Brexit: the EU's export of legal services to the UK in jeopardy?

Tine Deschuytere
Persbericht

Brexit en Europese advocaten: een einde aan de Europees-Britse liefdesrelatie?

De Brits-Europese juridische markt: what do you mean?

Het Verenigd Koninkrijk heeft de grootste juridische markt in de Europese Unie en de tweede grootste in de wereld, net na de Verenigde Staten. Deze status heeft het Britse eiland echter niet zomaar mogen ontvangen. 

De Europese Unie begon immers reeds in de jaren ‘70 aan de uitbouw van een significante procedurele vereenvoudiging die Europese advocaten niet alleen toestaat om op tijdelijke, maar ook op permanente, basis in andere EU-lidstaten hun juridische diensten aan te bieden. Dit alles werd gebaseerd op de “wederzijdse erkenning” van de professionele opleidingen van advocaten. Meer nog, door extensieve Europese wetgevingen genieten zelfs juridische documenten een “vrij verkeer” doorheen de EU lidstaten. Dit draagt enorm bij aan de versoepeling van de cross-borderverlening van juridische diensten. 

Het is net van dit systeem dat Europese advocaten gebruikmaken om hun beroep uit te oefenen in het Verenigd Koninkrijk. Recent werd vastgesteld dat niet minder dan 4500 Europese advocaten actief zijn op de Britse markt. Dit is meer dan het dubbele van elke andere nationaliteit aanwezig in London.

Brexit: wat bij een harde break-up?

Wanneer het Verenigd Koninkrijk de EU echter zou verlaten, blijkt dat het Verenigd Koninkrijk de toegang tot dit gunstige kader voor de juridische markt en het beginsel van “wederzijdse erkenning” zal verliezen. Het Verenigd Koninkrijk zal vanaf dan immers zoals een niet-EU lid behandeld worden, een statuut wat gelijkaardig is aan dat wat landen zoals de Verenigde Staten krijgen. Dit betekent dat voor de export van Europese advocaten naar het Verenigd Koninkrijk het internationaal recht van toepassing zal zijn. In dit specifieke geval zijn dat de regels van de Wereld Handelsorganisatie, die voor (juridische) diensten nog steeds vrij ongunstig zijn. 

Hoewel het Verenigd Koninkrijk daarnaast ook zelfstandig een flexibel nationaal kader voor buitenlandse advocaten en juridische documenten wist te creëren, – dat immers van toepassing zal zijn op Europese juridische dienstverleners die in het Verenigd Koninkrijk hun beroep willen uitoefenen – komt deze wetgeving bij lange na niet in de buurt van het Europese kader voor juridische diensten. De huidige toevloed van juridische diensten van de Europese Unie naar het Verenigd Koninkrijk zou dus in gevaar komen als de partijen er niet in slagen een overeenkomst over deze kwestie te sluiten. 

Brexit: friends with benefits?

Toch moet vermeld worden dat niet elke overeenkomst bevredigend is om de voortzetting van de huidige export van juridische diensten van de EU naar het Verenigd Koninkrijk te garanderen. Meer in het bijzonder is gebleken dat verschillende recente vrijhandelsakkoorden afgesloten en/of onderhandeld door de EU met enkele derde landen (zoals Canada, de VS en Singapore) niet in staat zijn de situatie van juridische diensten te verbeteren in vergelijking met een “no-deal”-scenario. Met andere woorden, de overeenkomsten gaan niet verder dan het bevestigen van de huidige regels van de Wereld Handelsorganisatie. Ook zij vormen dus geen bevredigend model voor toekomstige relaties tussen de EU en het Verenigd Koninkrijk, op vlak van juridische diensten althans. 

Andere, meer belovende, voorbeeld-akkoorden worden helaas verworpen wegens hun ‘verregaande’ karakteristieken. Een prominent voorbeeld hiervan is lidmaatschap van de Europese Economische Ruimte gelijkaardig aan dat van Noorwegen. Volgens het akkoord dat de Europese Economische Ruimte creëert, krijgen enkele derde landen, waaronder Noorwegen, toegang tot de Europese interne markt. Dit maakt mogelijk dat diensten, inclusief juridische diensten zoals hier behandeld, zonder enige obstakels over grenzen heen aangeboden en genoten kunnen worden, ook wanneer deze afkomstig zijn van niet-EU lidstaten. Voorwaarde is wel dat deze landen lid zijn van de Europese Economische Ruimte en zich houden aan de extensieve EU-regelgevingen, evenwel zonder dat zij enig stemrecht krijgen over deze wetgevingen. Aangezien dit neerkomt – althans volgens het Verenigd Koninkrijk – op EU lidmaatschap zonder stemrecht, zijn zij hier erg tegen gekant, hoewel het een van de beste mogelijkheden is voor de voortzetting van het vrij verkeer van (juridische) diensten.

Voor de erkenning en handhaving van juridische documenten zijn er wel enkele veelbelovende modellen voor toekomstige onderhandelingen, maar het is nog onduidelijk of deze ook daadwerkelijk tot het Verenigd Koninkrijk zullen worden uitgebreid. Immers, deze akkoorden werden allemaal afgesloten met leden van de Europese interne markt, waar het Verenigd Koninkrijk net uit wilt vertrekken. In andere woorden, geen van deze modellen zijn (op dit ogenblik althans) realistische modellen voor een toekomstige dealtussen de EU en het Verenigd Koninkrijk.

Wat met de “echtscheidingsonderhandelingen” dan?

Helaas dragen de Brexit-onderhandelingen weinig bij aan de EU-export van juridische diensten, aangezien deze nog steedsaan de gang zijn. Hoewel er enkele interessante voorstellen zijn, gaan de meeste daarvan niet uitgebreid in op de toekomst van de Europese juridische dienstverleners in het Verenigd Koninkrijk na Brexit. Deze blijven met name in hoge mate gebaseerd op de besproken vrijhandelsovereenkomsten en dragen dus weinig bij tot de Europese export van juridische diensten. 

Bovendien zijn de Withdrawal Agreementen Political Declaration herhaaldelijk door het Britse parlement verworpen. Meer nog, de verkiezing van Boris Johnson en enkele van zijn recente daden en uitspraken (bijv. de opschorting van het parlement) maken duidelijk dat de toekomst van Brexit nog steeds erg onduidelijk is en elke weg op kan gaan. Het blijft derhalve ook onduidelijk wat de uitkomst van Brexit zal betekenen voor de export van juridische diensten van de EU naar het Verenigd Koninkrijk. 

Een einde aan de Europees-Britse liefdesrelatie?

In ieder geval kan op basis van wat vandaag de dag bekend is over Brexit worden geconcludeerd dat de export van juridische diensten van de EU naar het VK zonder meer in gevaar zal komen. Toch kan hier reeds een positieve verklaring afgelegd worden. Europese ordes van advocaten kunnen immers op bilaterale basis een akkoord afsluiten met de verantwoordelijke organisaties van Engeland om een ‘harde’ Brexit uit te sluiten, wat de Belgische Orde recent ook effectief deed. Dit zou de behandeling van Europese advocaten in Engeland aanzienlijk kunnen verbeteren, al is dit natuurlijk op slechts op een bilaterale basis geregeld en dient dit nog steeds te voldoen aan internationale handelsregels.

