2 vliegen in 1 klap: depressie behandelen en therapietrouw verbeteren bij personen met hiv of aids

Eva De Vis
Literatuurstudie naar de determinanten van depressie en therapietrouw bij personen met hiv of aids. Via analyse van onderlinge relaties in beide systemen onderzochten we welke factoren best als doelwit voor een antidepressieve therapie gekozen worden, om tegelijk een verbetering te krijgen in de therapietrouw. Zo willen we bijdragen aan de strijd tegen groeiende resistentie van het virus.

2 vliegen in 1 klap: depressie behandelen en therapietrouw verbeteren bij personen met hiv of aids

2 vliegen in 1 klap: depressie behandelen en therapietrouw verbeteren bij personen met hiv of aids

Personen met hiv of aids hebben het al niet gemakkelijk. Het heersende stigma, de onzekerheid over hun toekomst, de fysieke aftakeling enz. vormen vaak een enorme last. Sommigen onder hen krijgen daarbovenop te maken met depressie. Waarom zouden ze hun medicatie dan nog nemen? Ze worden er toch alleen maar zieker door. Onbewust dragen ze daardoor bij aan de verspreiding en toename van resistente kiemen. Hoe kunnen we dit aanpakken?

 

Doel

Hiv en aids hebben altijd al geleid tot grote uitdagingen binnen de gezondheidssector. Meer dan 60% van alle mensen die met hiv of aids leven wonen in Sub-Saharaans Afrika, waar weinig middelen zijn om problemen binnen de publieke gezondheidszorg aan te pakken. Toch is het aantal patiënten dat hier behandeld wordt spectaculair gestegen over de laatste jaren. Dit sluit aan bij de zogenaamde ’90-90-90’ doelstellingen van de WHO om tegen 2020 90% van alle besmette mensen te diagnosticeren, 90% van deze mensen te behandelen en bij 90% van alle deze behandelde mensen de ziekte daadwerkelijk onder controle te krijgen.

Simultaan met dit groeiend aantal behandelde mensen begint het virus zich helaas meer en meer te wapenen tegen de gebruikte medicatie. Met name in Oost-Afrika en Zuid-Afrika neemt de resistentie gestaag toe, wat de therapie van miljoenen mensen zal ondermijnen. Nog voor we de eerder vooropgestelde doelen bereikt hebben moeten we dus al een nieuwe bedreiging zien aan te pakken.

Hiv resistentie groeit (https://www.who.int/hiv/topics/drugresistance/en/)

Hiv resistentie groeit (afbeelding van: https://www.who.int/hiv/topics/drugresistance/en/)

Middel

Een belangrijke strategie om dit onheil te voorkomen is inzetten op de therapietrouw van de mensen. Virussen dreigen immers vrij spel te krijgen wanneer ze niet volledig uitgeroeid worden tijdens een onvolledige behandelingskuur. Eén bekende factor die bijdraagt aan een ondermaatse therapietrouw is de aanwezigheid van mentale problemen, zoals depressie. Depressie zorgt voor een negatieve gemoedstoestand, gebrek aan motivatie en inadequate coping strategieën (strategieën om met tegenslag om te gaan). Onderzoek naar de verbetering van therapietrouw door behandeling van depressie bij hiv-positieve patiënten leverde echter variabele resultaten op. Daarom gooiden wij het over een andere boeg. Via een uitgebreide literatuurstudie gingen we in de eerste plaats op zoek naar de determinanten van zowel depressie als therapietrouw. Wat maakt dat mensen met hiv of aids depressief worden en welke factoren dragen bij aan een al dan niet succesvolle therapietrouw? We wilden de onderliggende drijfveren bloot leggen om op basis daarvan gedragsveranderende interventies gericht te kunnen plannen. Die drijfveren en hun onderlinge relaties konden we visualiseren en verduidelijken dankzij een interactieve online tool voor systems mapping, wat gebruikt wordt voor het ordenen van complexe informatie. Door analyse van de interacties tussen de verschillende factoren en downstream effecten ervan, trachtten we het resultaat van een bepaalde interventie te voorspellen. Op die manier konden we de meest optimale doelwitten voor een antidepressieve behandeling bepalen die tegelijkertijd de therapietrouw zouden verbeteren.

Uiteindelijk konden we 4 determinanten identificeren met een belangrijke gemeenschappelijke rol.

1. Stigma

Stigma is een risicofactor voor depressie omdat het een sterk negatief zelfbeeld kan induceren. Bovendien draagt het bij tot een gebrekkige therapietrouw. Het kan leiden tot angst om een hiv-positieve status bekend te maken aan de buitenwereld. Hierdoor ontstaan barrières om naar een gezondheidscentrum te gaan wegens de soms gebrekkige privacy, om medicatie te nemen in het openbaar, of om beroep te doen op ondersteuning vanuit het sociaal netwerk. Vandaar dat antidepressieve interventies, gericht op het verbeteren van eigenwaarde en zelfvertrouwen, ook de therapietrouw kunnen verbeteren. Patiënten zullen weerbaarder zijn tegen de negatieve effecten van stigmatiserende ervaringen.

