The right to cultural identity of indigenous peoples in Europe

Merel Vrancken
Deze scriptie onderzoekt de bescherming van het recht op culturele identiteit van inheemse volken op het grondgebied van de Raad van Europa. Hierin wordt ook de rechtspraak van het Europees Hof voor de Rechten van de Mens hieromtrent besproken.

Universele mensenrechten in Europa: ook voor inheemse volken?

Als we het hebben over inheemse volken, denken de meesten aan de indianen in Noord-Amerika of de Eskimo’s op de noordpool. In ‘groot-Europa’ (lees: het grondgebied van de Raad van Europa) leven echter ook een heleboel inheemse volken. Zij leven niet zo zichtbaar voor de rest van de mensen, maar hebben net als ons ook recht op mensenrechten. Kunnen zij deze rechten wel afdwingen?
Mensenrechten als universele rechten

Mensenrechten worden ook wel grondrechten genoemd: ze zijn de basisvoorwaarden voor een goed bestaan als mens, een ‘menswaardig’ bestaan. Een aantal van deze mensenrechten zijn bijvoorbeeld het recht op leven, het recht op een eigen identiteit en het recht op eigendom. Deze rechten zorgen ervoor dat de staat niet zomaar iemand kan doden en hier zonder meer mee weg kan komen, of dat er een degelijke vergoeding tegenover een onteigening moet staan, zodat een burger niet zomaar door de staat arm gemaakt kan worden.
Culturele identiteit van inheemse volken

Inheemse volken zijn een van de meest kwetsbare groepen in Europa. Ze leven in afzondering van de samenleving en hebben een geschiedenis van discriminatie door de sterkere, ‘gewone’ mensen. Op het grondgebied van de Raad van Europa leven een heel aantal inheemse volken, waaronder de Sámi uit de Scandinavische landen en de Inuit (of Eskimo’s) uit Groenland, dat onder het bewind van Denemarken staat. Zij worden getypeerd door een culturele eigenheid en een manier van leven die zij al sinds jaar en dag aanhouden. Onder culturele identiteit van inheemse volken wordt verstaan de manier waarop zij in het leven staan: hun religie, hun culturele gewoonten en tradities, hun politieke systeem, enzovoort. Kortom, de culturele identiteit van inheemse volken is de manier waarop zij leven en dus ook wat zij nodig hebben om te over-leven als inheems volk met een eigen cultuur.

Een eigen identiteit kunnen hebben, is een mensenrecht. Zo dus ook het recht van de inheemse volken om een eigen culturele identiteit te kunnen hebben, een mensenrecht. De mensenrechten worden op het grondgebied van de Raad van Europa afgedwongen door het Europees Hof voor de Rechten van de Mens: een soort rechtbank voor heel Europa die staten op het matje roept wanneer ze zich niet houden aan de mensenrechten waar hun burgers recht op hebben.
Het Europees Hof voor de Rechten van de Mens

Het Europees mensenrechtenhof besteedt de laatste jaren steeds meer aandacht aan de bescherming van de rechten van minderheden, zoals de Koerden of de Roma. Op het vlak van de bescherming van de rechten van inheemse volken is er echter weinig gebeurd. Het recht op culturele bescherming van deze inheemse volken impliceert onder andere een bescherming van hun recht op privéleven en hun recht op eigendom.
Het recht op privéleven

Artikel 8 van het Europees Verdrag voor de Rechten van de Mens beschermt het recht op privéleven. Vooral over dit is de rechtspraak van het Hof geëvolueerd om minderheden steeds beter te beschermen. Zo beschermt dit recht de specifieke kenmerken van de levensstijl van minderheden zoals de Roma en mensen zonder vaste verblijfplaats alsook de mogelijkheid om hun specifieke identiteit te behouden. De staat heeft volgens het verdrag ook recht om dit recht op privéleven in te perken, maar daarbij moet rekening gehouden worden met de kwetsbaarheid van de betrokken gemeenschap. Dit zijn belangrijke evoluties voor de rechten van inheemse volken, aangezien zij een zeer kwetsbare groep zijn.
Het recht op eigendom

Artikel 1 van het eerste protocol bij het Europees Verdrag voor de Rechten van de Mens beschermt het recht op eigendom. Uit de rechtspraak van het Europees mensenrechtenhof blijkt dat er bij dit recht geen rekening gehouden wordt met de specificiteit van de levensstijl van bepaalde minderheden. De typisch westerse visie op eigendom houdt onvoldoende rekening met de culturele beleving van eigendom van veel inheemse volken. Inheemse volken hebben immers per definitie een speciale connectie met hun land, waardoor een inmenging in hun eigendom hen op een andere manier raakt.

