The Role of White Matter on Language Abilities of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Diffusion MRI Study

Kevser Kaymak
Persbericht

Taalvaardigheden bij kleuters met autisme: wat onthullen de hersenen?

Taalproblemen komen vaak voor in ASS. Maar niet elk persoon met autisme ervaart taalproblemen. Het blijft nog een raadsel waarom er zo veel heterogeniteit is in de taalvaardigheden van personen met autisme. In deze studie werden er geavanceerde beeldvormingstechnieken gebruikt om diep in de 'taalbreinen' van jonge kleuters met autisme te duiken. Kunnen verschillen in taalvaardigheid bij kinderen met autisme worden verklaard door meetbare veranderingen in hun hersenen? Kortom, kunnen we de complexe puzzel van taal bij autisme ontcijferen door naar de hersenen te kijken? Dat was de kernvraag waarop we ons hebben gericht in deze thesis.

 

Autismespectrumstoornis (ASS) is een ontwikkelingsstoornis die gekenmerkt wordt door problemen op het gebied van sociale communicatie en interactie. Deze uitdagingen kunnen vaak leiden tot isolatie en eenzaamheid bij mensen met ASS. Vandaar ook de term "autisme" die zijn oorsprong vond in het Griekse woord 'autos', wat 'zelf' betekent.

Heterogeniteit in taalvaardigheden bij autisme.

Als gevolg komen taalproblemen vaak naar voren als de allereerste zorg die ouders hebben over hun kinderen met autisme. Toch valt op dat er aanzienlijke variatie is in de taalvaardigheden van kinderen met autisme. Sommige kinderen spreken bijvoorbeeld helemaal niet, terwijl anderen wel woorden kunnen gebruiken maar moeite hebben met complexe taal of sociale communicatie. En dan zijn er ook nog kinderen met autisme die helemaal geen problemen ervaren met taal, en sommigen zijn er zelfs bijzonder goed in. Dit suggereert dat taalproblemen niet universeel voorkomen bij ASS en laat zien dat er aanzienlijke variabiliteit is in de taalvaardigheden. Het begrijpen van deze variabiliteit is een belangrijk onderdeel van onderzoek naar ASS en kan bijdragen aan meer gepersonaliseerde benaderingen voor de behandeling en ondersteuning van kinderen met autisme. Vroege detectie en interventie kan namelijk veel vooruitgang boeken in het verbeteren van de levenskwaliteit van deze kinderen en hun families.

 

Uit eerder onderzoek bleek dat kinderen met autisme vaker problemen hebben met het begrijpen en produceren van taal.

 

Er is evidentie voor verschillen in de hersenen tussen personen met en zonder autisme. Nu, zijn deze verschillen ook verantwoordelijk voor de moeilijkheden die kinderen met autisme ervaren in verband met taal? Door de inherente uitdagingen bij het scannen van kleuters zijn er maar weinig beeldvormingsstudies in deze leeftijdsgroep uitgevoerd. Niettemin is dit een kritieke periode waarin taal zich snel ontwikkelt als gevolg van de snelle groei van de hersenen. In mijn thesis heb ik me gericht op dit interessante vraagstuk: hoe zit het met die neurale mechanismen van taal, vooral tijdens deze belangrijke ontwikkelingsfase?

 

Hersenscans tijdens de slaap

Om dieper in dit probleem te duiken, hebben we gebruikgemaakt van een gespecialiseerde MRI-techniek genaamd diffusie-MRI. Deze methode stelt wetenschappers in staat om de witte stof- de snelwegen van onze hersenen - te verkennen, die een essentiële rol spelen in taal.

Om dit te doen werden de hersenen van kleuters met en zonder autisme tussen 2.5 en 4.5 jaar gescand tijdens hun natuurlijke slaap. In de MRI ruimte werd er een soort ‘space tent’ gecreëerd zodat de kleuters zich konden wanen als kleine ontdekkingsreizigers van het brein.

 

Naast het verkennen van de hersenen gingen we op zoek naar de taalvaardigheden van deze kleuters. Met behulp van verschillende meetmethoden werd zowel hun taalproductie als -begrip geëvalueerd. Deze multidimensionale aanpak bracht een schat aan gegevens op, die ons dichter bij het begrijpen van taalvaardigheden in autisme bracht.