2. Stress

Mensen met hiv of aids krijgen te maken met heel wat psychosociale stressoren. Stress  induceert een aantal biologische reacties in het lichaam, die op termijn kunnen leiden tot veranderingen in de immuniteit en zelfs ziekteprogressie. Deze progressie betekent een extra mentale last voor de patiënten, waardoor depressieve gevoelens kunnen toenemen. Die veroorzaken opnieuw extra stress. Bovendien zal de motivatie tot therapietrouw in sommige gevallen afnemen wanneer de toestand uitzichtloos lijkt, of wanneer men overladen is door een massa stressoren. Door in de therapie te focussen op het correct omgaan met emoties, kunnen we negatieve effecten van stress op zowel mentale gezondheid als therapietrouw reduceren.

3. Therapeutische relatie

Een goede relatie tussen de patiënt en zijn zorgverlener is cruciaal beide systemen, net als een vlotte toegang tot gezondheidszorg. Het tonen van respect en aanvaarding draagt bij tot het mentaal welzijn van de patiënt en het succes van een therapie. Wanneer men bovendien tevreden is over de ontvangen zorgen, zal men meer geneigd zijn zich te houden aan gemaakte afspraken. Alle vormen van psychotherapie zijn erop gericht een goede therapeutische relatie te bekomen. Daarnaast kan een goede organisatie van de gezondheidszorg, waarbij mentale zorg eventueel geïntegreerd wordt met hiv-specifieke zorg, zowel de herkenning als aanpak van depressie en de follow-up van de hiv behandeling ten goede komen.

4. Cognitieve functie

Met cognitief functioneren bedoelen we een aantal mentale processen, zoals abstract denken, probleemoplossend redeneren, aandacht … Zowel depressie als een vergevorderde hiv-infectie kunnen leiden tot cognitieve achteruitgang. Die achteruitgang werkt een depressie nog meer in de hand. Er is bijvoorbeeld een rechtstreeks effect op basis van een abnormale verwerking van emoties, waardoor men gemakkelijker vervalt in negatieve denkschema’s. Ook de therapietrouw zal beïnvloed worden door een slechte cognitie, vooral wanneer het geheugen sterk aangetast is. Wanneer we cognitieve therapie willen toepassen tegen depressie bij mensen met hiv of aids, moeten we evenwel rekening houden met het feit dat in vergevorderde stadia de ziekte zelf hersenschade zal veroorzaken, die we niet kunnen herstellen met de therapie.

Zoals hierboven vermeld, speelt het grootste deel van de hiv-problematiek zich af in Sub-Saharaans Afrika, een gebied waar mentale gezondheidszorg niet altijd goed uitgebouwd is. Hiv-klinieken zijn vaak al overbevraagd, waardoor extra aandacht voor mentale gezondheid bij hiv-patiënten soms niet haalbaar lijkt. Toch willen wij de mogelijke meerwaarde van een geïntegreerde eerstelijnszorg benadrukken. Dit niet alleen om het individueel welzijn te verbeteren, maar ook om de toekomst van miljoenen mensen veilig te stellen.

Bibliografie

References

1.        WHO. HIV: Data and statistics [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2018 Dec 1]. Available from: http://www.who.int/hiv/data/en/

2.        WHO. Antiretroviral therapy coverage - Data and estimates by WHO region [Internet]. Global Health Observatory data repository. 2018 [cited 2019 Jan 7]. Available from: http://apps.who.int/gho/data/view.main.23300REGION?lang=en

3.        Kiekens A, Lushaba JS, Louw JC, Vandamme AM. Transdisciplinary Systems Map of Causes Leading to HIV Drug Resistance. 2018.

4.        WHO. Tackling Hiv Drug Resistance : Trends , Guidelines and Global Action. Policy Br. 2017;1–4.

5.        Ciesla JA, Roberts JE. Meta-analysis of the relationship between HIV infection and risk for depressive disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158(5):725–30.

6.        Gonzalez J, Batchelder A, Psaros C, Safren S. Depression and HIV/AIDS Treatment Nonadherence: A Review and Meta-analysis. 2011;58(2):1–13.

7.        Nakimuli-Mpungu E, Bass JK, Alexandre P, Mills EJ, Musisi S, Ram M, et al. Depression, alcohol use and adherence to antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review. AIDS Behav. 2012;16(8):2101–8.

8.        Sin NL, DiMatteo MR. Depression treatment enhances adherence to antiretroviral therapy: A meta-analysis. Ann Behav Med. 2014;47(3):259–69.

9.        Sikkema KJ, Watt MH, Drabkin AS, Meade CS, Hansen NB, Pence BW. Mental health treatment to reduce HIV transmission risk behavior: A positive prevention model. AIDS Behav. 2010;14(2):252–62.

10.      WHO. Adherence to long-term therapies: Evidence for action. 2003.

11.      Saxena S, Dua T, Clark N, Chowdhary N, Fleischmann A. mhGAP intervention guide for mental, neurological and substance use disorders in non-specialized health settings (Version 2.0). World Health Organization. 2016.

