoek richt zich op kleine waterlichamen. 60 poelen in percelen met verschillende landbouwtypes (biologisch vs. conventioneel) en landbouwintensiteit (akkerland vs. grasland) werden bemonsterd voor lokale omgevingsvariabelen en verschillende aquatische soorten.

Een vergelijkende studie naar het effect van biologische en conventionele landbouw op aquatische biodiversiteit van kleine waterlichamen.

Landbouw wordt in toenemende mate erkend als één van de meest ingrijpende menselijke activiteiten op aarde. Landbouw is de laatste 10 jaar erg geïntensifieerd door het overmatig gebruik van meststoffen en de grootschalige toepassing van pesticide. Dit ondermijnt niet alleen de ecologische integriteit van terrestrische systemen, maar ook de biodiversiteit en het functioneren van aquatische systemen. Nochtans is efficiënt landbouw cruciaal om de snel groeiende menselijke populatie te voeden. Er heerst momenteel een debat over de ontwikkeling van een duurzaam landbouwbeleid en de mogelijke impact hiervan op voedselveiligheid, functioneren van ecosystemen en biodiversiteit. Biologisch landbouw wordt voorgesteld als een alternatieve stabiele landbouwtype en wordt gepromoot door Europa, omdat er wordt verwacht dat biologisch landbouw minder schadelijk is voor de omgeving door het gebruik van biologische meststoffen en een beperkt gebruik van pesticide.

Het merendeel van vergelijkende studies onderzoeken het effect van biologische landbouw op het akkerland zelf, op de omliggende terrestrische landschap of op grote aquatische systemen zoals rivieren en meren, terwijl kleine lentische waterlichamen vaak genegeerd worden. Dit is een grote beperking in de ontwikkeling van een duurzaam landbouw beleid omdat deze kleine waterlichamen vaak voorkomende landschapselementen zijn die in een belangrijke mate bijdrage tot de regionale biodiversiteit en ze voorzien tal van verschillende vitale ecosysteemdiensten.

Dit onderzoek omvat een vergelijkende studie naar het effect van biologische en conventionele landbouw op aquatische biodiversiteit. Hiertoe werden 48 poelen met een verschillende landbouwintensiteit en een verschillend hoeveelheid biologisch landbouw in de nabije omgeving in Vlaanderen bemonsterd. Dit specifiek gericht om (1) te testen voor verschillen in omgevingscondities tussen biologische en conventionele poelen in relatie tot landbouwintensiteit (2) te testen voor een effect van landbouwtype en intensiteit op zoöplankton gemeenschapskenmerken.

Onze studie onthult een significant effect van landbouw en landbouwintensiteit op lokale omgevingscondities en zoöplankton gemeenschapskenmerken. Er is een significant negatieve associatie tussen fytoplankton biomassa en zoöplankton diversiteit. Grasland heeft een sterkere negatieve impact op lokale omgevingscondities in vergelijking met akkerland. De percentage cover van akkerland en bos in een perimeter van 200 m heeft een significant effect op de species rijkdom. We vonden geen groot verschil in lokale omgevingscondities en zoöplankton gemeenschapskenmerken tussen biologische en conventionele poelen. We hebben wel een positief effect van biologische landbouw op taxon diversiteit op regionale schaal gevonden. Dus, biologische landbouw heeft geen positief effect op lokale diversiteit maar wel op regionale diversiteit.

Bibliografie

Andersson, G. K. S., M. Rundlöf, and H. G. Smith. 2012. “Organic Farming Improves Pollination Success in Strawberries.” PLoS ONE 7(2):e31599.

Báldi, A. and P. Batáry. 2011. “The Past and Future of Farmland Birds in Hungary.” Bird Study 58(3):365–77.

Balvanera, P. et al. 2006. “Quantifying the Evidence for Biodiversity Effects on Ecosystem Functioning and Services.” Ecology Letters 9(10):1146–56.