Ondanks onze verwachtingen werden er geen significante verschillen gevonden in de witte stof van kinderen met en zonder autisme. We hebben wel aanwijzingen gevonden die suggereren dat de taalvaardigheden van deze kinderen en de integriteit van hun witte stof met elkaar verbonden kunnen zijn. Het is belangrijk om te benadrukken dat deze resultaten gebaseerd zijn op een voorlopig kleine steekproef, aangezien dit studie nog volop bezig is. We staan in spanning te wachten op verdere onthullingen.

Deze nieuwsgierige en moedige kleine hersenverkenners hebben ons al waardevolle inzichten verschaft in de manier waarop taalvaardigheden zich in de hersenen van kinderen met ASS ontwikkelen. De uiteindelijke resultaten van dit onderzoek kan mogelijk bijdragen aan het vroegtijdig herkennen van autisme en de ontwikkeling van meer op maat gemaakte interventies voor autisme, waarbij rekening wordt gehouden met de unieke kenmerken van het brein van elk individu.

Bibliografie

Abrahams, B. S., & Geschwind, D. H. (2008). Advances in autism genetics: on the threshold of a new neurobiology. Nature Reviews Genetics, 9(5), 341–355. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrg2346

Akshoomoff, N. (2006). Use of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning for the Assessment of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Child Neuropsychology, 12(4–5), 269–277. https://doi.org/10.1080/09297040500473714

Amaral, D. G., Schumann, C. M., & Nordahl, C. W. (2008). Neuroanatomy of autism. Trends in Neurosciences, 31(3), 137–145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tins.2007.12.005

American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed., revised). Uitgever toevoegen, ook hieronder

American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.).

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.).

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596

Amunts, K., Lenzen, M., Friederici, A. D., Schleicher, A., Morosan, P., Palomero-Gallagher, N., & Zilles, K. (2010). Broca’s Region: Novel Organizational Principles and Multiple Receptor Mapping. PLOS Biology, 8(9), e1000489. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000489

Anderson, D. J., Lord, C., Risi, S., DiLavore, P. C., Shulman, C., Thurm, A., Welch, K. B., & Pickles, A. (2007). Patterns of growth in verbal abilities among children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75(4), 594–604. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006x.75.4.594

Baird, G., & Norbury, C. F. (2016). Social (pragmatic) communication disorders and autism spectrum disorder. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 101(8), 745–751. https://doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2014-306944

Baxter, A. J., Brugha, T. S., Erskine, H. E., Scheurer, R. W., Vos, T., & Scott, J. G. (2015). The epidemiology and global burden of autism spectrum disorders. Psychological Medicine, 45(3), 601–613. https://doi.org/10.1017/s003329171400172x

Beitchman, J. H., Wilson, B., Brownlie, E., Walters, H., & Lancee, W. (1996). Long-Term Consistency in Speech/Language Profiles: I. Developmental and Academic Outcomes. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(6), 804–814. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199606000-00021

Bhandari, R., Paliwal, J.K., Kuhad, A., (2020). Neuropsychopathology of autism spectrum disorder: complex interplay of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In: Essa, M., Qoronfleh, M. (eds) Personalized Food Intervention and Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorder Management. Advances in Neurobiology, vol 24. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30402-7_4

Billstedt, E., Gillberg, I. C., & Gillberg, C. (2007). Autism in adults: symptom patterns and early childhood predictors. Use of the DISCO in a community sample followed from childhood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48(11), 1102–1110. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01774.x

Bleuler, E. (1911). Dementia praecox oder Gruppe der Schizophrenien. Deuticke.