Bibliografie

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  1. Legislation
  1. Treaties of the European Union

Article 50 TEU

Articles 20-21, 45, 49 – 62, 101 – 102, 288 TFEU

  1. Withdrawal Agreement and Political Declaration

European Commission, ‘Annex to the Proposal for a Council Decision amending Decision (EU) 2019/274 on the signing, on behalf of the European Union and of the European Atomic Energy Community, of the Agreement on the withdrawal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community’ of 11 April 2019 COM (2019) 194 final

Political declaration setting out the framework for the future relationship between the European Union and the United Kingdom, OJC 66 I/185 of 19 February 2019

  1. EU Regulations

Council Regulation (EEC) No 2137/85 of 25 July 1985 on the European Economic Interest Grouping (EEIG), OJL 199/1 of 31 July 1985

Council Regulation (EC) No 44/2001 of 22 December 2000 on jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters, OJL 12/1 of 16 January 2001

Council Regulation (EC) No 2157/2001 of 8 October 2001 on the Statute for a European company (SE), OJL 294/1 of 10 November 2001

Council Regulation (EC) No 1435/2003 of 22 July 2003 on the Statute for a European Cooperative Society (SCE), OJL 207/1 of 18 August 2003

Regulation (EC) No 805/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 April 2004 creating a European Enforcement Order for uncontested claims, OJL 143/15 of 30 April 2004

Regulation (EC) No 883/2004 on the coordination of social security systems, OJL 166/1 of 30 April 2004

Regulation (EU) No 492/2011 on freedom of movement for workers within the Union, OJL 141/1 of 27 May 2011

Regulation (EU) No 650/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 July 2012 on jurisdiction, applicable law, recognition and enforcement of decisions and acceptance and enforcement of authentic instruments in matters of succession and on the creation of a European Certificate of Succession, OJ L 201/107 of 27 July 2012

Regulation (EU) No 1215/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 December 2012 on jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters, OJL 351/1 of 20 December 2012

Directive 2005/36/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 September 2005 on the recognition of professional qualifications as amended byDirective 2013/55/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 November 2013 amending Directive 2005/36/EC on the recognition of professional qualifications and Regulation (EU) No 1024/2012 on administrative cooperation through the Internal Market Information System (‘the IMI Regulation’), OJL 255/22 of 30 September 2005 juncto OJL 354/132 of 28 December 2013

Regulation (EU) No 655/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 May 2014 establishing a European Account Preservation Order procedure to facilitate cross-border debt recovery in civil and commercial matters, OJ L 189/59 27 June 2014

Regulation (EU) 2015/848 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 May 2015 on insolvency proceedings, OJL 141/19 of 5 June 2015

Regulation (EC) No 1896/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 December 2006 creating a European order for payment procedure as amended byRegulation (EU) 2015/2421 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2015 amending Regulation (EC) No 861/2007 establishing a European Small Claims Procedure and Regulation (EC) No 1896/2006 creating a European order for payment procedure, OJL 399/1 of 30 December 2006 junctoOJL 341/1 of 24 December 2015

Regulation (EC) No 861/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 July 2007 establishing a European Small Claims Procedure as amended byRegulation (EU) 2015/2421 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2015 amending Regulation (EC) No 861/2007 establishing a European Small Claims Procedure and Regulation (EC) No 1896/2006 creating a European order for payment procedure, OJL 199/1 of 31 July 2007 junctoOJL 341/1 of 24 December 2015

Council Regulation (EU) 2016/1103 of 24 June 2016 implementing enhanced cooperation in the area of jurisdiction, applicable law and the recognition and enforcement of decisions in matters of matrimonial property regimes, OJL 183/1 of 8 July 2016

  1. EU Directives

Council Directive 77/249/EEC of 22 March 1977 to facilitate the effective exercise by lawyers of freedom to provide services, OJL 78/18 of 26 March 1977

Directive 98/5/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 February 1998 to facilitate practice of the profession of lawyer on a permanent basis in a Member State other than that in which the qualification was obtained, OJL 77/36 of 14 March 1998

Directive 2000/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 8 June 2000 on certain legal aspects of information society services, in particular electronic commerce, in the Internal Market, OJL 178/1 of 17 July 2000

Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States amending Regulation (EEC) No 1612/68 and repealing Directives 64/221/EEC, 68/360/EEC, 72/194/EEC, 73/148/EEC, 75/34/EEC, 75/35/EEC, 90/364/EEC, 90/365/EEC and 93/96/EEC, OJL 158/77 of 30 April 2004

Directive 2005/56/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 October 2005 on cross-border mergers of limited liability companies, OJ L 310/1 of 25 November 2005 

Directive 2006/123/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 December 2006 on services in the internal market, OJ L 376/36 of 27 December 2006

Directive 2011/35/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2011 concerning mergers of public limited liability companies, OJ L 110/1 of 29 April 2011

Directive 2014/50/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 April 2014 on minimum requirements for enhancing worker mobility between Member States by improving the acquisition and preservation of supplementary pension rights, OJL 128/1 of 30 April 2014

Directive 2014/54/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 April 2014 on measures facilitating the exercise of rights conferred on workers in the context of freedom of movement for workers, OJL 128/8 of 30 April 2014

Directive (EU) 2017/1132 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 June 2017 relating to certain aspects of company law, OJL 169/46 of 30 June 2017

  1. WTO Agreements

Agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures of 1994

General Agreement on Trade in Services of 1995 

  1. International Agreements

United Nations Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (New York, 10 June 1958)

Brussels Convention on Jurisdiction and the Enforcement of Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters 1968, OJL 299/32 of 31 December 1972

Agreement on the European Economic Area, OJL 1/3 of 3 January 1994

Agreement between the European Community and its Member States, of the one part, and the Swiss Confederation, of the other, on the free movement of persons, OJL 114/6 of 30 April 2002

Agreement between the European Community and the Kingdom of Denmark on jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters, OJL 299/62 of 16 November 2005

The Hague Convention of 30 June 2005 on Choice of Court Agreements, OJL 133/1 of 29 May 2009

Convention on jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters, OJL 339/3 of 21 December 2007

Free trade Agreement between the European Union and its Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Korea, of the other part, OJ L 127/6 of 14 May 2011

Agreement between the European Community and the Kingdom of Denmark on jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters, OJL 79/4 of 21 March 2013

Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement concluded with Canada, OJL 11/23 of 14 January 2017

  1. UK Legislation

Foreign Judgments (Reciprocal Enforcement) Act 1933

Solicitors (Northern Ireland) Order 1976, SI 1976/582

The European Communities (Services of Lawyers) Order 1978, SI 1978/1910

Solicitors (Scotland) Act 1980

Arbitration Act 1996

The European Communities (Lawyer’s Practice) Regulations 2000, SI 2000/1119

The European Communities (Lawyer’s Practice) (Scotland) Regulations 2000, SI 2000/121

The Electronic Commerce (EC Directive) Regulations 2002, SI 2002/2013

The Immigration (European Economic Area) Regulations 2006, SI 2006/1003

Legal Services Act 2007

The Provision of Services Regulation 2009, SI 2009/2999

Arbitration (Scotland) Act 2010

Legal Services (Scotland) Act 2010

The Civil and Jurisdiction and Judgments (Amendment) Regulations 2014, SI 2014/2947

The European Union (Recognition of Professional Qualifications) Regulations 2015, SI 2015/2059

The Provision of Services (Amendment etc.) (EU Exit) Regulations 2018, SI 2018/1329

The Recognition of Professional Qualifications (Amendment etc.) (EU Exit) Regulations 2019, SI 2019/312

The Services of Lawyers and Lawyer’s Practice (Revocation etc.) (EU Exit) Regulations 2019, SI 2019/375

The Services of Lawyers and Lawyer’s Practice (EU Exit) (Scotland) (Amendment etc.) Regulations 2019, SI 2019/127

The Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments (Amendment) (EU Exit) Regulations 2019, SI 2019/479

  1. Cases
  1. EU cases

Judgment of 12 December 1972, International Fruit Company and Others v Produktschap voor Groenten en Fruit, C-21/71, ECLI:EU:C:1972:115

Judgment of 21 June 1974, Reyners, C-2/74, ECLI:EU:C:1974:68 

Judgment of 3 December 1974, Van Binsbergen v Bedrijfsvereniging voor de Metaalnijverheid, C-33/74, ECLI:EU:C:1974:131

Judgment of 20 February 1979, Rewe v Bundesmonopolverwaltung für Branntwein, C-120/78, ECLI:EU:C:1979:42

Judgment of 28 April 1977, Thieffry v Conseil d l’ordre des avocats de la Cour de Paris, C-71/76, ECLI:EU:C:1977:65

Judgment of 17 December 1980, Commission v Belgium, C-149/79, ECLI:EU:C:1980:297

Judgment of 12 July 1984, Klopp, C-107/83, ECLI:EU:C:1984:270

Judgment of 4 February 1988, Hoffman v Krieg, C-145/86, ECLI:EU:C:1988:61

Judgment of 25 February 1988, Commission v Germany, C-427/85, ECLI:EU:C:1988:98

Judgment of 27 September 1988, The Queen v Treasury and Commissioners of Inland Revenue, ex parte Daily Mail and General Trust PLC, C-81/87, ECLI:EU:C:1988:456

Judgment of 5 October 1988, Steymann v Staatssecretaris van Justitie, C-196/87, ECLI:EU:C:1988:475

Judgment of 7 May 1991, Vlassopoulou v Ministerium für Justiz, Bundes- u. Europeaangelegenheiten Baden-Württemberg, C-340/89, ECLI:EU:C:1991:193