Batáry, P., A. Baldi, D. Kleijn, and T. Tscharntke. 2011. “Landscape-Moderated Biodiversity Effects of Agri-Environmental Management: A Meta-Analysis.” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 278(1713):1894–1902.

Batáry, P., L. V. Dicks, D. Kleijn, and Wi. J. Sutherland. 2015. “The Role of Agri-Environment Schemes in Conservation and Environmental Management.” Conservation Biology 29(4):1006–16.

Beketov, M. A., B. J. Kefford, R. B. Schäfer, and M. Liess. 2013. “Pesticides Reduce Regional Biodiversity of Stream Invertebrates.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 110(27):11039–43.

Benton, T. G., J. A. Vickery, and J. D. Wilson. 2003. “Farmland Biodiversity: Is Habitat Heterogeneity the Key?” Trends in Ecology & Evolution 18(4):182–88.

De Bie, T. et al. 2012. “Body Size and Dispersal Mode as Key Traits Determining Metacommunity Structure of Aquatic Organisms.” Ecology Letters 15(7):740–47.

De Bie, T., S. Declerck, K. Martens, L. De Meester, and L. Brendonck. 2008. “A Comparative Analysis of Cladoceran Communities from Different Water Body Types: Patterns in Community Composition and Diversity.” Hydrobiologia 597(1):19–27.

De Bie, T., R. Stoks, St. Declerck, and L. De Meester. 2010. “Agricultural Land Use Shapes Biodiversity Patterns in Ponds.” Atlas of Biodiversity Risk 226–27.

Boothby, J. 2003. “Tackling Degradation of a Seminatural Landscape: Options and Evaluations.” Land Degradation & Development 14(2):227–43.

Boven, L. and L. Brendonck. 2009. “Impact of Hydroperiod on Seasonal Dynamics in Temporary Pool Cladoceran Communities.” Fundamental and Applied Limnology / Archiv Für Hydrobiologie 174(2):147–57.

Brönmark, C. and L. A. Hansson. 2017. The Biology of Lakes and Ponds. Oxford University Press.

Cardinale, B. J. et al. 2006. “Effects of Biodiversity on the Functioning of Trophic Groups and Ecosystems.” Nature 443(7114):989–92.

Cardinale, B. J. et al. 2012. “Biodiversity Loss and Its Impact on Humanity.” Nature 486(7401):59–67.

Carlson, R. E. and J. Simpson. 1996. “A Coordinator’s Guide to Volunteer Lake Monitoring Methods.” North American Lake Management Society 96:305.

Carpenter, S. R. et al. 1998. “Nonpoint Pollution of Surface Waters with Phosphorus and Nitrogen.” Ecological Applications 8(3):559–68.

Carpenter, S. R. 2005. “Eutrophication of Aquatic Ecosystems: Bistability and Soil Phosphorus.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102(29):10002–5.

Carpenter, S. R. et al. 2009. “Science for Managing Ecosystem Services: Beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(5):1305–12.

Certain, G. et al. 2011. “The Nature Index: A General Framework for Synthesizing Knowledge on the State of Biodiversity.” PLoS ONE 6(4):e18930.

Chase, J. M. and W. A. Ryberg. 2004. “Connectivity, Scale Dependency, and the Productivity-Diversity Relationship.” Ecology Letters 7(8):676–83.

Choi, J. Y., K. S. Jeong, S. K. Kim, and G. J. Joo. 2016. “Impact of Habitat Heterogeneity on the Biodiversity and Density of the Zooplankton Community in Shallow Wetlands (Upo Wetlands, South Korea).” Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies 45(4):485–92.

Clark, C. M. et al. 2017. “Nitrogen-Induced Terrestrial Eutrophication: Cascading Effects and Impacts on Ecosystem Services.” Ecosphere 8(7):e01877.

Costanza, R. et al. 1997. “The Value of the World’s Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital.” Nature 387(6630):253–60.