12.      Mhaskar R, Kumar A, Alandikar V, Emmanuel P, Djulbegovic B, Patel S, et al. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy in India: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Indian J Community Med. 2013;38(2):74.

13.      Costa JDM, Torres TS, Coelho LE, Luz PM. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS in Latin America and the Caribbean: Systematic review and meta-analysis: Systematic. J Int AIDS Soc. 2018;21(1).

14.      Wasti SP, Van Teijlingen E, Simkhada P, Randall J, Baxter S, Kirkpatrick P, et al. Factors influencing adherence to antiretroviral treatment in Asian developing countries: A systematic review. Trop Med Int Heal. 2012;17(1):71–81.

15.      Mbuagbaw L, Thabane L, Ongolo-Zogo P, Yondo D, Noorduyn S, Smieja M, et al. Trends and determining factors associated with adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Cameroon: A systematic review and analysis of the CAMPS trial. AIDS Res Ther. 2012;9:1–10.

16.      Geter A, Sutton MY, Hubbard McCree D. Social and structural determinants of HIV treatment and care among black women living with HIV infection: a systematic review: 2005–2016. AIDS Care - Psychol Socio-Medical Asp AIDS/HIV. 2018;30(4):409–16.

17.      Merten S, Kenter E, McKenzie O, Musheke M, Ntalasha H, Martin-Hilber A. Patient-reported barriers and drivers of adherence to antiretrovirals in sub-Saharan Africa: A meta-ethnography. Trop Med Int Heal. 2010;15(SUPPL. 1):16–33.

18.      Croome N, Ahluwalia M, Hughes LD, Abas M. Patient-reported barriers and facilitators to antiretroviral adherence in sub-Saharan Africa. Aids. 2017;31(7):995–1007.

19.      Atkinson JH, Heaton RK, Patterson TL, Wolfson T, Deutsch R, Brown SJ, et al. Two-year prospective study of major depressive disorder in HIV-infected men. J Affect Disord. 2008;108(3):225–34.

20.      Bayón C, Ribera E, Cabrero E, Griffa L, Burgos Á. Prevalence of depressive and other central nervous system symptoms in HIV-infected patients treated with HAART in Spain. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care. 2012;11(5):321–8.

21.      Benton T, Lynch K, Dubé B, Gettes DR, Tustin NB, Lai JP, et al. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor suppression of HIV infectivity and replication. Psychosom Med. 2010;72(9):925–32.

22.      Bhatia R, Hartman C, Kallen MA, Graham J, Giordano TP. Persons newly diagnosed with HIV infection are at high risk for depression and poor linkage to care: Results from the steps study. AIDS Behav. 2011;15(6):1161–70.

23.      Bogart LM, Wagner GJ, H. GF, Landrine H, Klein DJ, Sticklor LA. Perceived Discrimination and Mental Health Symptoms among Black Men with HIV. Cult Divers Ethn Minor Psychol. 2011;17(3):295–302.

24.      Bonacquisti A, Geller PA, Aaron E. Rates and predictors of prenatal depression in women living with and without HIV. AIDS Care - Psychol Socio-Medical Asp AIDS/HIV. 2014;26(1):100–6.

25.      Bragança M, Palha A. Depression and neurocognitive performance in portuguese patients infected with HIV. AIDS Behav. 2011;15(8):1879–87.

26.      Castro A, Farmer P. Understanding and addressing AIDS-related stigma: From anthropological theory to clinical practice in Haiti. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(1):53–9.

27.      Charles B, Jeyaseelan L, Pandian AK, Sam AE, Thenmozhi M, Jayaseelan V. Association between stigma, depression and quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) in South India - A community based cross sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2012;12(1):1.

28.      Chaudoir SR, Norton WE, Earnshaw VA, Moneyham L, Mugavero MJ, Hiers KM. Coping with HIV stigma: Do proactive coping and spiritual peace buffer the effect of stigma on depression? AIDS Behav. 2012;16(8):2382–91.

29.      Cohen M, Fabri M, Cai X, Shi Q, Hoover DR, Ph D, et al. Prevalence and Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression in HIV-Infected and At-Risk Rwandan Women. J women’s Heal. 2009;18(11).

30.      Crane HM, Grunfeld C, Harrington RD, Uldall KK, Ciechanowski PS, Kitahata MM. Lipoatrophy among HIV-infected patients is associated with higher levels of depression than lipohypertrophy. HIV Med. 2008;9(9):780–6.

31.      Dal-Bó MJ, Manoel AL, Filho AOB, Silva BQT Da, Cardoso YS, Cortez J, et al. Depressive symptoms and associated factors among people living with HIV/AIDS. J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care. 2015;14(2):136–40.

32.      De Ryck I, Van Laeken D, Nöstlinger C, Platteau T, Colebunders R. Sexual satisfaction among men living with HIV in Europe. AIDS Behav. 2012;16(1):225–30.