Judgment of 10 July 1991, Commission v France, C-294/89, ECLI:EU:C:1991:302

Judgment of 25 July 1991, Stichting Collectieve Antennevoorziening Gauda v Commissariaat voor de Media, C-288/89, ECLI:EU:C:1991:323

Judgment of 25 July 1991, Säger v Dennemeyer, C-76/90, ECLI:EU:C:1991:331

Judgment of 31 March 1993, Kraus v Land Baden-Württemberg, C-19/92, ECLI:EU:C:1993:125 

Judgment of 5 October 1994, Germany v Council, C-280/93, ECLI:EU:C:1994:367

Judgment of 30 November 1995, Gebhard, C-55/94, ECLI:EU:C:1995:411

Judgment of 15 December 1995, Union royale belge des sociétés de football association and Others v Bosman and Others, C-415/93, ECLI:EU:C:1995:463

Judgment of 12 December 1996, Reisebüro Broede v Sandker, C-3/95, ECLI:EU:C:1996:487

Judgment of 9 March 1999, Centros, C-212/97, ECLI:EU:C:1999:126

Judgment of 29 April 1999, Coursier, C-267/97, ECLI:EU:C:1999:213

Judgment of 8 June 1999, Meeusen, C-337/97, ECLI:EU:C:1999:284

Judgment of 17 June 1999, Unibank, C-260/97, ECLI:EU:C:1999:312

Judgment of 23 November 1999, Portugal v Council, C-194/96, ECLI:EU:C:1999:574

Judgment of 28 March 2000, Krombach, C-7/98, ECLI:EU:C:2000:164

Judgment of 6 June 2000, Angonese, C-281/98, ECLI:EU:C:2000:296

Judgment of 7 November 2000, Luxembourg v Parliament and Council, C-168/98, ECLI:EU:C:2000:598

Judgment of 28 March 2001, Institut des mandataires agréés v Commission, T-144/99, ECLI:EU:T:2001:105

Judgment of 19 February 2002, Arduino, C-35/99, ECLI:EU:C:2002:97

Judgment of 19 February 2002, Wouters e.a., C-309/99, ECLI:EU:C:2002:98

Judgment of 7 March 2002, Commission v Italy, C-145/99, ECLI:EU:C:2002:142

Judgment of 5 November 2002, Überseering, C-208/00, ECLI:EU:C:2002:632

Judgment of 30 September 2003, Inspire Art, C-167/01, ECLI:EU:C:2003:512

Judgment of 13 November 2003, Morgenbesser, C-313/01, ECLI:EU:C:2003:612

Judgment of 11 December 2003, Schnitzer, C-215/01, ECLI:EU:C:2003:662

Judgment of 11 December 2003, AMOK, C-289/02, ECLI:EU:C:2003:669

Judgment of 19 January 2006, Colegio, C-330/03, ECLI:EU:C:2006:45

Judgment of 19 September 2006, Wilson, C-506/04, ECLI:EU:C:2006:587

Judgment of 19 September 2006, Commission v Luxembourg, C-193/05, ECLI:EU:C:2006:588

Judgment of 5 December 2006, Cipolla e.a., Joined cases C-94/04 and C-202/04, ECLI:EU:C:2006:758

Judgment of 18 December 2007, Jundt, C-281/06, ECLI:EU:C:2007:816

Judgment of 9 September 2008, FIAMM and Others v Council and Commission, C-120/06 P, ELCI:EU:C:2008:476

Judgment of 2 April 2009, Gambazzi, C-394/07, ECLI:EU:C:2009:219

Judgment of 10 December 2009, Peśla, C-345/08, ECLI:EU:C:2009:771

Judgment of 2 December 2010, Jakubowska, C-225/09, ECLI:EU:C:2010:729

Judgment of 3 February 2011, Ebert, C-359/09, ECLI:EU:C:2011:44

Judgment of 29 March 2011, Commission v Italy, C-565/08, ECLI:EU:C:2011:188

Judgment of 24 May 2011, Commission v Belgium, C-47/08, ECLI:EU:C:2011:334

Judgment of 24 May 2011, Commission v France, C-50/08, ECLI:EU:C:2011:335

Judgment of 24 May 2011, Commission v Luxembourg, C-51/08, ECLI:EU:C:2011:336

Judgment of 24 May 2011, Commission v Portugal, C-52/08, ECLI:EU:C:2011:337

Judgment of 24 May 2011, Commission v Austria, C-53/08, ECLI:EU:C:2011:338

Judgment of 24 May 2011, Commission v Germany, C-54/08, ECLI:EU:C:2011:339

Judgment of 24 May 2011, Commission v Greece, C-61/08, ECLI:EU:C:2011:340

Judgment of 1 December 2011, Commission v The Netherlands, C-157/09, ECLI:EU:C:2011:794

Judgment of 17 July 2014, Torresi, C-58/13, ECLI:EU:C:2014:2088

Judgment of 23 October 2014, flyLAL-Lithuanian Airlines, C-302/13, ECLI:EU:C:2014:2319

Judgment of 16 July 2015, Diageo Brands, C-681/13, ECLI:EU:C:2015:471

Judgment of 10 September 2015, Commission v Latvia, C-151/14, ECLI:EU:C:2015:577 

Judgment of 6 October 2015, Brouillard, C-298/14, ECLI:EU:C:2015:652

Judgment of 13 September 2016, Rendón Marín, C-165/14, ECLI:EU:C:2016:675

Judgment of 9 March 2017, Piringer, C-342/15, ECLI:EU:C:2017:196

Opinion of 16 May 2017, Accord de libre-échange avec Singapour, Opinion 2/15, ECLI:EU:C:2017:376

Judgment of 18 May 2017, Lahorgue, C-99/16, ECLI:EU:C:2017:391

Judgment of 14 November 2017, Lounes, C-165/16, ECLI:EU:C:2017:862

Judgment of 23 November 2017, CHEZ Elektro Bulgaria, C-427/16, ECLI:EU:C:2017:890

Judgment of 5 June 2018, Coman and Others, C-673/16, ECLI:EU:C:2018:385

Opinion of Advocate General Juliane Kokott of 7 August 2018, C.E. and N.E., Joined Cases C-325/18 PPU and C-375/18 PPU, ECLI:EU:C:2018:654

Judgment of 19 September 2018, C.E. and N.E., Joined Cases C-325/18 PPU and C-375/18 PPU, ECLI:EU:C:2018:739 

Judgment of 6 December 2018, Preindl, C-675/17, ECLI:EU:C:2018:990

Opinion of Advocate General Yves Bot of 29 January 2019, Accord ECG UE-Canada, Opinion 1/17, ECLI:EU:C:2019:72

Opinion of 30 April 2019, Accord ECG UE-Canada, Opinion 1/17, ECLI:EU:C:2019:341

  1. WTO cases

WTO,European Communities – Regime for the Importation, Sale and Distribution of Bananas – Complaint by the United States – Report of the Panel (22 May 1997) WT/DS27/R/USA

WTO,Communities – Regime for the Importation, Sale and Distribution of Bananas – Report of the Appellate Body(9 September 1997) WT/DS27/AB/R 

WTO, European Communities – Regime for the Importation, Sale and Distribution of Bananas – Recourse to Article 21.5 by Ecuador – Report of the Panel(12 April 1999) WT/DS27/RW/ECU 

WTO, Canada – Certain Measures Affecting the Automotive Industry – Report of the Panel(11 February 2000) WT/DS139/R and WT/DS142/R 

WTO,Canada – Certain Measures Affecting the Automotive Industry – Report of the Appellate Body(31 May 2000) WT/DS139/AB/R and WT/DS142/AB/R 

WTO,United States – Measures Affecting the Cross-Border Supply of Gambling and Betting Services – Report of the Panel(10 November 2004) WT/DS285/R 

WTO,Mexico – Measures Affecting Telecommunications Services – Report of the Panel(2 April 2004) WT/DS204/R

WTO,United States – Measures Affecting the Cross-Border Supply of Gambling and Betting Services – Report of the Appellate Body(7 April 2005) WT/DS285/AB/R

WTO,China – Measures Affecting Trading Rights and Distribution Services for Certain Publications and Audiovisual Entertainment Products – Report of the Panel(12 August 2009) WT/DS363/R 

WTO, China – Certain Measures Affecting Electronic Payment Services – Report of the Panel(16 July 2012) WT/DS413/R