Cottenie, K. and L. De Meester. 2004. “Metacommunity Structure: Synergy of Biotic Interactions as Selective Agents and Dispersal as Fuel.” Ecology 85(1):114–19.

Cottingham, K. L., B. L. Brown, and J. T. Lennon. 2001. “Biodiversity May Regulate the Temporal Variability of Ecological Systems.” Ecology Letters 4(1):72–85.

Cousyn, C. et al. 2001. “Rapid, Local Adaptation of Zooplankton Behavior to Changes in Predation Pressure in the Absence of Neutral Genetic Changes.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98(11):6256–60.

Dallas, T. and J. M. Drake. 2014. “Relative Importance of Environmental, Geographic, and Spatial Variables on Zooplankton Metacommunities.” Ecosphere 5(9):1–13.

Declerck, S. et al. 2005. “Multi-Group Biodiversity in Shallow Lakes along Gradients of Phosphorus and Water Plant Cover.” Ecology 86(7):1905–15.

Declerck, S. et al. 2006. “Ecological Characteristics of Small Farmland Ponds: Associations with Land Use Practices at Multiple Spatial Scales.” Biological Conservation 131(4):523–32.

Declerck, S., M. Vanderstukken, A. Pals, K. Muylaert, and L. De Meester. 2007. “Plankton Biodiversity along a Gradient of Productivity and Its Mediation by Macrophytes.” Ecology 88(9):2199–2210.

Diekötter, T., S. Wamser, V. Wolters, and K. Birkhofer. 2010. “Landscape and Management Effects on Structure and Function of Soil Arthropod Communities in Winter Wheat.” Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 137(1–2):108–12.

Dı́az, S. and M. Cabido. 2001. “Vive La Différence: Plant Functional Diversity Matters to Ecosystem Processes.” Trends in Ecology & Evolution 16(11):646–55.

Dodson, S. I. 1992. “Predicting Crustacean Zooplankton Species Richness.” Limnology and Oceanography 37(4):848–56.

Dodson, S. I., S. E. Arnott, and K. L. Cottingham. 2000. “The Relationship in Lake Communities between Primary Productivity and Species Richness.” Ecology 81(10):2662–79.

Domburg, P., A. Lilly, S. M. Dunn, and A. C. Edwards. 2002. “Selecting Effective Areas for Development of Bufferstrips at Farm and River Basin Scale.” Pp. 151–55 in Agricultural Effects on Ground and Surface Waters: Research at the Edge of Science and Society, vol. 273.

Downing, J. A. et al. 2008. “Sediment Organic Carbon Burial in Agriculturally Eutrophic Impoundments over the Last Century.” Global Biogeochemical Cycles 22(1):GB1018.

Downing, J. A. 2010. “Emerging Global Role of Small Lakes and Ponds: Little Things Mean a Lot.” Limnetica 29(1):9–24.

Drenner, S. M., S. I. Dodson, R. W. Drenner, and J. E. Pinder III. 2009. “Crustacean Zooplankton Community Structure in Temporary and Permanent Grassland Ponds.” Hydrobiologia 632(1):225–33.

Dudgeon, D. et al. 2006. “Freshwater Biodiversity: Importance, Threats, Status and Conservation Challenges.” Biological Reviews 81(02):163–82.

Duraiappah, A., S. Naheem, T. Agardy, N. J. Ash, and et al Cooper H D. 2005. “Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Biodiversity Synthesis.” Washington, DC: World Resource Institute.

E.P.C.N., T. 2007. “Developing the Pond Manifesto.” Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology 43(4):221–32.

Emsley, John. 2001. “Going One Better than Nature?” Nature.

Eurostat. 2017. “Organic Crop Area by Agricultural Production Methods and Crops (from 2012 Onwards).” Retrieved October 20, 2017 (http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=org_cropar&lang…).