33.      De Santis JP, Gonzalez-Guarda RM, Vasquez EP. Psychosocial and cultural correlates of depression among Hispanic men with HIV infection: A pilot study. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2012;19(10):860–9.

34.      Deichert NT, Fekete EM, Boarts JM, Druley JA, Delahanty DL. Emotional support and affect: Associations with health behaviors and active coping efforts in men living with HIV. AIDS Behav. 2008;12(1):139–45.

35.      Dray-Spira R, Legeai C, Le Den M, Boué F, Lascoux-Combe C, Simon A, et al. Burden of HIV disease and comorbidities on the chances of maintaining employment in the era of sustained combined antiretoviral therapies use. Aids. 2012;26(2):207–15.

36.      Dyer TP, Stein JA, Rice E, Rotheram-Borus MJ. Predicting depression in mothers with and without HIV: The role of social support and family dynamics. AIDS Behav. 2012;16(8):2198–208.

37.      Eller LS, Rivero-Mendez M, Voss J, Chen WT, Chaiphibalsarisdi P, Iipinge S, et al. Depressive symptoms, self-esteem, HIV symptom management self-efficacy and self-compassion in people living with HIV. AIDS Care - Psychol Socio-Medical Asp AIDS/HIV. 2014;26(7):795–803.

38.      Esposito CA, Steel Z, Gioi TM, Huyen TTN, Tarantola D. The prevalence of depression among men living with HIV infection in Vietnam. Am J Public Health. 2009;99(SUPPL. 2):439–44.

39.      Farley J, Miller E, Zamani A, Tepper V, Morris C, Oyegunle M, et al. Screening for Hazardous Alcohol Use and Depressive Symptomatology Among HIV-Infected Patients in Nigeria: Prevalence, Predictors, and Association With Adherence. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care. 2010;9(4):218–26.

40.      Fellows RP, Byrd DA, Morgello S. Major Depressive Disorder, Cognitive Symptoms, and Neuropsychological Performance among Ethnically Diverse HIV1 Men and Women. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2013;19:216–25.

41.      Filho SMMF, De Melo HRL. Frequency and risk factors for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder and depression in older individuals with HIV in northeastern Brazil. Int Psychogeriatrics. 2012;24(10):1648–55.

42.      Fumaz CR, Gonzalez-Garcia M, Borras X, Muñoz-Moreno JA, Perez-Alvarez N, Mothe B, et al. Psychological stress is associated with high levels of IL-6 in HIV-1 infected individuals on effective combined antiretroviral treatment. Brain Behav Immun. 2012;26(4):568–72.

43.      Fumaz CR, Muñoz-Moreno JA, Ferrer MJ, Gonzalez-Garcia M, Negredo E, Perez-Alvarez N, et al. Emotional impact of premature aging symptoms in long-term treated HIV-infected subjects. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012;59(1).

44.      Gaynes BN, Pence BW, Atashili J, O’Donnell J, Kats D, Ndumbe PM. Prevalence and predictors of major depression in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in Bamenda, a semi-urban center in Cameroon. PLoS One. 2012;7(7).

45.      Ge S, Sanchez M, Nolan M, Liu T, Savage CL. Is Alcohol Use Associated with Increased Risk of Developing Adverse Health Outcomes among Adults Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus: A Systematic Review. J Addict Nurs. 2018;29(2):96–118.

46.      Gonzalez A, Zvolensky MJ, Parent J, Grover KW, Hickey M. HIV Symptom Distress and Anxiety Sensitivity in Relation to Panic, Social Anxiety, and Depression Symptoms Among HIV-Positive Adults. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2012;26(3):156–64.

47.      Gordillo V, Fekete EM, Platteau T, Antoni MH, Schneiderman N, Nöstlinger C. Emotional support and gender in people living with HIV: Effects on psychological well-being. J Behav Med. 2009;32(6):523–31.

48.      Greeson JM, Hurwitz BE, Llabre MM, Schneiderman N, Penedo FJ, Klimas NG. Psychological distress, killer lymphocytes and disease severity in HIV/AIDS. Brain Behav Immun. 2008;22(6):901–11.

49.      Gupta R, Dandu M, Packel L, Rutherford G, Leiter K, Phaladze N, et al. Depression and HIV in Botswana: A population-based study on gender-specific socioeconomic and behavioral correlates. PLoS One. 2010;5(12).

50.      Hammoud DA, Endres CJ, Hammond E, Uzuner O, Brown A, Nath A, et al. Imaging serotonergic transmission with [11C]DASB-PET in depressed and non-depressed patients infected with HIV. Neuroimage. 2010;49(3):2588–95.

51.      Harris M, Larsen G, Montaner J. Exacerbation of depression associated with starting raltegravir: a report of four cases. Aids. 2008;22(14):1890–2.

52.      Hatcher AM, Tsai AC, Kumbakumba E, Dworkin SL, Hunt PW, Martin JN, et al. Sexual Relationship Power and Depression among HIV-Infected Women in Rural Uganda. PLoS One. 2012;7(12):6–12.