WTO, Argentina – Measures Relating to Trade in Goods and Services – Report of the Appellate Body(14 April 2016) WT/DS453/AB/R 

  1. UK cases

Judgment of the Court of Appeal, Hollington v F Hewthorn & Co Ltd[1943] KB 587 

Judgment of the Court of Appeal (Civil Division), Adams v Cape Industries plc[1990] Ch 433

Judmgent of the Court of Appeal, Good Challenger Navegante SA v Metalexportimport SA[2003] EWCA Civ. 1668 [2004] 1 Lloyd's Rep. 67

Judgment of the Supreme Court, Rubin v. Eurofinance SA, New Cap Reinsurance Corp v. Grant(joined cases) [2012] UKSC 46 [2013] 1 AC 236

Judgment of the Supreme Court, R (on the application of Miller) (Appellant) v The Prime Minister (Respondent)[2019] UKSC 41

  1. Secondary sources
  1. Books

Alexander K and others (eds), Brexit and Financial Services: Law and Policy(Hart Publishing 2018)

Barnard C, The Substantive Law of the EU: The Four Freedoms(4thedition, OUP 2013) 

Briggs A, Private International Law in English Courts(OUP 2014) 

Briggs A, Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments(6thedition, Informa 2015) 

Chalmers D, Davies G and Monti G, European Union Law(2ndedition, CUP 2010) 

Claessens S, Free Movement of Lawyers in the European Union(Wolf Legal Publishers 2008) 

Craig P and de Búrca G, EU Law: Text, Cases, and Materials(6thedition, OUP 2015)

Diebold NF, Non-discrimination in International Trade in Services: ‘Likeness’ in WTO/GATS(CUP 2010)

Fentiman R, International Commercial Litigation(2ndedition, OUP 2015) 

Gaudemet-Tallon H, Compétence et execution des jugements en Europe: Règlement 44/2001, Conventions de Bruxelles (1968) et de Lugano (1988 et 2007)(4thedition, LGDJ 2010) 

Gorlé F and others, Rechtsvergelijking(Kluwer 2007)

Herdegen M, Principles of International Economic Law(2ndedition, OUP 2016) 

Klamert M, Services Liberalization in the EU and the WTO: Concepts, Standards and Regulatory Approaches(CUP 2015)

Kruger T and Verhellen J, Internationaal privaatrecht. De essentie(die Keure 2016) 

Mataija M, Private Regulation and the Internal Market: Sports, Legal Services, and Standard Setting in EU Economic Law(1stedition, OUP 2016) 

Matsushita M and others, The World Trade Organization: Law, Practice, and Policy(3rdedition, OUP 2015)

Nascimbene B, The Legal Profession in the European Union(Kluwer 2009)

Pontier JA and Burg E, EU Principles on Jurisdiction and Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters according to the case law of the European Court of Justice(Asser press 2004)

Van den Bossche P and Prévost D, Essentials of WTO Law(CUP 2016) 

Van den Bossche P and Zdouc W, The Law and Policy of the World Trade Organization(4thedition, CUP 2017) 

Wang FF, Internet Jurisdiction and Choice of Law: Legal Practices in the EU, US and China(CUP 2010) 

  1. Contributions to edited books

Acocella D, ‘Anwendungsbereich’ in Anton K Schnyder (ed), Lugano-Übereinkommen zum internationalen Zilververfahrensrecht: Kommentar(Dike 2011) (23)

Adlung R, ‘Trade in services in the WTO: from Marrakesh (1994), to Doha (2001), to… (?)’ in Narlikar A, Daunton M and Stern RM (eds), The Oxford Handbook on The World Trade Organization(OUP 2012) (370)

Bartl M and Fahey E, ‘A postnational marketplace: negotiating the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP)’ in Fahey E and Curtin D (eds), A Transatlantic Community of Law: Legal Perspectives on the Relationship between the EU and US Legal Orders(CUP 2014) (210)

Blyth D, ‘Scotland’ in Garb L and Julian L (eds), Enforcement of Foreign Judgments – Suppl. 36(Kluwer Law International 2015) (3) 

Chamon M and Demedts V, ‘Een sectorale doorsnede van de internemarktregels: vrij verkeer van juristen, advocaten en notarissen’ in Govaere I (ed), Europees recht: moderne interne markt voor de praktijkjurist(Kluwer 2012) (315) 

Dickinson A, ‘Transitional provisions’ in Dickinson A and Lein E (eds), The Brussels I Regulation Recast(1stedition, OUP 2015) (557) 

Dispute Resolution Department Cleaver Fulton Rankin Solicitors, ‘Northern Ireland’ in Garb L and Julian L (eds), Enforcement of Foreign Judgments – Suppl. 43(Kluwer Law International 2018) (3)

Domej T and Oberhammer P, ‘Anerkennung und Vollstreckung’ in Schnyder AK (ed), Lugano-Übereinkommen zum internationalen Zivilverfahrensrecht: Kommentar(Dike 2011) (739) 

Elms D, ‘Understanding the EU-Singapore Free Trade Agreement’ in Elijah A and others (eds), Australia, The European Union and The New Trade Agenda(ANU Press 2017) (35) 

Emerson M, ‘Which model for Brexit?’ in da Costa Cabral N, Gonçalves JR and Rodrigues NC (eds), After Brexit: Consequences for the European Union(Palgrave Macmillan 2017) (167)

Fitchen J and Kramer X, ‘Authentic instruments and court settlements’ in Dickinson A and Lein E (eds), The Brussels I Regulation Recast(1stedition, OUP 2015) (521) 

Franzina P, Kramer X and Fitchen J, ‘The recognition and enforcement of Member State judgments’ in Dickinson A and Lein E (eds), The Brussels I Regulation Recast(1stedition, OUP 2015) (373) 

Grolimund P and Bachofner E, ‘Protokoll 2’ in Schnyder AK (ed), Lugano-Übereinkommen zum internationalen Zivilverfahrensrecht: Kommentar(Dike 2011) (1142) 

Kerneis P, ‘Le commerce des services et l’AECG: une nouvelle approche pour les engagements des Parties – la liste négative’ in Deblock C, Lebullenger J and Paquin S (eds), Un Nouveau Pont sur l’Atlantique: l’Accord économique et commercial global entre l’Union européenne et le Canada(PUQ 2015) (225)

Kramer X and Themeli E, ‘The party autonomy paradigm: European and global developments on choice of forum’ in Lazić V and Stuij S (eds), Brussels Ibis Regulation: Changes and Challenges of the Renewed Procedural Scheme (Springer 2017) (27) 

Lazić V and Stuij S, ‘Brussels Ibis in relation to other instruments on the global level’ in Lazić V and Stuij S (eds), Brussels Ibis Regulation: Changes and Challenges of the Renewed Procedural Scheme (Springer 2017) (119)

Lianos I and Le Blanc J, ‘Trust, distrust and economic integration’ in Lianos I and Odudu O (eds), Regulating Trade in Services in the EU and the WTO: Trust, Distrust and Economic Integration(CUP 2012) (17) 

Messenger G, ‘Membership of the World Trade Organization’ in Dougan M (ed), The UK after Brexit: Legal and Policy Challenges(Intersentia 2017) (225) 

Schewe C and Lipsens D, ‘From EFTA to EC/EU and Back to EFTA? The European Economic Area (EEA) As a Possible Scenario for the UK-EU Relations After Brexit’ in Troitiño DR, Kerikmäe T and Chochia A (eds), Brexit: History, Reasoning and Perspectives(Springer 2018) (215)

Speitler P, ‘Right of Establishment and Freedom to Provide and Receive Services’ in Baudenbacher C (ed), The Handbook of EEA Law(Springer 2016) (437) 

Thystrup AG and Ünüvar G, ‘A Waiver for Europe? CETA’s trade in services, and investment protection provisions and their legal-political implications on regulatory competence’ in Adinolfi G and others (eds), International Economic Law: Contemporary Issues(Springer 2017) (41)

  1. Journal articles

Ahmed M, ‘Brexit and English jurisdiction agreements: the post-referendum legal landscape’ (2016) 27 EBLR 989

Aikens R and Dinsmore A, ‘Jurisdiction, enforcement and the conflict of laws in cross-border commercial disputes: what are the legal consequences of Brexit?’ (2016) 27 EBLR 903

Al-Nuemat A and Nawafleh A, ‘Brexit, Arbitration and Private International Law’ (2017) 10 J Pol & L 116

Barnard C, ‘Unravelling the Services Directive’, (2008) 45 CMLRev 323. 