Evens, R. et al. 2011. “Liposomes as an Alternative Delivery System for Investigating Dietary Metal Toxicity to Daphnia Magna.” Aquatic Toxicology 105(3–4):661–68.

Ewers, R. M., J. P. W. Scharlemann, A. Balmford, and R. .. Green. 2009. “Do Increases in Agricultural Yield Spare Land for Nature?” Global Change Biology 15(7):1716–26.

Fischer, J. et al. 2014. “Land Sparing Versus Land Sharing: Moving Forward.” Conservation Letters 7(3):149–57.

Fischer, M. et al. 2010. “Implementing Large-Scale and Long-Term Functional Biodiversity Research: The Biodiversity Exploratories.” Basic and Applied Ecology 11(6):473–85.

Flössner. 2000. Die Haplopoda Und Cladocera Mitteleuropas. Backhuys.

Flynn, Dan F. B., N. Mirotchnick, M. Jain, M. I. Palmer, and S. Naeem. 2011. “Functional and Phylogenetic Diversity as Predictors of Biodiversity–ecosystem-Function Relationships.” Ecology 92(8):1573–81.

Forrest, J. R., R. W. Thorp, Cl Kremen, and N. M. Williams. 2015. “Contrasting Patterns in Species and Functional-Trait Diversity of Bees in an Agricultural Landscape.” Journal of Applied Ecology 52(3):706–15.

Fridley, J. D. 2001. “The Influence of Species Diversity on Ecosystem Productivity: How, Where, and Why?” Oikos 93(3):514–26.

Gabriel, D., S. M. Sait, W. E. Kunin, and T. G. Benton. 2013. “Food Production vs. Biodiversity: Comparing Organic and Conventional Agriculture.” Journal of Applied Ecology 50(2):355–64.

Gianuca, A. T. et al. 2018. “Taxonomic, Functional and Phylogenetic Metacommunity Ecology of Cladoceran Zooplankton along Urbanization Gradients.” Ecography 41(1):183–94.

Gianuca, A. T., J. H. Pantel, and L. De Meester. 2016. “Disentangling the Effect of Body Size and Phylogenetic Distances on Zooplankton Top-down Control of Algae.” Proceedings of the Royal Society B 283(1828):20160487.

Godfray, H. C. J. et al. 2010. “Food Security: The Challenge of Feeding 9 Billion People.” Science 327(5967):812–18.

Green, R. E., S. J. Cornell, J. P. W. Scharlemann, and A. Balmford. 2005. “Farming and the Fate of Wild Nature.” Science 307(5709):550–555.

HACH. 1992. Water Analysis Handbook. The Hach Company, Loveland, CO.

Hanazato, T. 2001. “Pesticide Effects on Freshwater Zooplankton: An Ecological Perspective.” Environmental Pollution 112(1):1–10.

Hansson, L. A., C. Bronmark, P. Anders Nilsson, and K. Abjornsson. 2005. “Conflicting Demands on Wetland Ecosystem Services: Nutrient Retention, Biodiversity or Both?” Freshwater Biology 50(4):705–14.

Hassall, C. et al. 2012. “Temporal Dynamics of Aquatic Communities and Implications for Pond Conservation.” Biodiversity and Conservation 21(3):829–52.

Heath, D. J. and A. Whitehead. 1992. “A Survey of Pond Loss in Essex, South-East England.” Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 2(3):267–73.

Hébert, M. P., B. E. Beisner, and R. Maranger. 2017. “Linking Zooplankton Communities to Ecosystem Functioning: Toward an Effect-Trait Framework.” Journal of Plankton Research 39(1):3–12.

Hector, A. 1998. “The Effect of Diversity on Productivity: Detecting the Role of Species Complementarity.” Oikos 82(3):597–99.

Hector, A. et al. 2010. “General Stabilizing Effects of Plant Diversity on Grassland Productivity through Population Asynchrony and Overyielding.” Ecology 91(8):2213–20.