53.      Hatzenbuehler ML, O’Cleirigh C, Mayer KH, Mimiaga MJ, Safren SA. Prospective associations between HIV-related stigma, transmission risk behaviors, and adverse mental health outcomes in men who have sex with men. Ann Behav Med. 2011;42(2):227–34.

54.      Hinnen C, Schreuder I, Jong E, Van Duijn M, Dahmen R, Van Gorp ECM. The contribution of adult attachment and perceived social support to depressive symptoms in patients with HIV. AIDS Care - Psychol Socio-Medical Asp AIDS/HIV. 2012;24(12):1535–42.

55.      Illangasekare SL, Burke JG, McDonnell KA, Gielen AC. The Impact of Intimate Partner Violence, Substance Use, and HIV on Depressive Symptoms Among Abused Low-Income Urban Women. J Interpers Violence. 2013;28(14):2831–48.

56.      Illangasekare S, Burke J, Chander G, Gielen A. The syndemic effects of intimate partner violence, HIV/AIDS, and substance abuse on depression among low-income Urban women. J Urban Heal. 2013;90(5):934–47.

57.      Illangasekare S, Tello M, Hutton H, Moore R, Anderson J, Baron J, et al. Clinical and Mental Health Correlates and Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence among HIV-Positive Women in an Inner-City HIV Clinic. Women’s Heal Issues. 2012;22(6):e563–9.

58.      Kinyanda E, Hoskins S, Nakku J, Nawaz S, Patel V. Prevalence and risk factors of major depressive disorder in HIV/AIDS as seen in semi-urban Entebbe district, Uganda. BMC Psychiatry. 2011;11(205):1–9.

59.      Klis S, Velding K, Gidron Y, Peterson K. Posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms among people living with HIV in the Gambia. AIDS Care - Psychol Socio-Medical Asp AIDS/HIV. 2011;23(4):426–34.

60.      Klunder AD, Chiang M-C, Dutton RA. Mapping cerebellar degeneration in HIV/AIDS. Neuroreport. 2008;19(17):1655–9.

61.      Kraaij V, van der Veek SMC, Garnefski N, Schroevers M, Witlox R, Maes S. Coping, Goal Adjustment, and Psychological Well-Being in HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex with Men. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2008;22(5):395–402.

62.      Lampe FC, Harding R, Smith CJ, Phillips AN, Johnson M, Sherr L. Physical and psychological symptoms and risk of virologic rebound among patients with virologic suppression on antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010;54(5):500–5.

63.      Lane TA, Moore DM, Batchelor J, Brew BJ, Cysique LA. Facial emotional processing in HIV infection: Relation to neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric status. Neuropsychology. 2012;26(6):713–22.

64.      Langford D, Baron D, Joy J, Del Valle L, Shack J. Contributions of HIV infection in the hypothalamus and substance abuse/use to HPT dysregulation. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2011;36(5):710–9.

65.      Lari MA, Parsa N, Marzban M, Shams M, Faramarzi H. Depression, testosterone concentration, sexual dysfunction and methadone use among men with hypogonadism and HIV infection. AIDS Behav. 2012;16(8):2236–43.

66.      Li L, Lee SJ, Thammawijaya P, Jiraphongsa C, Rotheram-Borus MJ. Stigma, social support, and depression among people living with HIV in Thailand. AIDS Care. 2009;21(8):1007–13.

67.      Li L, Liang L-J, Ding YY, Ji G. Facing HIV as a Family: Predicting Depressive Symptoms with Correlated Responses. J Fam Psychol. 2011;25(2):202–9.

68.      Logie CH, Newman PA, Chakrapani V, Shunmugam M. Adapting the minority stress model: Associations between gender non-conformity stigma, HIV-related stigma and depression among men who have sex with men in South India. Soc Sci Med. 2012;74(8):1261–8.

69.      Logie C, James Ll, Tharao W, Loutfy M. Associations Between HIV-Related Stigma, Racial Discrimination, Gender Discrimination, and Depression Among HIV-Positive African, Caribbean, and Black Women in Ontario, Canada. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2013;27(2):114–22.

70.      Lucey BP, Clifford DB, Creighton J. Relationship of depression and catastrophizing to pain disability and medication adherence in patients with HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. AIDS Care. 2011;23(8):921–8.

71.      Marcellin F, Moh R, Carrieri MP, Danel C, Protopopescu C, Gabillard D, et al. Depressive Symptoms and Exposure to Efavirenz in West African HIV-Infected Adults. HIV Clin Trials. 2008;9(6):445–7.

72.      Mavandadi S, Zanjani F, Ten Have TR, Oslin DW. Psychological Wellbeing among Individuals Aging with HIV: The Value of Social Relationships. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009;51(1):91–8.

73.      Mayston R, Patel V, Abas M, Korgaonkar P, Paranjape R, Rodrigues S, et al. Symptoms of common mental disorder and cognitive associations with seropositivity among a cohort of people coming for testing for HIV/AIDS in Goa, India: a cross-sectional survey. BMC Public Health. 2013;13(204):1–12.