Bergamini E, ‘Lawyers and their freedom of establishment and access to the profession – new perspectives and still existing restrictions: the case of Italy’ (2017) 8 Rom J Comp L 100

Bugatti L, ‘Towards a new era for the legal profession’ (2019) 1 ERPL 83

Cone SM, ‘Legal services and the Doha Round dilemma’ (2007) 41 JWT 245

Delimatsis P, ‘The evolution of the EU external trade policy in services – CETA, TTIP and TiSA after Brexit’ (2017) 20 JIEL 583

Deschuyteneer L and Verhellen J, ‘Brexit en de erkenning en tenuitvoerlegging van rechterlijke beslissingen in burgerlijke en handelszaken’ (2018) 11 SEW 428

Fitchen J, ‘The PIL consequences of Brexit’ (2017) 3 NIPR 411

Goldsmith J, ‘Global legal practice and GATS: a Bar viewpoint’ (2004) 22 Penn St Int’l L Rev 625

Hellwig HJ, ‘The effects of Brexit on the law of companies and financial and legal services in Europe: a summary overview’ (2017) 2 ECFR 252

Hess B, ‘The Brussels I Regulation: recent case law of the Court of Justice and the Commission’s proposed recast’ (2012) 49 CMLR 1075

Hill LL, ‘Alternative Business Structure for lawyers and law firms: a view from the global legal services market’ (2017) 18 Or Rev Int’l L 135

Hopkins RW, ‘Liberalizing trade in legal services: the GATS, the accountancy disciplines and the language of core values’ (2005) 15 Ind Int’l & Comp L Rev 427

Horak H, Bodiroga-Vukobrat N and Dumančic K, ‘Professional qualification and diploma recognition in EU law’ (2014) 1 InterEuLawEast 87

Katsirea I and Ruff A, ‘Free movement of law students and lawyers in the EU: a comparison of English, German and Greek legislation’ (2005) 12 IJTLP 367

Kortese L, ‘Exploring professional recognition in the EU: a legal perspective’ (2016) 4 J Int Mobil 43

Koutrakos P, ‘Negotiating international trade treaties after Brexit’ (2017) 41 EL Rev 475

Kramer X, ‘Cross-border enforcement in the EU: mutual trust versus fair trial: towards principles of European civil procedure’ (2011) 1 IJPL 202

Lehmann M and Zetzsche D, ‘Brexit and the consequences for commercial and financial relations between the EU and the UK’ (2016) 27 EBLR 999

Liu M and Ndolo DM, ‘A departure from West Tankers after Brexit? Anti-suit injunctions in the UK directed to parties in EU national courts’ (2018) 21(1) IJEL 55

Lonbay J, ‘Legal ethics and professional responsibility in a global context’ (2005) 4 Wash U Global Stud L Rev 609

Lonbay J, ‘Assessing the European market for legal services: developments in the free movement of lawyers in the European Union’ (2010) 33 Fordham Int’l L J 1629

Masters S and McRae B, ‘What does Brexit mean for the Brussels regime?’ (2016) 33 J Intl Arb 483

McMorrow JA, ‘UK Alternative Business Structures for legal practice: emerging models and lessons for the US’ (2016) 47 Geo J Int’l L 665

Muller G, ‘The liberalization of legal services within the EU internal market’ (2014) 9 GTCJ 123

Muller G, ‘Free movement of lawyers within the EU internal market: achievements and remaining challenges’ (2015) 26 EBLR 355

Neuwahl N, ‘CETA as a potential model for (post-Brexit) UK-EU relations’ (2017) 22 EFAR 279

Newing N and Webster L, ‘Could the Hague Convention bring greater certainty for cross-border disputed post-Brexit? And what would this mean for international arbitration?’ (2016) 10 Disp Resol Int’l 105

Nielsen PA, ‘The new Brussels I Regulation’ (2013) 50 CMLR 503, 526-528

Patton PD, ‘Legal services and the GATS: norms as barriers to trade’ (2003) 9 New Eng J Int’l & Comp L 361

Peihani M, ‘Brexit and financial services: a tentative analysis of possible exit scenarios’ (2017) 5 JBL 357

Rees M and Doussin A, ‘Taking stock on Brexit: what is on the table?’ (2016) Int TLR 47

Tauwhare R, ‘Brexit: achieving near-frictionless trade’ (2017) Int TLR 89

Terry LS, ‘But what will the WTO disciplines apply to – distinguishing among Market Access, National Treatment and Article VI:4 Measures when applying the GATS to legal services’ (2003) Prof Law Symp Issues 83

Terry LS, ‘From GATS to APEC: the impact of trade agreements on legal services’ (2010) 43 Akron L Rev 875

Terry LS and others, ‘Transnational Legal Practice’ (2009) 43 Int'l Law 943

Terry LS, Silver C and Rosen ES, ‘Transnational Legal Practice 2009’ (2010) 44 Int'l Law 563

Toms C, ‘Associations of lawyers in the European Union’ (2005) 16 EBLR 113

van den Brink A and Zelen HMM, ‘Nee tegen nationaliteitseisen notarissen’ (2011) 10 NtEr 329

Van Elsuwege P, ‘Tussen interne markt, douane-unie en vrijhandelszone: op zoek naar een model voor de toekomstige economische relaties tussen de EU en het Verenigd Koninkrijk’ (2017) 5 SEW 182

Vergano PR and Dolle T, ‘The Trade Law Consequences of “Brexit”’ (2016) 7 Eur J Risk Reg 795

  1. Online articles

Campbell A, ‘On the rise or on the rack? The potential impact of the Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements on the use of international arbitration’ (Practical Law Arbitration Blog, 28 June 2016) ˂http://arbitrationblog.practicallaw.com/on-the-rise-or-on-the-rack-the-potential-impact-of-the-hague-convention-on-choice-of-court-agreements-on-the-use-of-international-arbitration/˃ accessed 12 May 2019

Emerson M, ‘Theresa May’s Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement’ (CEPS, 6 March 2018) <https://www.ceps.eu/publications/theresa-mays-deep-and-comprehensive-free-trade-agreement> accessed 18 March 2018

Jhangiani S and Amin R, ‘The Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements: a rival to the New York Convention and a ‘game-changer’ for international disputes?’ (Kluwer Arbitration Blog, 23 September 2016) ˂http://arbitrationblog.kluwerarbitration.com/2016/09/23/the-hague-convention-on-choice-of-court-agreements-a-rival-to-the-new-york-convention-and-a-game-changer-for-international-disputes/?_ga=2.169329377.1300040517.1555173247-1294638954.1554132548˃ accessed 7 May 2019

Ndolo D and Liu M, ‘Revisiting anti-suit injunctions post Brexit: some lessons from the US’ (Kluwer Arbitration Blog, 23 March 2018) ˂http://arbitrationblog.kluwerarbitration.com/2018/03/23/revisiting-anti-suit-injunctions-post-brexit-lessons-us/˃ accessed 7 May 2019

Rea M and Marotti MC, ‘What is all the fuss? The potential impact of the Hague Convention on the Choice of Court Agreement on international arbitration’ (Kluwer Arbitration Blog, 16 June 2017) ˂http://arbitrationblog.kluwerarbitration.com/2017/06/16/fuss-potential-impact-hague-convention-choice-court-agreement-international-arbitration/˃ accessed 12 May 2019

  1. Newspaper articles

Campbell J, ‘Brexit: What is the Irish border backstop?’ BBC News(s.l., 5 April 2019) ˂https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-northern-ireland-politics-44615404˃ accessed 14 May 2019

Neslen A, ‘Leaked TTIP documents cast doubt on EU-US trade deal’ The Guardian(Brussels, 1 May 2016) <https://www.theguardian.com/business/2016/may/01/leaked-ttip-documents-cast-doubt-on-eu-us-trade-deal> accessed 8 April 2019

Proctor K, ‘Boris Johnson fuels speculation he could ignore Brexit delay law’ The Guardian(s.l., 29 September 2019) <https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2019/sep/29/boris-johnson-fuels-speculation-could-ignore-brexit-delay-law> accessed 6 October 2019

Reality Check team, ‘Brexit: What is Common Market 2.0?’ BBC News(s.l., 25 March 2019) ˂https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-47639946˃ accessed 9 May 2019

