Klimaatfinanciering en gedwongen ontheemding: het recht op huisvesting in het gedrang

Melanie Meyskens
Het onderzoek naar de mogelijke effecten van het financieren van het tegengaan van de verdere klimaatverandering, toegespitst op het recht op huisvesting en de mogelijkheid van gedwongen ontheemding

Klimaatfinanciering en gedwongen ontheemding: waar een wil is, daar hoeft men niet weg

Context

De verandering van het klimaat is een fenomeen dat ieder van ons ondertussen wel kent. De nieuwsberichten over smeltende ijskappen, het verlies van tropisch regenwoud, … komen dagelijks binnen in onze huiskamers. Men zou dus denken dat praktijken die proberen deze klimaatverandering tegen te gaan alleen maar iets goeds met zich meebrengen, maar helaas is er ook een negatieve keerzijde aan dit verhaal…

Hoewel er over het algemeen erg veel aandacht gaat naar de klimaatverandering, gaat er veel minder aandacht naar klimaatfinanciering. Klimaatfinanciering wordt omschreven als de financiering van bepaalde acties die op hun beurt zorgen voor de inperking van de klimaatverandering.

Uiteraard is het positief dat bossen opnieuw geplant worden en dat er meer gekozen wordt voor duurzame energie maar wat vaak niet bovenkomt zijn de negatieve effecten die deze acties met zich kunnen meebrengen.

Deze scriptie is dus van belang om aan te tonen wat deze negatieve effecten zijn in de praktijk en dat hier niet luchtig over heen gegaan mag worden. Er moet meer maatschappelijke aandacht geschonken worden aan dit probleem, om op die manier ook sneller tot een effectieve oplossing te kunnen komen.

Botsing van belangen

Deze scriptie heeft de botsing tussen de financiering van het klimaat en mensenrechten onderzocht. Ik heb specifiek gekozen voor het mensenrecht van het recht op huisvesting, omdat hier opvallend veel problemen rijzen.

Deze botsing is best te illustreren met een voorbeeld: voorbeelden van klimaatfinanciering zijn, zoals reeds aangehaald, het opnieuw planten van bossen of het bouwen van een dam die gebruikt wordt voor waterenergie. Beide voorbeelden zorgen ervoor dat de verslechtering van het klimaat wordt afgeremd, maar anderzijds zorgen ze er ook voor dat op de plaatsen van deze projecten er geen plaats meer is om te wonen en mensen gedwongen hun land moeten achterlaten. Iets dat in principe tot een verbetering zou moeten leiden, kan zeer negatief uitvallen en voor velen enkel een verslechtering betekenen. Dit illustreert dus een botsing van twee belangen, waarbij het niet zwart-wit te stellen is welk belang prioritair is.

Problematiek

De voornaamste vragen die hierbij gesteld werden zijn ten eerste de vraag naar wat de belangrijke wereldspelers vandaag reeds doen om aan deze botsing tegemoet te komen en ten tweede de vraag wat er moet gebeuren wanneer de oplossingen van deze spelers blijken te falen in de werkelijkheid. Deze spelers zorgen voor de financiële ondersteuning van acties die weerstand kunnen bieden tegen de huidige klimaatverandering.

Uit mijn onderzoek is dan ook gebleken dat hoewel er oplossingen (in theorie) aangeboden worden, er blijkt in de praktijk en uit concrete case studies dat er toch nog veel misloopt en dat financieringsinstanties nog niet voldoende doen om te zorgen dat het recht op huisvesting niet geschonden wordt. Vaak ontbreekt er een specifieke regel die vooropstelt dat het recht op huisvesting niet geschonden mag worden, vaak is er geen of geen voldoende mogelijkheid om een klacht in te dienen en vaak worden diegenen die er belang bij hebben helemaal niet betrokken bij het project en weten ze dus van niets.

Nood maatschappelijke aandacht

Ik wil met deze masterscriptie dan ook aankaarten dat het dringend tijd is om onze visie gericht op het tegengaan van klimaatverandering, meer te richten op de problematiek die dit tegengaan met zich kan meebrengen. Het zou niet mogen dat ‘iets goeds doen’ voor het klimaat, iets slechts voor mensen en mensenrechten veroorzaakt. Er moet met andere woorden bij elke actie die men hier onderneemt, afgewogen worden of deze actie opweegt tegen de mogelijke negatieve gevolgen en de soms desastreuze gevolgen voor het recht op huisvesting en mensenrechten in het algemeen.

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Universiteit of Hogeschool
Master in de rechten
Publicatiejaar
2018
Promotor(en)
Prof. Dr. J. Wouters
Kernwoorden
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