74.      McIntosh RC, Ironson G, Antoni M, Lai B, Kumar M, Fletcher MA, et al. Psychological Distress Mediates the Effect of Alexithymia on 2-Year Change in HIV Viral Load. Int J Behav Med. 2017;24(2):294–304.

75.      McIntosh RC, Seay JS, Antoni MH, Schneiderman N. Cognitive vulnerability for depression in HIV. J Affect Disord. 2013;150(3):908–15.

76.      Mello VA, Segurado AA, Malbergier A. Depression in women living with HIV: Clinical and psychosocial correlates. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2010;13(3):193–9.

77.      Moradi AR, Miraghaei MA, Parhon H, Jabbari H, Jobson L. Posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, executive functioning, and autobiographical remembering in individuals with HIV and in carers of those with HIV in Iran. AIDS Care. 2013;25(3):281–8.

78.      Moreno-Pérez O, Escoín C, Serna-Candel C, Picó A, Alfayate R, Merino E, et al. Risk factors for sexual and erectile dysfunction in hiv-infected men: The role of protease inhibitors. Aids. 2010;24(2):255–64.

79.      Nakimuli-Mpungu E, Musisi S, Katabira E, Nachega J, Bass J. Prevalence and factors associated with depressive disorders in an HIV+ rural patient population in southern Uganda. J Affect Disord. 2011;135(1–3):160–7.

80.      Noh MS, Rueda S, Bekele T, Fenta H, Gardner S, Hamilton H, et al. Depressive symptoms, stress and resources among adult immigrants living with HIV. J Immigr Minor Heal. 2012;14(3):405–12.

81.      Nyamathi A, Ekstrand M, Zolt-Gilburne J, Ganguly K, Sinha S, Ramakrishnan P, et al. Correlates of stigma among rural Indian women living with HIV/AIDS. AIDS Behav. 2013;17(1):329–39.

82.      Nyirenda M, Chatterji S, Rochat T, Mutevedzi P, Newe ML. Prevalence and correlates of depression among HIV-infected and -Affected older people in rural South Africa. J Affect Disord. 2013;151(1):31–8.

83.      Okeke EN, Wagner GJ. AIDS treatment and mental health: Evidence from Uganda. Soc Sci Med. 2013;92(1):27–34.

84.      Olisah VO, Adekeye O, Sheikh TL. Depression and CD4 Cell Count Among Patients With HIV in a Nigerian University Teaching Hospital. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2015;48(4):253–61.

85.      Oppong Asante K. Social support and the psychological wellbeing of people living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana. Afr J Psychiatry. 2012;15(5):340–5.

86.      Owora AH. Major depression disorder trajectories and HIV disease progression: results from a 6-year outpatient clinic cohort. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018;97(12):1–7.

87.      Paddison J, Fricchione G, Gandhi RT, Freudenreich O. Fatigue in Psychiatric HIV Patients: A Pilot Study of Psychological Correlates. Psychosomatics. 2009;50(5):455–60.

88.      Palmer AK, Duncan KC. The way I see it: the effect of stigma and depression on self perceived body image among HIV positive individuals on treatment in British Columbia, Canada. AIDS Care. 2011;23(11):1456–66.

89.      Pappin M, Wouters E, Booysen FLR. Anxiety and depression amongst patients enrolled in a public sector antiretroviral treatment programme in South Africa: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:244.

90.      Patel R, Ratner J, Gore-Felton C, Kadzirange G, Woelk G, Katzenstein D. HIV disclosure patterns, predictors, and psychosocial correlates among HIV positive women in Zimbabwe. AIDS Care. 2012;24(3):358–68.

91.      Pearson CR, Micek MA, Pfeiffer J, Montoya P, Matediane E, Jonasse T, et al. One year after ART initiation: Psychosocial factors associated with stigma among HIV-positive mozambicans. AIDS Behav. 2009;13(6):1189–96.

92.      Pérez JE, Chartier M, Koopman C, Vosvick M, Gore-Felton C, Spiegel D. Spiritual striving, acceptance coping, and depressive symptoms among adults living with HIV/AIDS. J Health Psychol. 2009;14(1):88–97.

93.      Rao D, Chen WT, Pearson CR, Simoni JM, Fredriksen-Goldsen K, Nelson K, et al. Social support mediates the relationship between HIV stigma and depression/quality of life among people living with HIV in Beijing, China. Int J STD AIDS. 2012;23(7):481–4.

94.      Rehm KE, Konkle-Parker D. Association of CD4+ T cell subpopulations and psychological stress measures in women living with HIV. AIDS Care - Psychol Socio-Medical Asp AIDS/HIV. 2017;29(9):1107–11.

95.      Rezaee H, Khalili H, Hatamkhani S, Dashti-Khavidaki S, Khazaeipour Z. Frequency of Depression and its Correlation with Serum Carnitine Level in HIV/AIDS Patients. Curr HIV Res. 2013;11(3):226–30.

96.      Richardson JL, Heikes B, Karim R, Weber K, Anastos K, Young M. Experience of Pain among Women with Advanced HIV Disease. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2009;23(7):503–11.