Heino, J. 2000. “Lentic Macroinvertebrate Assemblage Structure along Gradients in Spatial Heterogeneity, Habitat Size and Water Chemistry.” Hydrobiologia 418(1):229–42.

Hilt, S., S. Brothers, E. Jeppesen, A. J. Veraart, and S. Kosten. 2017. “Translating Regime Shifts in Shallow Lakes into Changes in Ecosystem Functions and Services.” BioScience 67(10):928–36.

Hoffmann, M. D. and S. I. Dodson. 2005. “Land Use, Primary Productivity, and Lake Area as Descriptors of Zooplankton Diversity.” Ecology 86(1):225–61.

Hooper, D. U. 1998. “The Role of Complementarity and Competition in Ecosystem Responses to Variation in Plant Diversity.” Ecology 79(2):704–19.

Jansen, M. et al. 2015. “Experimental Evolution Reveals High Insecticide Tolerance in Daphnia Inhabiting Farmland Ponds.” Evolutionary Applications 8(5):442–53.

Jeliazkov, Al et al. 2016. “Impacts of Agricultural Intensification on Bird Communities: New Insights from a Multi-Level and Multi-Facet Approach of Biodiversity.” Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 216:9–22.

Jensen, T. C., I. Dimante-Deimantovica, A. K. Schartau, and B. Walseng. 2013. “Cladocerans Respond to Differences in Trophic State in Deeper Nutrient Poor Lakes from Southern Norway.” Hydrobiologia 715(1):101–12.

Jeppesen, E. et al. 1991. “Recovery Resilience Following a Reduction in External Phosphorus Loading of Shallow, Eutrophic Danish Lakes: Duration, Regulating Factors and Methods for Overcoming Resilience.” Mem. Ist. Ital. Idrobiol 48(1):127–48.

Jeppesen, E., J. P. Jensen, M. Søndergaard, and T. Lauridsen. 1999. “Trophic Dynamics in Turbid and Clearwater Lakes with Special Emphasis on the Role of Zooplankton for Water Clarity.” Hydrobiologia 408(0):217–31.

Jeppesen, E., J. Peder Jensen, M. SØndergaard, T. Lauridsen, and F. Landkildehus. 2000. “Trophic Structure, Species Richness and Biodiversity in Danish Lakes: Changes along a Phosphorus Gradient.” Freshwater Biology 45(2):201–18.

Kidd, K. A., D. W. Schindler, D. C. Muir, W. L. Lockhart, and R. H. Hesslein. 1995. “High Concentrations of Toxaphene in Fishes from a Subarctic Lake.” Science 269(5221):240–42.

Kleijn, D. et al. 2009. “On the Relationship between Farmland Biodiversity and Land-Use Intensity in Europe.” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 276(1658):903–9.

Kleijn, D. and W. .. Sutherland. 2003. “How Effective Are European Agrienvironment Schemes in Conserving and Promoting Biodiversity?” Journal of Applied Ecology 40(6):947–969.

Kuiper, J. J. et al. 2017. “Mowing Submerged Macrophytes in Shallow Lakes with Alternative Stable States: Battling the Good Guys?” Environmental Management 59(4):619–34.

López-Bellido, L., J. Wery, and RJ. López-Bellido. 2014. “Energy Crops: Prospects in the Context of Sustainable Agriculture.” European Journal of Agronomy 60:1–12.

Loreau, M. 1998. “Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning: A Mechanistic Model.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95:5632–5636.

Loreau, M. et al. 2001. “Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning: Current Knowledge and Future Challenges.” Science 294(5543):804–8.

Louette, G., L. De Meester, and S. Declerck. 2008. “Assembly of Zooplankton Communities in Newly Created Ponds.” Freshwater Biology 53(11):2309–20.

Macfadyen, S. et al. 2009. “Do Differences in Food Web Structure between Organic and Conventional Farms Affect the Ecosystem Service of Pest Control?” Ecology Letters 12(3):229–38.