Daarnaast leven inheemse volken vaak al honderden tot duizenden jaren op hun grondgebied, zonder officiële eigendomstitel. Wanneer een land, zoals Zweden in de zaak van 2010, bewijs van eigendom toelaat via gebruik sinds mensenheugenis, weigert het Hof een oordeel te vellen over de hoge bewijslast bij het leveren van dit bewijs. Het zijn echter bij uitstek inheemse volken die landen bezitten zonder officiële eigendomstitel en dit bewijs zullen moeten leveren, waardoor zij onevenredig hard geraakt worden in vergelijking met andere individuen of groepen van mensen. Recente rechtspraak levert geen indicatie dat deze visie van het Hof veranderd zou zijn.
Conclusie

Hoewel slechts twee van de sub-rechten van het recht op culturele identiteit van inheemse volken besproken zijn in dit kort overzicht, kan er toch een voorlopige conclusie worden gemaakt over de universaliteit van de mensenrechtenbescherming van het Europees mensenrechtenhof. Hoewel het Hof op de goede weg is met rechtspraak die gevoelig is aan minderheden en het in sommige zaken een voldoende bescherming zal bieden voor de rechten van inheemse volken, zal het in andere zaken tekort schieten. De bescherming van inheemse volken in Europa kan beter en daarbij is de eerste stap aandacht hebben voor de specifieke kenmerken van deze groep.

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EComHR

EComHR 3 October 1983, Nos. 9278/81 and 9415/81, G and E/Norway, Decisions and Reports 35, 30.

IACtHR

IACtHR 25 November 2015, Kaliña and Lokono Peoples/Suriname, IACHR Series C No. 309.

IACtHR 27 June 2012, Kichwa Indigenous People of Sarayaku/Ecuador, IACHR Series C No. 245.

IACtHR 24 August 2010, Xákmok Kásek Indigenous Community/Paraguay, IACHR Series C No. 214.

IACtHR 28 November 2007, Saramaka People/Suriname, IACHR Series C No. 172.

IACtHR 29 March 2006, Sawhoyamaxa Indigenous Community/Paraguay, IACHR Series C No. 146.

IACtHR 17 June 2005, Yakye Axa Indigenous Community/Paraguay, IACHR Series C No. 125.

IACtHR 15 June 2005, Moiwana Community/Suriname, IACHR Series C No. 124.

IACtHR 2 September 2004, Juvenile Reeducation Institute/Paraguay, IACHR Series C No. 112.

IACtHR 8 July 2004, Gómez-Paquiyauri Brothers/Peru, IACHR Series C No. 110.

IACtHR 25 November 2003, Myrna Mack Chang/Guatemala, IACHR Series C No. 101.

IACtHR 31 August 2001, Mayagna (Sumo) Awas Tigni Community/Nicaragua, IACHR Series C No. 79.

IACtHR 19 November 1999, Street Children (Villagran-Morales et al.)/Guatemala, IACHR Series C No. 63.

IACHR

IACHR 5 March 1985, No. 7615, Comunidad Yanomami/Brasil, OAS Doc. OEA/Ser.L/V/II.66 doc. 10 rev. 1.

ACtHPR

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ACHPR

ACHPR 25 November 2009, No. 276/03, Endorois.

Doctrine

Monographs

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Collective Works

ALLEN, S. and MONAGHAN, C. (eds.), Fifty Years of the British Indian Ocean Territory: Legal Perspectives, Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2018, 381 p.

ALLEN, S. and XANTHAKI, A. (eds.), Reflections on the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Oxford, Hart Publishing, 2011, 607 p.

BROOKFIELD, F.M. (ed.), Treaties and Indigenous Peoples: The Robb Lectures, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1992, 105 p.

HEINÄMÄKI, L. and HERRMANN, T. M. (eds.), Experiencing and Protecting Sacred Natural Sites of Sámi and other Indigenous Peoples. The Sacred Arctic, Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2017, 192 p.

HENRARD, K. (ed.), The Interrelation between the Right to Identity of Minorities and their Socio-economic Participation, Leiden, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2013, 446 p.

IPPOLITO, F. and IGLESIAS SÁNCHEZ, S. (eds.), Protecting Vulnerable Groups. The European Human Rights Framework, Oxford, Hart Publishing, 2015, 481 p.

MORGAN, R. and TURNER, B. S. (eds.), Interpreting Human Rights: Social science perspectives, Abingdon, Routledge, 2009, 203 p.

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Journal articles

ANTKOWIAK, T., “A Dark Side of Virtue: the Inter-American Court and Reparation for Indigenous Peoples” in DJCIL 2014, 1-80.

AUKERMAN, M. J., “Definitions and Justifications: Minority and Indigenous Rights in a Central/East European Context” in HRQ 2000, 1011-1050.

BARSH, R. L., “Indigenous Peoples in the 1990s: From Object to Subject of International Law?” in HHRJ 1994, 33-86.