Bölte, S., Poustka, F., & Constantino, J. N. (2008). Assessing autistic traits: cross-cultural validation of the social responsiveness scale (SRS). Autism Research, 1(6), 354–363. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.49

Boucher, J. (2012). Research Review: Structural language in autistic spectrum disorder – characteristics and causes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(3), 219–233. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02508.x

Brignell, A., Morgan, A., Woolfenden, S., Klopper, F., May, T., Sarkozy, V., & Williams, K. (2018). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prognosis of language outcomes for individuals with autism spectrum Disorder. Autism & developmental language impairments, 3, 239694151876761. https://doi.org/10.1177/2396941518767610

Bruyneel, E., Demurie, E., Zink, I., Warreyn, P., & Roeyers, H. (2019). Exploring receptive and expressive language components at the age of 36 months in siblings at risk for autism spectrum disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 66, 101419. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2019.101419

Casanova, M. F., Casanova, E. L., Frye, R. E., Baeza-Velasco, C., LaSalle, J. M., Hagerman, R. J., Scherer, S. W., & Natowicz, M. R. (2020). Editorial: Secondary vs. Idiopathic Autism. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00297 

Catani, M., Allin, M., Husain, M., Pugliese, L., Mesulam, M., Murray, R. M., & Jones, D. K. (2007). Symmetries in human brain language pathways correlate with verbal recall. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(43), 17163–17168. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0702116104

Catani, M., Jones, D. K., & Weintraub, D. (2004). Perisylvian language networks of the human brain. Annals of Neurology, 57(1), 8–16. https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.20319

Chertkow, H., Bub, D. N., Deaudon, C., & Whitehead, V. (1997). On the Status of Object Concepts in Aphasia. Brain and Language, 58(2), 203–232. https://doi.org/10.1006/brln.1997.1771

Constantino, J. N. (2012). Social Responsiveness Scale Second Edition (SRS-2): Manual. Western Psychological Services (WPS).

Conti-Ramsden, G., Durkin, K., Toseeb, U., Botting, N., & Pickles, A. (2018). Education and employment outcomes of young adults with a history of developmental language disorder. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 53(2), 237–255. https://doi.org/10.1111/1460-6984.12338

Croen, L. A., Najjar, D. V., Fireman, B., & Grether, J. K. (2007). Maternal and Paternal Age and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine, 161(4), 334. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.161.4.334

Dawson, G., Finley, C. C., Phillips, S., & Lewy, A. (1989). A comparison of hemispheric asymmetries in speech-related brain potentials of autistic and dysphasic children. Brain and Language, 37(1), 26–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/0093-934x(89)90099-0

Dawson, G., Rogers, S., Munson, J., Smith, M., Winter, J., Greenson, J., Donaldson, A., & Varley, J. (2010). Randomized, Controlled Trial of an Intervention for Toddlers With Autism: The Early Start Denver Model. Pediatrics, 125(1), e17–e23. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2009-0958

De Fosse, L., Hodge, S., Makris, N., Kennedy, D. N., Caviness, V. S., McGrath, L. M., Steele, S., Ziegler, D. S., Herbert, M. R., Frazier, J. A., Tager-Flusberg, H., & Harris, G. J. (2004). Language-association cortex asymmetry in autism and specific language impairment. Annals of Neurology, 56(6), 757–766. https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.20275

Dell’Acqua, F., Lacerda, L., Barrett, R., D’Anna, L., Tsermentseli, S., Goldstein, L., & Catani, M. (2015). Megatrack: A fast and effective strategy for group comparison and supervised analysis of large-scale tractography datasets. Annual Meeting of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Toronto, Canada.

Di Martino, A., Yan, C., Li, Q. J., Denio, E., Castellanos, F. X., Alaerts, K., Anderson, J., Assaf, M., Bookheimer, S. Y., Dapretto, M., Deen, B., Delmonte, S., Dinstein, I., Ertl-Wagner, B., Fair, D. A., Gallagher, L., Kennedy, D. P., Keown, C. L., Keysers, C., . . . Milham, M. P. (2013). The autism brain imaging data exchange: towards a large-scale evaluation of the intrinsic brain architecture in autism. Molecular Psychiatry, 19(6), 659–667. https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2013.78

Eigsti, I., Bennetto, L., & Dadlani, M. B. (2007). Beyond Pragmatics: Morphosyntactic Development in Autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(6), 1007–1023. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-006-0239-2

Eyler, L. T., Pierce, K., & Courchesne, E. (2012). A failure of left temporal cortex to specialize for language is an early emerging and fundamental property of autism. Brain, 135(3), 949–960. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awr364

Fenson, L., Bates, E., Dale, P. S., Reznick, J. S., Tomasello, M., Mervis, C. B., Society for Research in Child Development, & Stiles, J. (1994). Variability in Early Communicative Development. Society for Research in Child Development.