Macfadyen, S., R. H. Gibson, W. O. C. Symondson, and J. Memmott. 2011. “Landscape Structure Influences Modularity Patterns in Farm Food Webs: Consequences for Pest Control.” Ecological Applications 21(2):516–24.

Mannion, A. M. 1997. “Agriculture and Land Transformation. 2. Present Trends and Future Prospects.” Outlook on Agriculture 26(3):151–58.

Matson, P. A. a, W. J. J. Parton, A. G. G. Power, and M. J. J. Swift. 1997. “Agricultural Intensification and Ecosystem Properties.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 277(5325):504–9.

Meyer, W. and Ii. W. Turner. 1992. “Human Population Growth and Global Land-Use/Cover Change.” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 23(1):39–61.

Moore, M. and C. Folt. 1993. “Zooplankton Body Size and Community Structure: Effects of Thermal and Toxicant Stress.” Trends in Ecology & Evolution 8(5):178–83.

Moss, B. 2010. Ecology of Freshwaters: A View for the Twenty-First Century. 4th ed. John Wiley & Sons.

Moss, B. R. 2009. Ecology of Fresh Waters: Man and Medium, Past to Future. John Wiley & Sons.

Murphy, J. and J. P. Riley. 1962. “A Modified Single Solution Method for the Determination of Phosphate in Natural Waters.” Analytica Chimica Acta 27:31–36.

Naeem, S., D. .. Bunker, A. Hector, M. Loreau, and C. Perrings. 2009. Biodiversity, Ecosystem Functioning, and Human Wellbeing: An Ecological and Economic Perspective. University Press, Oxford.

Nevalainen, L. and T. P. Luoto. 2017. “Relationship between Cladoceran (Crustacea) Functional Diversity and Lake Trophic Gradients” edited by M. Pfrender. Functional Ecology 31(2):488–98.

Nicolet, P. et al. 2004. “The Wetland Plant and Macroinvertebrate Assemblages of Temporary Ponds in England and Wales.” Biological Conservation 120(2):261–78.

O’Brien, RM. 2007. “A Caution Regarding Rules of Thumb for Variance Inflation Factors.” Quality & Quantity 41(5):673–690.

Oertli, B. et al. 2005. “Conservation and Monitoring of Pond Biodiversity: Introduction.” Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 15(6):535–40.

Oppermann, R., G. Beaufoy, and G. Jones. 2012. High Nature Value Farming in Europe. Ubstadt-Weiher.

Pereira, H. M., L. M. Navarro, and I. S. Martins. 2012. “Global Biodiversity Change: The Bad, the Good, and the Unknown.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources 37(1):25–50.

Peretyatko, A., S. Teissier, S. De Backer, and L. Triest. 2009. “Restoration Potential of Biomanipulation for Eutrophic Peri-Urban Ponds: The Role of Zooplankton Size and Submerged Macrophyte Cover.” Hydrobiologia 634(1):125–35.

Petrusek, A., A. Hobaek, et al. 2008. “A Taxonomic Reappraisal of the European Daphnia Longispina Complex (Crustacea, Cladocera, Anomopoda).” Zoologica Scripta 37(5):507–19.

Petrusek, A., J. Seda, J. Machácek, S. Ruthova, and P. Smilauer. 2008. “Daphnia Hybridization along Ecological Gradients in Pelagic Environments: The Potential for the Presence of Hybrid Zones in Plankton.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 363(1505):2931–41.

Phillips, G., N. Willby, and B. Moss. 2016. “Submerged Macrophyte Decline in Shallow Lakes: What Have We Learnt in the Last Forty Years?” Aquatic Botany 135:37–45.

Pimentel, D., P. Hepperly, J. Hanson, D. Douds, and R. Seidel. 2005. “Environmental, Energetic, and Economic Comparisons of Organic and Conventional Farming Systems.” BioScience 55(7):573–582.