97.      Ross R, Sawatphanit W, Mizuno M, Takeo K. Depressive Symptoms Among HIV-Positive Postpartum Women in Thailand. Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 2011;25(1):36–42.

98.      Rueda S, Gibson K, Rourke SB, Bekele T, Gardner S, Cairney J. Mastery moderates the negative effect of stigma on depressive symptoms in people living with HIV. AIDS Behav. 2012;16(3):690–9.

99.      Sassoon SA, Rosenbloom MJ, Fama R, Sullivan E V., Pfefferbaum A. Selective neurocognitive deficits and poor life functioning are associated with significant depressive symptoms in alcoholism-HIV infection comorbidity. Psychiatry Res. 2012;199(2):102–10.

100.    Shrestha S, Poudel KC, Poudel-Tandukar K, Kobayashi J, Pandey BD, Yasuoka J, et al. Perceived family support and depression among people living with HIV/AIDS in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care. 2014;13(3):214–22.

101.    Siemieniuk RAC, Krentz HB, Miller P, Woodman K, Ko K, Gill J. The clinical implications of high rates of intimate partner violence against HIV-positive women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013;64(1):32–8.

102.    Silveira MP, Guttier MC, Pinheiro CAT, Pereira TVS, Cruzeiro ALS, Moreira LB. Depressive symptoms in HIV-infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. Rev Bras Psiquiatr Off J Brazilian Psychiatr Assoc. 2012;34(2):162–7.

103.    Smith CA, Stebbins GT, Bartt RE, Kessler HA, Adeyemi OM, Martin E, et al. White Matter Anisotropy and Depression Symptoms in Patients with HIV. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2008;20(4):458–65.

104.    Souza A de, Caumo W, Calvetti PU, Lorenzoni RN, da Rosa GK, Lazzarotto AR, et al. Comparison of pain burden and psychological factors in Brazilian women living with HIV and chronic neuropathic or nociceptive pain: An exploratory study. PLoS One. 2018;13(5):1–12.

105.    Spies G, Afifi TO, Archibald SL, Fennema-Notestine C, Sareen J, Seedat S. Mental health outcomes in HIV and childhood maltreatment: a systematic review. Syst Rev. 2012;1(30):1–28.

106.    Springer SA, Chen S, Altice F. Depression and symptomatic response among HIV-infected drug users enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of directly administered antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Care. 2009;21(8):976–83.

107.    Steward WT, Chandy S, Singh G, Panicker ST, Thomas A, Heylen E, et al. Depression is not an Inevitable Outcome of Disclosure Avoidance: HIV Stigma and Mental Health in a Cohort of HIV Infected Individuals from Southern India. Psychol Heal Med. 2011;16(1):74–85.

108.    Stewart DW, Jones GN, Minor KS. Smoking, depression, and gender in low-income African Americans with HIV/AIDS. Behav Med. 2011;37(3):77–80.

109.    Su X, Lau JTF, Mak WWS, Choi KC, Chen L, Song J, et al. Prevalence and associated factors of depression among people living with HIV in two cities in China. J Affect Disord. 2013;149(1–3):108–15.

110.    Sudfeld CR, Kaaya S, Gunaratna NS, Mugusi F, Fawzi WW, Aboud S, et al. Depression at antiretroviral therapy initiation and clinical outcomes among a cohort of Tanzanian women living with HIV. Aids. 2017;31(2):263–71.

111.    Tatro ET, Everall IP, Masliah E, Hult BJ, Lucero G, Chana G, et al. Differential expression of immunophilins FKBP51 and FKBP52 in the frontal cortex of HIV-infected patients with major depressive disorder. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2009;4(2):218–26.

112.    Teppler H, D. Brown D, Y. Leavitt R, Sklar P, Wan H, Xu X, et al. Long-Term Safety from the Raltegravir Clinical Development Program. Curr HIV Res. 2011;9(1):40–53.

113.    Tsai AC, Bangsberg DR, Frongillo EA, Hunt PW, Muzoora C, Martin JN, et al. Food insecurity, depression and the modifying role of social support among people living with HIV/AIDS in rural Uganda. Soc Sci Med. 2012;74(12):2012–9.

114.    Ustinov A, Suvorova A, Belyakov A, Makhamatova A, Levina O, Krupitsky E, et al. Psychiatric Distress, Drug Use, and HIV Viral Load Suppression in Russia. AIDS Behav. 2016;20(8):1603–8.

115.    Van Den Heuvel L, Chishinga N, Kinyanda E, Weiss H, Patel V, Ayles H, et al. Frequency and correlates of anxiety and mood disorders among TB- and HIV-infected Zambians. AIDS Care - Psychol Socio-Medical Asp AIDS/HIV. 2013;25(12):1527–35.

116.    Vance DE, Moneyham L, Fordham P, Struzick TC. A Model of Suicidal Ideation in Adults Aging With HIV. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2008;19(5):375–84.

117.    Vance DE, Struzick T, Childs G. Challenges of depression and suicidal ideation associated with aging with HIV/AIDS: Implications for social work. J Gerontol Soc Work. 2010;53(2):159–75.