BOJOSI, K. N. and WACHIRA, G. M., “Protecting Indigenous Peoples in Africa: An analysis of the Approach of the African Commission on Human and People’s Rights” in AHRLJ 2006, 382-408.

CARTER, M., “Towards a worker’s history of the Chagos archipelago” in JIOR 2017, 213-233.

GAGNÉ, N., “Brave New Words: The Complexities and Possibilities of an “Indigenous” Identity in French Polynesia and New Caledonia” in Contemp. Pac. 2015, 371-402.

GIFFORD, R. and DUNNE, R. P., “A Disposessed People: the Depopulation of the Chagos Archipelago 1965-1973” in Popuation, Space and Place 2014, 37-49.

GILBERT, J., “Indigenous Peoples’ Human Rights in Africa: The Pragmatic Revolution of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights” in ICLQ 2011, 245-270.

GISMONDI, G., “Denial of Justice: The Latest Indigenous Land Disputes before the European Court of Human Rights and the Need for an Expansive Interpretation of Protocol 1” in YHRDLJ 2017, 1-58.

HILPOLD, P. “UN Standard-Setting in the Field of Minority Rights” in Int’l J. on Minority & Group Rts. 2007, 181-205.

HODGSON, D.L., “Becoming Indigenous in Africa” in ASR 2009, 1-32.

IGOE, J., “Becoming Indigenous Peoples: Difference, Inequality, and the Globalization of East African Identity Politics” in African Affairs 2006, 399-420.

INMAN, D., “The Cross-Fertilization of Human Rights Norms and Indigenous Peoples in Africa: From Endorois and Beyond” in IIPJ 2014, 1-26.

INMAN, D., CAMBOU, D. and SMIS, S., “Evolving Legal Protection for Indigenous Peoples in Africa: Some Post-UNDRIP Reflections” Aft. J. Int’l & Comp. L. 2018, 339-365.

JEFFERY, L., “Forced Displacement, Onward Migration and Reformulations of ‘Home’ by Chagossians in Crawley, UK” in JEMS 2010, 1099-1117.

KINGSBURY, B., “Indigenous Peoples in International Law: A Constructivist Approach to the Asian Controversy” in the ASIL 1998, 414-457.

KIRCHNER, S., “Conceptions of Indigenousness in the Case Law of the European Court of Human Rights” in Loy. L.A. Int’l & Comp. L. Rev. 2016, 169-187.

KOIVUROVA, T., “Jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights Regarding Indigenous Peoples: Retrospect and Prospects” in Int’l J. on Minority & Group Rts. 2011, 1-37.

KOVÁCS, P., “Indigenous Issues under the European Convention of Human Rights, Reflected in an Inter-American Mirror” in The Geo. Wash. Int’l L. Rev. 2016, 781-806.

KUPER, A., “The Return of the Native” in Current Anthropology 2003, 389-402.

KYMLICKA, W., “The internationalization of minority rights” in I•CON 2008, 1-32.

LEHMANN, K., “To Define or Not to Define - The Definitional Debate Revisited” in Am. Indian L. Rev 2007, 509-529.

LUNDMARK, M., “The European Court of Human Rights and the Protection of Arctic Indigenous Peoples Rights” in The Yearbook of Polar Law 2017, 24-52.

LYNCH, G., “Becoming Indigenous in the Pursuit of Justice: The African Commission on Human And Peoples’ Rights and the Endorois” in African Affairs 2012, 24-45.

LYNCH, G., “Kenya’s new indigenes: negotiating local identities in a global context” in Nations and Nationalism 2011, 148-167.

MACKAY, F., “Universal Rights or a Universe unto Itself? Indigenous Peoples’ Human Rights and the World Bank’s Draft Operational Policy 4.10 on Indigenous Peoples” in Am. U. Int’l L. Rev. 2003, 527-624.

MCLISKY, C. L., “The History and Legacy of Popular Narratives about Early Colonial Missions to Greenland and Australia” in Journal of Social History 2017, 534-554.

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Documents of international organisations

ACHPR and IWGIA, Indigenous Peoples in Africa: The Forgotten Peoples? The African Commission’s work on indigenous peoples in Africa, Copenhagen, Eks/Skolens Trykkeri, 2006, 29 p.

ACHPR and IWGIA, Report of the African Commission’s Working Group of Experts on Indigenous Populations/Communities, Copenhagen, Eks/Skolens Trykkeri, 2005, 121 p.

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Draft report of the second session of the Working Group established in accordance with Commission on Human Rights Resolution 1995/32 of 3 March 1995 (1 November 1996), UN Doc. E/CN.4/1996/WG.15/CRP.7 (1996).

ECtHR RESEARCH DIVISION, Cultural rights in the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights, Strasbourg, Council of Europe, 2017, 42 p.