Wheeler B and Seddon P, ‘Brexit: all you need to know about the UK leaving the EU’ BBC News(s.l., 2 May 2019) ˂https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-32810887˃ accessed 7 May 2019

Woodcock A, ‘Law to stop no-deal Brexit passed by Parliament’ The Independent(s.l., 6 September 2019) <https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/brexit-no-deal-bill-vote-house-lords-boris-johnson-law-parliament-latest-a9094741.html> accessed 6 October 2019

‘Greenpeace leaks secret TTIP documents as US-EU trade talks spark protest’ Euronews(s.l., 2 May 2016) <https://www.euronews.com/2016/05/02/greenpeace-leaks-secret-ttip-documents-as-us-eu-trade-talks-spark-protest> accessed 8 April 2019

‘Brexit: MPs reject May’s EU withdrawal agreement’ BBC News(s.l., 30 March 2019) ˂https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-47752017˃ accessed 7 May 2019 

‘Boris Johnson wins race to be Tory leader and PM’ BBC News(s.l., 23 July 2019) <https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-49084605> accessed 6 October 2019

‘Boris Johnson: No-deal only alternative to Brexit plan’ BBC News(s.l., 2 October 2019) <https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-49906702> accessed 6 October 2019

  1. Other documents
    1. Published by the EU

Bercero IG, ‘Final press conference of the TTIP 15thround of negotiations’ (European Commission, 7 October 2016) <http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/press/index.cfm?id=1553> accessed 8 April 2019

Binder K, ‘Briefing: International Agreements in Progress: EU-Singapore trade and investment agreements closer to conclusion’ (European Parliament, October 2018)<http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2018/628256/EPRS_BRI(2018)628256_EN.pdf> accessed 10 April 2019

Council Decision (EU) 2018/1599 of 15 October 2018 on the signing, on behalf of the European Union, of the Free Trade Agreement between the European Union and the Republic of Singapore, OJL 267/1 of 25 October 2018

Court of Justice of the European Union, ‘Press Release No 6/19’ (Curia, 29 January 2019) <https://curia.europa.eu/jcms/upload/docs/application/pdf/2019-01/cp190006en.pdf> accessed 2 April 2019

Directorate-General for External Policies – Policy Department, ‘Free Trade Agreement between the EU and the Republic of Singapore – Analysis’ (European Parliament, 16 March 2018) <http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2018/603864/EXPO_STU(2018)603864_EN.pdf> accessed 13 May 2019 

Directorate-General for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs, ‘Notice to stakeholders: Withdrawal of the United Kingdom and EU rules in the field of Regulated professions and the Recognition of Professional Qualifications’ (European Commission, 21 June 2018) ˂https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/file_import/professional_qualifications_en.pdf˃ accessed 9 May 2019

Directorate-General Justice and Consumers, ‘Notice to stakeholders: Withdrawal of the United Kingdom and EU rules on company law’ (European Commission, 21 November 2017) ˂https://ec.europa.eu/newsroom/just/item-detail.cfm?item_id=607669˃ accessed 12 May 2019

Directorate-General Justice and Consumers, ‘Notice to stakeholders: Withdrawal of the United Kingdom and EU rules in the field of civil justice and private international law’ (European Commission, 18 January 2019) ˂https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/notice_to_stakeholders_brexit_civil_justice_rev1_final.pdf˃ accessed 9 May 2019

Eeckhout P, ‘Future trade relations between the EU and the UK: options after Brexit’ (Directorate-General for External Policies – Policy Department, 22 March 2018) <http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2018/603866/EXPO_STU(2018)603866_EN.pdf> accessed 31 March 2018

European Commission, ‘Impact assessment accompanying the document Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on a proportionality test before adoption of new regulation of professions’ of 10 January 2017 SWD(2016) 436 final

European Commission, ‘Press release – EU-Canada trade agreement enters into force (Press Release Database, 20 September 2017) <http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-17-3121_nl.htm> accessed 2 April 2019

European Commission, ‘Annex 1 to the Proposal for a Council Decision on the conclusion of the Free Trade Agreement between the European Union and the Republic of Singapore’ of 18 April 2018 COM(2018) 196 final

European Commission, ‘Annex 5 to the Proposal for a Council Decision on the conclusion of the Free Trade Agreement between the European Union and the Republic of Singapore’ of 18 April 2018 COM(2018) 196 final

European Commission, ‘Annex to the Proposal for a Council Decision on the conclusion of the Investment Protection Agreement between the European Union and its Member States of the one part, and the Republic of Singapore, of the other part’ of 18 April 2018 COM(2018) 194 final

European Commission, ‘Growth: Single Market for Services’ <https://ec.europa.eu/growth/single-market/services_en> accessed 30 April 2018 

European Commission, ‘Growth: Single Market for Services - Business Services’ <https://ec.europa.eu/growth/single-market/services/business-services_en> accessed 30 April 2018

European Commission, ‘Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs: Sectors – The European Cooperative Society (SCE)’ <http://ec.europa.eu/growth/sectors/social-economy/cooperatives/european-cooperative-society_en> accessed 28 March 2018

European Commission, ‘Regulated professions database’ <http://ec.europa.eu/growth/tools-databases/regprof/index.cfm> accessed 11 March 2018

European Council Guidelines (Art. 50) of 23 March 2018, EUCO XT 20001/18

European Parliament Resolution of 14 March 2018 on the framework of the future EU-UK relationship, 2018/2573(RSP)

European Union External Action Service, ‘Factsheet: EU-Ukraine relations’ (European Union External Action Service, 6 March 2018) <https://eeas.europa.eu/headquarters/headquarters-Homepage/4081/eu-ukraine-relations-factsheet_en> accessed 2 May 2018

Joint letter from the EU and UK permanent representatives to the WTO (European Commission, 11 October 2017) <https://ec.europa.eu/commission/sites/betapolitical/files/letter_from_eu_and_uk_permanent_representatives.pdf> accessed 2 May 2018

Kraatz S, ‘Fact Sheets on the European Union: Free movement of workers’ (European Parliament, October 2018) <http://www.europarl.europa.eu/factsheets/en/sheet/41/free-movement-of-workers> accessed 1 May 2019

Schöllmann W, ‘Briefing: international agreements in progress: Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) with Canada’ (European Parliament, October 2016) <http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2016/593491/EPRS_BRI%282016%29593491_EN.pdf> accessed 2 April 2019

Special meeting of the European Council (Art. 50) Conclusions of 10 April 2019, EUCO XT 20015/19, para. 2

‘The EU publishes TiSA position papers’ (European Commission, 22 July 2014) <http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/press/index.cfm?id=1133> accessed 11 April 2019 

‘EU’s proposal on competition’ (European Commission, 7 January 2015) ˂http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2015/january/tradoc_153029.pdf˃ accessed 7 May 2019

‘EU’s proposal on state enterprises and enterprises granted special or exclusive rights or privileges’ (European Commission, 7 January 2015) ˂http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2015/january/tradoc_153030.pdf˃ accessed 7 May 2019

‘EU’s proposal on subsidies’ (European Commission, 7 January 2015) ˂http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2015/january/tradoc_153031.pdf˃ accessed 7 May 2019

‘EU’s proposal for a text on trade in services, investment and e-commerce’ (European Commission, 31 July 2015) <http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2015/july/tradoc_153669.pdf> accessed 5 May 2019

‘Reading guide: publication of the EU proposal on services, investment and e-commerce for the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership’ (European Commission, 31 July 2015) <http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2015/july/tradoc_153668.pdf>accessed 8 April 2019

‘Services and investment offer of the EU’ (European Commission, 31 July 2015) ˂http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2015/july/tradoc_153670.pdf˃ accessed 7 May 2019

‘EU’s proposal on investment protection and investment court system’ (European Commission, 12 November 2015) ˂http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2015/november/tradoc_153955.pdf˃ accessed 7 May 2019

‘EU’s proposal on good regulatory practices’ (European Commission, 21 March 2016) ˂http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2016/march/tradoc_154380.pdf˃ accessed 7 May 2019

‘EU’s proposal on regulatory cooperation’ (European Commission, 21 March 2016) ˂http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2016/march/tradoc_154377.pdf˃ accessed 7 May 2019

‘Good regulatory practices (GRPs) in TTIP: An introduction to the EU’s revised proposal’ (European Commission, 21 March 2016) ˂http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2016/march/tradoc_154381.pdf˃ accessed 7 May 2019

‘Regulatory cooperation in TTIP: The benefits’ (European Commission, 21 March 2016) ˂http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2016/march/tradoc_154379.pdf˃ accessed 7 May 2019

‘Services and investment in EU trade deals: using ‘positive’ and ‘negative’ lists’ (European Commission, April 2016) <http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2016/april/tradoc_154427.pdf> accessed 8 April 2019

‘EU negotiating texts in TTIP’ (European Commission, 14 July 2016) <http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/press/index.cfm?id=1230> accessed 7 April 2019

‘Report of the 15thround of negotiations for the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership’ (European Commission, 21 October 2016) <http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2016/october/tradoc_155027.pdf> accessed 8 April 2019

‘TiSA - Schedule of specific commitments and list of MFN exceptions’ (European Commission, 21 October 2016) <http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2016/november/tradoc_155096.pdf> accessed 11 April 2019

‘In focus: Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA)’ (European Commission, 14 July 2017) <http://ec.europa.eu/trade/policy/in-focus/tisa/> accessed 11 April 2019

‘Guide to the EU-Singapore Free Trade Agreement and Investment Protection Agreement’ (European Commission, April 2018) <http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2018/april/tradoc_156711.pdf> accessed 10 April 2019

‘Strategic benefits: building bridges, shaping globalisation’ (European Commission, April 2018) <http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2018/april/tradoc_156713.pdf> accessed 10 April 2019

‘CETA chapter by chapter’ (European Commission, 24 August 2018) <http://ec.europa.eu/trade/policy/in-focus/ceta/ceta-chapter-by-chapter/> accessed 2 April 2019

‘European Professional Card – EPC’ (Your Europe, 24 January 2019) <https://europa.eu/youreurope/citizens/work/professional-qualifications/european-professional-card/index_en.htm> accessed 8 March 2019

‘Press release – Agreement with Singapore set to give a boost to EU-Asia trade’ (European Commission, 13 February 2019) <http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/press/index.cfm?id=1980> accessed 10 April 2019

‘Negotiations and agreements’ (European Commission, 15 February 2019) <http://ec.europa.eu/trade/policy/countries-and-regions/negotiations-and-agreements/#_being-negotiated> accessed 8 April 2019

‘EU-Singapore Agreement’ (European Commission, 25 February 2019) <http://ec.europa.eu/trade/policy/in-focus/eu-singapore-agreement/> accessed 10 April 2019

‘Brexit: new European Parliament reaffirms wholehearted position for EU position’ (European Parliament, 18 September 2019) <http://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/press-room/20190912IPR60929/brexit-new-european-parliament-reaffirms-wholehearted-support-for-eu-position>  accessed 5 October 2019

    1. Published by the UK

Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy, ‘Guidance: Providing services including those of a qualified professional if there’s no Brexit deal’ (UK Government, 12 October 2018) ˂https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/providing-services-including-those-of-a-qualified-professional-if-theres-no-brexit-deal/providing-services-including-those-of-a-qualified-professional-if-theres-no-brexit-deal˃ accessed 9 May 2019.

Department for International Trade, ‘UK services schedule’ (UK Government, 7 December 2018) <https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/762808/SCW380_-_UK_GATS_Schedule-FINAL_03_12_2018.pdf> accessed 23 March 2018

Department for International Trade, ‘UK services schedule list of most favoured nation (MFN) exemptions’ (UK Government, 7 December 2018) <https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/762809/SCW381_-_UK_MFN_list_FINAL_03_12_2018.pdf> accessed 20 March 2019

Department for International Trade and Fox L, ‘Press Release - Liam Fox submits services schedule to WTO’ (UK Government, 3 December 2018) <https://www.gov.uk/government/news/liam-fox-submits-services-schedule-to-wto> accessed 20 March 2019

EU Select Committee, ‘Brexit Negotiations’ (House of Lords, 2017) ˂https://www.parliament.uk/business/committees/committees-a-z/lords-select/eu-select-committee-/inquiries/parliament-2017/scrutiny-of-brexit-negotiations/brexit-negotiations/˃ accessed 24 April 2019

European Union Committee, ‘Brexit: the options for trade’ (House of Lords, 13 December 2016) <https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld201617/ldselect/ldeucom/72/72.pdf> accessed 24 April 2019

Magntorn J and Winters A, ‘Can CETA-plus solve the UK’s services problem?’ (UK Trade Policy Observatory, March 2018) ˂http://blogs.sussex.ac.uk/uktpo/files/2018/03/BP18-10.209199781912044559.pdf˃ accessed 4 April 2019

May T, ‘Article 50 Notification Letter from the United Kingdom’ (UK Government, 29 March 2017) <https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/604079/Prime_Ministers_letter_to_European_Council_President_Donald_Tusk.pdf> accessed 23 April 2018

Merler S in International Trade Committee, ‘Oral evidence: Continuing application of EU trade agreements after Brexit’ (House of Commons, 24 January 2018) <http://data.parliament.uk/writtenevidence/committeeevidence.svc/evidencedocument/international-trade-committee/continuing-application-of-eu-trade-agreements/oral/77638.pdf> accessed 9 February 2018

Ministry of Justice, ‘Guidance: Cross-border civil and commercial legal cases after Brexit: Guidance for legal professionals’ (UK Government, 29 March 2019) ˂https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/cross-border-civil-and-commercial-legal-cases-after-brexit-guidance-for-legal-professionals/cross-border-civil-and-commercial-legal-cases-after-brexit-guidance-for-legal-professionals˃ accessed 9 May 2019

Webb D, ‘CETA: the EU-Canada free trade agreement’ (House of Commons, 20 July 2018) <http://researchbriefings.files.parliament.uk/documents/CBP-7492/CBP-7492.pdf> accessed 2 April 2019

‘What’s next for Brexit? No Commons majority in indicative votes’ (UK Parliament, 27 March 2019) ˂https://www.parliament.uk/business/news/2019/march/whats-next-for-brexit-house-of-commons-holds-indicative-votes/˃ accessed 8 May 2019

‘House of Commons holds second round of indicative votes’ (UK Parliament, 1 April 2019) ˂https://www.parliament.uk/business/news/2019/april/house-of-commons-holds-second-round-of-indicative-votes/˃ accessed 8 May 2019

    1. Published by the WTO

Adlung R, Public services and the GATS(WTO Working Paper, July 2005) ERSD-2005-03

Chairman of the Working Party on Domestic Regulation, Progress Report on the Disciplines on Domestic Regulation Pursuant to GATS Article VI:4(14 April 2011) S/WPDR/W/45

Cossy M, Determining ‘likeness’ under the GATS: Squaring the circle?(WTO Staff Working Paper, September 2006) ERSD-2006-08 2

European Communities and their Member States, ‘Schedule of Specific Commitments’ of 15 April 1994, GATS/SC/31

World Trade Organization, ‘Agreement on Trade Related Investment Measures’ ˂https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/invest_e/invest_info_e.htm˃ accessed 12 May 2019

World Trade Organization, ‘Services negotiations’ <https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/serv_e/s_negs_e.htm> accessed 23 March 2019

World Trade Organization, ‘WTO negotiations on domestic regulation disciplines’ <https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/serv_e/dom_reg_negs_e.htm> accessed 23 March 2019

    1. Published by professional bodies

Bar Council, ‘The old Code of Conduct’ (Bar Standards Board, 18 September 2004) <https://www.barstandardsboard.org.uk/regulatory-requirements/the-old-code-of-conduct/the-old-code-of-conduct/> accessed 15 March 2019

Bar Council of England and Wales, ‘What is the financial value that EU lawyers bring to this country, in particular to the City of London?’ (House of Commons, 20 July 2016) ˂https://www.parliament.uk/documents/commons-committees/Justice/Further-evidence-from-Bar-Council-of-England-and-Wales-on-legal-services-regulation.pdf˃ accessed 24 April 2019

Bar Standards Board, ‘Bar training requirements: Qualified foreign lawyers’ ˂https://www.barstandardsboard.org.uk/qualifying-as-a-barrister/bar-training-requirements/transferring-lawyers/qualified-foreign-lawyers/˃ accessed 12 May 2019

Law Council of Australia, ‘Factsheet: practice of foreign law – United Kingdom’ ˂http://lca.lawcouncil.asn.au/lawcouncil/images/LCA-PDF/Country_Fact_Sheets/Europe/PFL%20United%20Kingdom_map.pdf˃ accessed 27 March 2019

Law Society of Scotland, ‘D7/D8: Registration of foreign lawyers and multi-national practices’ ˂https://www.lawscot.org.uk/members/rules-and-guidance/rules-and-guidance/section-d/rule-d7/guidance/d7-d8-registration-of-foreign-lawyers-and-multi-national-practices/˃accessed 2 May 2019

Law Society of Scotland, ‘Requalifying into Scotland as an overseas solicitor’ ˂https://www.lawscot.org.uk/qualifying-and-education/qualifying-as-a-scottish-solicitor/requalifying-into-scotland/˃ accessed 12 May 2019

Solicitors Regulation Authority, ‘Regulated population statistics’ ˂https://www.sra.org.uk/solicitor-population/˃ accessed 24 April 2019.