Poelmans, L. and A. Van Rompaey. 2009. “Detecting and Modelling Spatial Patterns of Urban Sprawl in Highly Fragmented Areas: A Case Study in the Flanders–Brussels Region.” Landscape and Urban Planning 93(1):10–19.

de Ponti, T., B. Rijk, and M. K. van Ittersum. 2012. “The Crop Yield Gap between Organic and Conventional Agriculture.” Agricultural Systems 108:1–9.

Price, M. 2013. “High Nature Value Farming in Europe: 35 European Countries—Experiences and Perspectives.” Mountain Research and Development 33(4):480–81.

Princé, K., R. Lorrillière, M. Barbet-Massin, and F. Jiguet. 2013. “Predicting the Fate of French Bird Communities under Agriculture and Climate Change Scenarios.” Environmental Science & Policy 33:120–32.

Reganold, J. P. and J. M. Wachter. 2016. “Organic Agriculture in the Twenty-First Century.” Nature Plants 2(2):15221.

Relyea, R. A. 2005. “The Impact of Insecticides and Herbicides on the Biodiversity and Productivity of Aquatic Communities.” Ecological Applications 15(2):618–27.

Rockström, J. et al. 2009. “A Safe Operating Space for Humanity.” Nature 461(7263):472–75.

Roschewitz, I., D. Gabriel, T. Tscharntke, and C. Thies. 2005. “The Effects of Landscape Complexity on Arable Weed Species Diversity in Organic and Conventional Farming.” Journal of Applied Ecology 42(5):873–82.

Rundlöf, M. and H. G. Smith. 2006. “The Effect of Organic Farming on Butterfly Diversity Depends on Landscape Context.” Journal of Applied Ecology 43(6):1121–27.

Scheffer, M. 2004. The Ecology of Shallow Lakes. Springer Science & Business Media.

Scheffer, M., S. H. Hosper, M. L. Meijer, B. Moss, and E. Jeppesen. 1993. “Alternative Equilibria in Shallow Lakes.” Trends in Ecology & Evolution 8(8):275–79.

Scheffer, M. and E. Jeppesen. 2007. “Regime Shifts in Shallow Lakes.” Ecosystems 10(1):1–3.

Schrama, M., J. J. de Haan, M. Kroonen, H. Verstegen, and W. H. Van der Putten. 2018. “Crop Yield Gap and Stability in Organic and Conventional Farming Systems.” Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 256:123–30.

Seufert, V., N. Ramankutty, and J. A. Foley. 2012. “Comparing the Yields of Organic and Conventional Agriculture.” Nature 485(7397):229–32.

Smith, V. H. and D. W. Schindler. 2009. “Eutrophication Science: Where Do We Go from Here?” Trends in Ecology & Evolution 24(4):201–7.

Smith, V. H., G. D. Tilman, and J. C. Nekola. 1999. “Eutrophication: Impacts of Excess Nutrient Inputs on Freshwater, Marine, and Terrestrial Ecosystems.” Environmental Pollution 100(1–3):179–96.

Søndergaard, M., E. Jeppesen, and J. P. Jensen. 2005. “Pond or Lake: Does It Make Any Difference?” Archiv Für Hydrobiologie 162(2):143–65.

Steffen, W. et al. 2015. “Planetary Boundaries: Guiding Human Development on a Changing Planet.” Science 347(6223):1259855–1259855.

Stoate, C. et al. 2001. “Ecological Impacts of Arable Intensification in Europe.” Journal of Environmental Management 63(4):337–65.

Strayer, D. L. and D. Dudgeon. 2010. “Freshwater Biodiversity Conservation: Recent Progress and Future Challenges.” Journal of the North American Benthological Society 29(1):344–58.

Symons, C. C. and J. B. Shurin. 2016. “Climate Constrains Lake Community and Ecosystem Responses to Introduced Predators.” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 283(1832):20160825.