118.    Vogenthaler NS, Hadley C, Rodriguez AE, Valverde EE, Del Rio C, Metsch LR. Depressive symptoms and food insufficiency among HIV-infected crack users in atlanta and miami. AIDS Behav. 2011;15(7):1520–6.

119.    Vosvick M, Martin LA, Smith NG, Jenkins SR. Gender differences in HIV-related coping and depression. AIDS Behav. 2010;14(2):390–400.

120.    Wagner GJ, Ghosh-Dastidar B, Garnett J, Kityo C, Mugyenyi P. Impact of HIV antiretroviral therapy on depression and mental health among clients with HIV in Uganda. Psychosom Med. 2012;74(9):883–90.

121.    Wagner GJ, Holloway I, Ghosh-Dastidar B, Kityo C, Mugyenyi P. Understanding the influence of depression on self-efficacy, work status and condom use among HIV clients in Uganda. J Psychosom Res. 2011;70(5):440–8.

122.    Warriner EM, Rourke SB, Rourke BP, Rubenstein S, Millikin C, Buchanan L, et al. Immune Activation and Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in HIV Infection. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2010;22(3):321–8.

123.    Wohl AR, Galvan FH, Carlos JA, Myers HF, Garland W, Witt MD, et al. A comparison of MSM stigma, HIV stigma and depression in HIV-positive latino and African American men who have sex with men (MSM). AIDS Behav. 2013;17(4):1454–64.

124.    Yoon JC, Crane PK, Ciechanowski PS, Harrington RD, Kitahata MM, Crane HM. Somatic symptoms and the association between hepatitis C infection and depression in HIV-infected patients. AIDS Care - Psychol Socio-Medical Asp AIDS/HIV. 2011;23(10):1208–18.

125.    Yu XN, Lau JTF, Mak WWS, Cheng YM, Lv YH, Zhang JX. Risk and protective factors in association with mental health problems among people living with HIV who were former plasma/blood donors in rural China. AIDS Care - Psychol Socio-Medical Asp AIDS/HIV. 2009;21(5):645–54.

126.    McGinn L. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy of Depression. Am J Psychother. 2000;54(2):257–62.

127.    Wagner GJ, Ngo VK, Nakasujja N, Akena D, Aunon F, Musisi S. Impact of Antidepressant Therapy on Cognitive Aspects of Work, Condom Use, and Psychosocial Well-Being among HIV Clients in Uganda. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2014;48(3):155–66.

128.    Rubin-Falcone H, Weber J, Kishon R, Ochsner K, Delaparte L, Doré B, et al. Longitudinal effects of cognitive behavioral therapy for depression on the neural correlates of emotion regulation. Psychiatry Res - Neuroimaging. 2018;271(November):82–90.

129.    Courtois CA, Sonis J. Guideline: What is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy ? American psychological association. 2017.

130.    Gelenberg AJ, Marlene Freeman CP, Markowitz JC, Rosenbaum JF, Thase ME, Trivedi MH, et al. Practice guideline for the Treatment of Patients With Major Depressive Disorder. American Psychiatric Association. 2010.

131.    Swartz, Holly A., Roy-Byrne, Peter P. SD. Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) for depressed adults: Specific interventions and techniques - UpToDate [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2018 Dec 24]. Available from: https://www-uptodate-com.kuleuven.ezproxy.kuleuven.be/contents/interper…

132.    Richardson JL, Heikes B, Karim R, Weber K, Anastos K, Young M. Experience of Pain among Women with Advanced HIV Disease. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2009;23(7):503–11.

133.    Groves SJ, Porter RJ, Jordan J, Knight R, Carter JD, McIntosh VVW, et al. Changes in neuropsychological function after treatment with metacognitive therapy or cognitive behavior therapy for depression. Depress Anxiety. 2015;32(6):437–44.

134.    Yang Z, Oathes D, Linn KA, Bruce SE, Satterthwaite TD, Cook PA, et al. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Is Associated With Enhanced Cognitive Control Network Activity in Major Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging. 2018;3(4):311–9.

135.    Maletic V, Robinson M, Oakes T, Iyengar S, Ball SG, Russell J. Neurobiology of depression: An integrated view of key findings. Int J Clin Pract. 2007;61(12):2030–40.

136.    World Health Organization. Problem Management Plus (PM+): Individual psychological help for adults impaired by distress in communities exposed to adversity. Geneva; 2018.

137.    Jackson C, Eliasson L, Barber N, Weinman J. Applying COM-B to medication adherence A suggested framework for research and interventions. Eur Heal Psychol. 2014;16(1):7–17.

138.    Gonzalez JS, Psaros C, Batchelder A, Applebaum A, Newville H, Safren SA. Clinician-assessed depression and HAART adherence in HIV-infected individuals in methadone maintenance treatment. Ann Behav Med. 2011;42(1):120–6.

 

Universiteit of Hogeschool
Master in de Geneeskunde
Publicatiejaar
2019
Promotor(en)
Prof. Anne-Mieke Vandamme
Kernwoorden
Share this on: