Plagen toelaten in de landbouw

Bart Laridon
In deze thesis werden actuele economische schadedrempels ontwikkeld voor het graanhaantje in wintertarwe. Naast de biologie en het schadebeeld van deze kever wordt er dieper ingegaan op integrated pest management en hoe schadedrempels hierin geplaatst kunnen worden. Aan de hand van een ontbladeringsproef werden de nodige regressievergelijkingen opgemaakt.

Plagen toelaten in de landbouw

Graanhaantjes (Oulema spp.) zijn kleine kevertjes van ongeveer een halve centimeter groot. Ondanks hun grootte kunnen de larven van deze kever opbrengstverliezen tot 55 % realiseren. Met name Oulema melanopus (van het Grieks melas (= zwart) en pus = poot)) wordt in de literatuur als de grote boosdoener beschreven. Het geslacht telt meerdere soorten die echter zodanig goed op elkaar lijken dat ze op het veld (én in de literatuur) vaak fout gedetermineerd en beschreven worden. In België komen er zes graanhaantjes voor.

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Graanhaantjes integreren?

Het graanhaantje komt voornamelijk voor op kleine graangewassen waar de larven vraatschade aanbrengen. Het gevolg voor de plant is dat de fotosynthetische capaciteit verlaagd wordt. Door deze verlaagde capaciteit kan de plant onvoldoende bouwstoffen leveren tijdens de aarvorming. Dit resulteert in een lagere opbrengst en dus ook een economisch verlies.

Een landbouwer zou bij het aantreffen van graanhaantjes direct kunnen grijpen naar het dichtstbijzijnde insecticide. Zowel de sector als de burger zijn zich echter bewust geworden van de gevolgen van het ondoordacht gebruik van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen. Zo kan de biodiversiteit aanzienlijk gereduceerd worden en kunnen residuen een nefast effect hebben op het milieu en het geteelde product.

Ondoordacht gebruik is echter niet meer aan de orde in de Belgische landbouw. Vandaag de dag doet een goede landbouwer immers aan Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Het principe van IPM is dat men bij het managen van een plaag een zorgvuldige afweging maakt tussen de beschikbare gewasbeschermingsmethoden. Deze methoden stelt men grafisch voor in een driehoek waarbij men bottom-up naar de top toe werkt. Men kijkt hier niet alleen naar economische maar ook naar ecologische aspecten van de methodes. Slechts als de andere methoden uitgeput zijn kan men overgaan naar een chemische behandeling.

Een voorbeeld van IPM-methode is het aanleggen van akkerranden waarin zich natuurlijke vijanden kunnen ontwikkelen. Natuurlijke vijanden zijn organismen waarvan de cyclus zich heeft afgestemd op de cyclus van een ander (plaag)organisme. Zo is er Anaphes flavipes, een bronswesp die haar eitjes in een eitje van het graanhaantje legt. De larven van A. flavipes eten vervolgens het eigeel van de gastheer op zodat de eitjes niet meer levensvatbaar zijn.

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De laagdrempeligheid van economische schadedrempels

Een andere mogelijkheid is het hanteren van economische schadedrempels (ESD). Het principe van een ESD is vrij eenvoudig: men wacht met een chemische behandeling tot de plaag een bepaalde populatiedichtheid bereikt. Een enkel plaagindividu zal immers een bepaald opbrengstverlies realiseren. Twee plaagindividuen (ruw geschat) het dubbele. Als men een perceel gaat monitoren en men de gemiddelde plaagdichtheid vaststelt, dan kan men het te verwachten opbrengstverlies gaan berekenen. Aan dit opbrengstverlies kan men een waarde koppelen aan de hand van de heersende marktprijs. Aan een gewasbeschermingsmiddel en de toepassing ervan hangt er ook een prijskaartje. Een ESD is dat punt waar de waarde van het opbrengstverlies dat van de behandeling gaat overschrijden. Dit punt gaat men uitdrukken in aantal plaagindividuen per plant. Het doel deze thesis was het bepalen van dit punt voor graanhaantjes in tarwe. Dit doet men aan de hand van een eenvoudige formule.

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In een eerste deel van de thesis werd het opbrengstverlies per plaagindividu bestudeerd. Dit werd gedaan aan de hand van een serreproef. Hierbij werden planten tijdens drie verschillende groeifasen op verschillende niveaus ontbladerd. Zo waren er planten die volledig ontbladerd werden (niveau 4) en planten waar slechts een half vlagblad werden weggeknipt (niveau 1). Dit werd gedaan voor meer dan 300 planten verdeeld over 78 potten wat goed was voor het (manueel) meten van de bladlengte en -breedte van meer dan 835 tarwebladeren.

Uit de resultaten van de serreproef bleek dat het volledig ontbladeren tijdens het strekken van het vlagblad een opbrengstverlies teweegbrengt van 64.5%.  Tijdens het late melkstadium resulteert dit in een opbrengstverlies van 15.9%. Hieruit kan men concluderen dat hoe vroeger de ontbladering plaats heeft, en hoe groter de hoeveelheid verwijderde bladoppervlakte, hoe lager de opbrengst.

Uit de verzamelde data werden vervolgens regressiemodellen opgesteld waaruit men kan afleiden met hoeveel het opbrengstverlies toeneemt per extra verwijderde cm² bladoppervlakte. In de literatuur vermeld men dat een graanhaantje ongeveer 5.067 cm² bladoppervlakte opeet tijdens de larvale stadia. Als men dit implementeert in de regressiemodellen bekomt men regressievergelijkingen die het opbrengstverlies weergeven in functie van het aantal larven per scheut.

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In drie stappen naar een geïntegreerde gewasbescherming

Naast het opbrengstverlies per plaagindividu bevat de basisformule voor ESD nog andere elementen. Zo is er de marktwaarde en de kost voor behandeling. Omdat deze waarden sterk kunnen variëren werd er gekozen om met een schadedrempelmatrix te werken. Deze matrix is praktisch bruikbaar door drie eenvoudige stappen te doorlopen.

In een eerste stap kiest men het gewenste product. Bovenop de kostprijs van het product (prijzen werden bekomen via verdelers) werd een toepassingskost van 25 € per ha gerekend.

In een tweede stap gaat men kijken naar de marktprijs. In de matrix varieert deze van 0.12 tot 0.24 € er kg.

In een derde stap gaat men kijken naar het stadium van het gewas. De bijbehorende percentages werden bekomen uit reeds vermelde regressiemodellen. Indien de tarwe net het vlagblad aan het strekken is zal een enkele larve 2.01% opbrengstverlies realiseren. In het late melkstadium is dit 0.80 %.

Als men het kruispunt van de drie gekozen factoren zoekt bekomt men de berekende schadedrempel. Als een landbouwer bijvoorbeeld met Minuet wil behandelen en de marktprijs op 0.14 € per kg ligt dan gaat men bij het strekken van het vlagblad pas behandelen bij een plaagdichtheid van 1.19 larven per scheut.

Door gebruik te maken van deze ESD gaat men de nadelen van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen zo lang mogelijk vermijden. In combinatie met de andere beschikbare methoden binnen het IPM-systeem kan deze ESD-matrix bijdragen aan het transitieproces richting een duurzaam landbouwsysteem. Een eerste steen (of drempel) is hierbij alvast gelegd. 

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Universiteit of Hogeschool
Master of Science in de biowetenschappen: land- en tuinbouwkunde (plantaardige en dierlijke productie)
Publicatiejaar
2018
Promotor(en)
Prof. dr. ir. Geert Haesaert
Kernwoorden
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