Solicitors Regulation Authority Board, ‘SRA Practice Framework Rules 2011 – Version 21’ (Solicitors Regulation Authority, 6 December 2018) ˂https://www.sra.org.uk/solicitors/handbook/practising/content.page˃ accessed 12 May 2019

Solicitors Regulation Authority Board, ‘SRA Qualified Lawyers Transfer Scheme Regulations 2011 – Version 21’ (Solicitors Regulation Authority, 6 December 2018) ˂https://www.sra.org.uk/solicitors/handbook/qlts/content.page˃ accessed 12 May 2019

SRA Renewals, ‘Registered European Lawyers (REL) Guide’ (Solicitors Regulation Authority, October 2018) <https://sra.org.uk/documents/mySRA/registered-european-lawyers-guide.pdf> accessed 28 April 2019

The Faculty of Advocates, ‘Becoming an advocate – Information for other Lawyers’ ˂http://www.advocates.org.uk/about-advocates/becoming-an-advocate/information-for-other-lawyers˃ accessed 12 May 2019

UK Delegation to the CCBE, ‘Paper: EU lawyers in the UK – Practice rights under the draft Withdrawal Agreement and Q&A’ (Bar Council, 16 November 2018) ˂https://www.barcouncil.org.uk/media/695906/eu-lawyers-in-the-uk-practice-rights-q-a_revised_nov_2018.pdf˃ accessed 12May 2019

‘Electronic communication and the internet’ (CCBE, 24 October 2008) <https://www.ccbe.eu/fileadmin/speciality_distribution/public/documents/IT_LAW/ITL_Position_papers/EN_ITL_20081024_CCBE_Guidance_electronic_communication-internet.pdf> accessed 9 March 2019

‘CCBE Lawyers’ statistics 2015’ (CCBE, 1 May 2015) ˂https://www.ccbe.eu/fileadmin/speciality_distribution/public/documents/Statistics/EN_STAT_2015_Number_of_lawyers_in_European_countries.pdf˃ accessed 27 April 2019

‘Ethics guidance – European Lawyers practising in the UK’ (Solicitors Regulation Authority, 22 April 2016) <https://www.sra.org.uk/solicitors/code-of-conduct/guidance/guidance/European-Lawyers-practising-in-the-UK.page> accessed 28 April 2019

‘Registered European lawyers and registered foreign lawyers’ (Solicitors Regulation Authority, December 2016) <https://www.sra.org.uk/solicitors/resources/registered-european-foreign-lawyers.page> accessed 28 April 2019

‘Regulation Paper – The case for change: revisited’ (Law Society of Scotland, January 2018) ˂https://www.lawscot.org.uk/media/359509/case-for-change-revisited-law-society-of-scotland.pdf˃accessed 27 March 2019

‘Blind spot: how CETA overlooks legal services’ (The Law Society of England and Wales, 29 January 2018) <https://www.lawsociety.org.uk/news/documents/ceta-policy-document/> accessed 2 April 2019

‘Brexit no deal – legal services’ (The Law Society, October 2018) ˂https://www.lawsociety.org.uk/support-services/documents/no-deal-brexit-providing-legal-services-in-eu-2019/˃ accessed 2 May 2019

‘BSB handbook’ (Bar Standards Board, April 2019) ˂https://www.barstandardsboard.org.uk/media/1983861/bsb_handbook_april_2019.pdf˃ accessed 12 May 2019

‘Ethics guidance – guidance note on the impact on exempt European lawyers of the Government’s Statutory Instrument on the basis of a ‘no deal’ EU exit scenario’ (Solicitors Regulation Authority, 10 December 2018) <https://www.sra.org.uk/solicitors/guidance/ethics-guidance/Guidance-on-the-impact-on-exempt-European-lawyers-of-the-Government%E2%80%99s-Statutory-Instrument-on-the-basis-of-a-%E2%80%98no-deal%E2%80%99-EU-exit-scenario.page> accessed 28 April 2019

‘Ethics guidance: Government’s Technical Notice on the impact of a ‘no deal’ EU exit scenario on EU lawyers practicing in the UK’ (Solicitors Regulation Authority, 10 April 2019) ˂http://www.sra.org.uk/solicitors/guidance/ethics-guidance/Government%E2%80%99s-Technical-Notice-on-the-impact-of-a-%E2%80%98no-deal%E2%80%99-EU-exit-scenario-on-EU-lawyers-practising-in-the-UK.page˃ accessed 12 May 2019

‘UK and Belgian bars sign up to post-Brexit cooperation’ (Law Society of Scotland, 1 October 2019) <https://www.lawscot.org.uk/news-and-events/news/uk-and-belgian-bars-sign-up-to-post-brexit-cooperation/> accessed 6 October 2019

‘UK bars sign post-Brexit deal with Belgium’ (The Law Society Gazette, 2 October 2019) <https://www.lawgazette.co.uk/practice/uk-bars-sign-post-brexit-deal-with-belgium/5101644.article> accessed 6 October 2019

‘UK and Belgian bars sign up to post-Brexit cooperation’ (The UK Law Societies’ Joint Brussels Office, 3 October 2019) <https://www.lawsocieties.eu/uk-and-belgian-bars-sign-up-to-post-brexit-cooperation/6000398.article> accessed 6 October 2019

    1. Other

Better Brexit, ‘Common Market 2.0: A Brexit deal everyone can support’ ˂http://betterbrexit.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/Common-Market-2.0.pdf˃ accessed 9 May 2019

Claessens S and others, Evaluation of the Legal Framework for the Free Movement of Lawyers: Final Report(Panteia and the University of Maastricht 2012) 

‘GATS Handbook’ (International Bar Association, May 2002) <https://www.ibanet.org/Document/Default.aspx?DocumentUid=4F39B8D5-2110-4A8A-BDAF-7CB1D7083236> accessed 20 March 2019

 ‘Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership Cross-Border Trade in Services Test Consolidation’ (Greenpeace, May 2016) ˂https://trade-leaks.org/ttip/ttip-leak-3/˃ accessed 5 May 2019

‘TTIP leaks’ (Greenpeace, May 2016) <https://trade-leaks.org/ttip/> accessed 8 April 2019

‘TiSA leaks’ (Greenpeace, September 2016/November 2016) <https://trade-leaks.org/tisa/> accessed 11 April 2019

‘Minister Reynders submits request for opinion on CETA’ (Kingdom of Belgium – Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade and Development Cooperation, 6 September 2017) <https://diplomatie.belgium.be/en/newsroom/news/2017/minister_reynders_submits_request_opinion_ceta> accessed 2 April 2019

‘Draft Convention on the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments in civil or commercial matters’ (HCCH, May 2018) ˂https://assets.hcch.net/docs/9faf15e1-9c36-4e57-8d56-12a7d895faac.pdf˃ accessed 7 May 2019

‘Notification pursuant to Article 34 of the Convention – United Kingdom’ (Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, 28 December 2018) ˂https://verdragenbank.overheid.nl/nl/Verdrag/Details//011343/011343_Notificaties_13.pdf˃accessed 12 May 2019

‘Declarations – Depositary communications’ (HCCH, 12 April 2019) ˂https://www.hcch.net/en/instruments/conventions/status-table/notifications/?csid=1318&disp=resdn&fbclid=IwAR0ZuvF-3-Mx6R-OcK5aHAzBgwSoKcFntk_XnwCAPnQNtfCECPABGXHZLV8˃ accessed 12 May 2019

Universiteit of Hogeschool
Master of Laws
Publicatiejaar
2019
Promotor(en)
Prof. dr. Inge Govaere (promotor); Femke Gremmelprez (commissaris)
Kernwoorden
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