ECtHR, Guide on Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Right to respect for private and family life, home and correspondence, Strasbourg, Council of Europe, 2018, 118 p.

ECtHR, Research Report. References to the Inter-American Court of Human Rights and Inter-American instruments in the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights, Strasbourg, Council of Europe, 2016, 49 p.

Final working paper prepared by the Special Rapporteur, Mrs. Erica-Irene A. Daes on the Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Indigenous Peoples and Minorities. Indigenous peoples and their relationship to land by the Commission on Human Rights (11 June 2001), UN Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/2001/21 (2001).

FRA, Handbook on European non-discrimination law. 2018 edition, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union, 2018, 295 p.

GOODLAND, R., Tribal Peoples and Economic Development: Human Ecologic Considerations, Washington, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 1982, 111 p.

J.R. MARTINEZ COBO, “Study on the Problem of Discrimination against Indigenous Peoples”, New York, United Nations, 1986, UN Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1986/7/Add.4.

JACQUELIN-ANDERSEN, P. (ed.), The Indigenous World 2018, Copenhagen, IWGIA, 2018, 640 p.

Operational Directive Indigenous Peoples of the World Bank (September 1991), OD 4.20, 6 p.

Operational Manual OP 4.10 – Indigenous Peoples of the World Bank (July 2005), OP 4.10, 7 p.

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Report of the Working Group on Indigenous Populations on its twelfth session (17 August 1994), UN Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1994/30 (1994).

Report of the Working Group on Indigenous Populations on its thirteenth session (10 August 1995), UN Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1995/24 (1995).

Report of the Working Group on Indigenous Populations on its fourteenth session (16 August 1996), UN Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1996/21 (1996).

Report of the Working Group on Indigenous Populations on its fifteenth session (13 August 1997), UN Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1997/14 (1997)

Report of the Working Group on Indigenous Populations on its sixteenth session (19 August 1998), UN Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1998/16 (1998).

Report of the Working Group on Indigenous Populations on its seventeenth session (12 August 1999), UN Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1999/19 (1999).

Report of the Working Group on Indigenous Populations on its eighteenth session (17 August 2000), UN Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/2000/24 (2000).

Report of the Working Group on Indigenous Populations on its twenty-first session (11 August 2003), UN Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/22 (2003).

Resolution 03-02 Recognising the Inughuit as a Distinct Indigenous People of Greenland and their Right to Return to their Traditional Lands of the Inuit Circumpolar Council Executive Council (26-27 June 2003), http://inuit.org/icc-greenland/icc-executive-council/recognizing-the-in…, (2003).

UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (13 September 2007), UN Doc. A/RES/61/295 (2007).

UNITED NATIONS OFFICE OF THE HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS, “Minority Rights: International Standards and Guidance for Implementation”, New York, United Nations, 2010, UN Doc. HR/PUB/10/3, 48 p.

VINDING, D. (ed.), The Indigenous World 2001/2002, Copenhagen, IWGIA, 2002, 460 p.

WORLD BANK, The World Bank Environmental and Social Framework, Washington, World Bank, 2016, 106 p.

Other

CARNEGIE COUNCIL, In your hands: A Guide for Community Action, www.carnegiecouncil.org/publications/100_for_100/in-your-hands-a-guide-… (consultation 22 November 2018).

EB EDITORS, “British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT)” in Britannica Academic, Encyclopædia Britannica, 25 March 2019, https://academic.eb.com/levels/collegiate/article/British-Indian-Ocean-… (consultation 11 April 2019).

EB EDITORS, “Dolgan” in Britannica Academic, Encyclopædia Britannica, 15 February 2016, www.britannica.com/topic/Dolgan (consultation 30 April 2019).

EB EDITORS, “Eskimo” in Britannica Academic, Encyclopædia Britannica, 10 January 2019, https://academic.eb.com/levels/collegiate/article/Eskimo/33011 (consultation 10 April 2019).

EB EDITORS, “Evenk” in Britannica Academic, Encyclopædia Britannica, 26 December 2013, www.britannica.com/topic/Evenk-people (consultation 30 April 2019).

EB EDITORS, “Nenets” in Britannica Academic, Encyclopædia Britannica, 12 September 2018, www.britannica.com/topic/Nenets-people (consultation 30 April 2019).

EB EDITORS, “Sami” in Britannica Academic, Encyclopædia Britannica, 18 July 2018, https://academic.eb.com/levels/collegiate/article/Sami/47172 (consultation 9 April 2019).

INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION, Ratifications of C169 – Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989 (No. 169), https://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p= NORMLEXPUB:11300:0::NO::P11300_INSTRUMENT_ID:312314 (consultation 28 March 2019).

VRANCKEN, M., Onderzoeksvoorstel Masterscriptie Deel I, 2018, not published, 41 p.