TEEB. 2010. “The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity: Mainstreaming the Economics of Nature: A Synthesis of the Approach, Conclusions and Recommendations of TEEB.” UNEP.

Thomas, R. Q., C. D. Canham, K. C. Weathers, and C. L. Goodale. 2010. “Increased Tree Carbon Storage in Response to Nitrogen Deposition in the US.” Nature Geoscience 3(1):13–17.

Tillmann, U. and W. Lampert. 1984. “Competitive Ability of Differently Sized Daphnia Species: An Experimental Test.” Journal of Freshwater Ecology 2(4):311–23.

Tilman, D. 1982. Resource Competition and Community Structure. Princeton University Press.

Tilman, D. 1988. Plant Strategies and the Dynamics and Structure of Plant Communities. Princeton University Press.

Tilman, D. 1999. “Global Environmental Impacts of Agricultural Expansion: The Need for Sustainable and Efficient Practices.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 96(11):5995–6000.

Tilman, D. et al. 2001. “Forecasting Agriculturally Driven Global Environmental Change.” Science 292(5515):281–84.

Tilman, D. 2012. “Biodiversity & Environmental Sustainability amid Human Domination of Global Ecosystems.” Daedalus 141(3):108–20.

Tilman, D., C. Balzer, J. Hill, and B. L. Befort. 2011. “Global Food Demand and the Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(50):20260–20264.

Tilman, D., K. G. Cassman, P. A. Matson, R. Naylor, and S. Polasky. 2002. “Agricultural Sustainability and Intensive Production Practices.” Nature 418(6898):671–77.

Tilman, D., P. B. Reich, and J. M. H. Knops. 2006. “Biodiversity and Ecosystem Stability in a Decade-Long Grassland Experiment.” Nature 441(7093):629–32.

Trewavas, A. 2001. “Urban Myths of Organic Farming.” Nature 410(6827):409–10.

Tuck, S. L. et al. 2014. “Land-Use Intensity and the Effects of Organic Farming on Biodiversity: A Hierarchical Meta-Analysis” edited by A. McKenzie. Journal of Applied Ecology 51(3):746–55.

Tuomisto, H. L., I. D. Hodge, P. Riordan, and D. W. Macdonald. 2012. “Does Organic Farming Reduce Environmental Impacts? – A Meta-Analysis of European Research.” Journal of Environmental Management 112:309–20.

Urabe, J., J. Clasen, and R. W. Sterner. 1997. “Phosphorus Limitation of Daphnia Growth: Is It Real?” Limnology and Oceanography 42(6):1436–43.

Vitousek, P. M., H. a Mooney, J. Lubchenco, and J. M. Melillo. 1997. “Human Domination of Earth’ s Ecosystems.” Science 277(5325):494–99.

Walseng, B., D. O. Hessen, G. Halvorsen, and A. K. Schartau. 2006. “Major Contribution from Littoral Crustaceans to Zooplankton Species Richness in Lakes.” Limnology and Oceanography 51(6):2600–2606.

Williams, P. et al. 2004. “Comparative Biodiversity of Rivers, Streams, Ditches and Ponds in an Agricultural Landscape in Southern England.” Biological Conservation 115(2):329–41.

Winqvist, C. et al. 2011. “Mixed Effects of Organic Farming and Landscape Complexity on Farmland Biodiversity and Biological Control Potential across Europe.” Journal of Applied Ecology 48(3):570–79.

World health Organization. 1990. “Public Health Impact of Pesticides Used in Agriculture.” WHO & UN Environment Program, Geneva.

Yachi, S. and M. Loreau. 1999. “Biodiversity and Ecosystem Productivity in a Fluctuating Environment: The Insurance Hypothesis.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 96(4):1463–68.

Universiteit of Hogeschool
Biologie
Publicatiejaar
2018
Promotor(en)
Luc de Meestersc
Kernwoorden
Deel deze scriptie