Fields, R. D. (2010). Change in the brain’s white matter. Science, 330(6005), 768–769. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1199139

Friederici, A. D. (2009). Pathways to language: fiber tracts in the human brain. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13(4), 175–181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2009.01.001

Friederici, A. D., & Gierhan, S. M. E. (2013). The language network. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 23(2), 250–254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2012.10.002

Gardener, H., Spiegelman, D., & Buka, S. L. (2011). Perinatal and Neonatal Risk Factors for Autism: A Comprehensive Meta-analysis. Pediatrics, 128(2), 344–355. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2010-1036

Georgiades, S., Szatmari, P., Boyle, M. H., Hanna, S. R., Duku, E., Zwaigenbaum, L., Bryson, S. E., Fombonne, E., Volden, J., Mirenda, P., Smith, I. M., Roberts, W., Vaillancourt, T., Waddell, C., Bennett, T., & Thompson, A. (2012). Investigating phenotypic heterogeneity in children with autism spectrum disorder: a factor mixture modeling approach. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(2), 206–215. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02588.x

Geschwind, D. H. (2009). Advances in Autism. Annual Review of Medicine, 60(1), 367–380. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.med.60.053107.121225

Geschwind, N. (1970). The Organization of Language and the Brain. Science, 170(3961), 940–944. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.170.3961.940

Giampiccolo, D., & Duffau, H. (2022). Controversy over the temporal cortical terminations of the left arcuate fasciculus: a reappraisal. Brain, 145(4), 1242–1256. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awac057

Gilmore, J. H., Knickmeyer, R. C., & Gao, W. (2018). Imaging structural and functional brain development in early childhood. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 19(3), 123–137. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn.2018.1

Groen, W. B., Zwiers, M. P., Van Der Gaag, R. J., & Buitelaar, J. K. (2008). The phenotype and neural correlates of language in autism: An integrative review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 32(8), 1416–1425. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2008.05.008

Hazlett, H. C., Gu, H., Munsell, B. C., Kim, S., Styner, M., Wolff, J. J., Elison, J. T., Swanson, M. R., Zhu, H., Botteron, K. N., Collins, D. L., Constantino, J. N., Dager, S. R., Estes, A., Evans, A. C., Fonov, V. S., Gerig, G., Kostopoulos, P., McKinstry, R. C., . . . Piven, J. (2017). Early brain development in infants at high risk for autism spectrum disorder. Nature, 542(7641), 348–351. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature21369

Herbert, M. R., Ziegler, D. A., Makris, N., Filipek, P. A., Kemper, T. L., Normandin, J. J., Sanders, H. A., Kennedy, D. N., & Caviness, V. S. (2004). Localization of white matter volume increase in autism and developmental language disorder. Annals of Neurology, 55(4), 530–540. https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.20032

Herlihy, L., Knoch, K., Vibert, B., & Fein, D. (2013). Parents’ first concerns about toddlers with autism spectrum disorder: Effect of sibling status. Autism, 19(1), 20–28. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361313509731

Hickok, G., & Poeppel, D. (2007). The cortical organization of speech processing. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 8(5), 393–402. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn2113

Howlin, P., Moss, P., Savage, S. K., & Rutter, M. (2013). Social Outcomes in Mid- to Later Adulthood Among Individuals Diagnosed With Autism and Average Nonverbal IQ as Children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 52(6), 572-581.e1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2013.02.017

Hudry, K., Leadbitter, K., Temple, K., Slonims, V., McConachie, H., Aldred, C., Howlin, P., & Charman, T. (2010). Preschoolers with autism show greater impairment in receptive compared with expressive language abilities. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 45(6), 681–690. https ://doi.org/10.3109/13682820903461493

Ivanova, M. V., Isaev, D. Y., Dragoy, O. V., Akinina, Y. S., Petrushevskiy, A. G., Fedina, O. N., Shklovsky, V. M., & Dronkers, N. F. (2016). Diffusion-tensor imaging of major white matter tracts and their role in language processing in aphasia. Cortex, 85, 165–181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2016.04.019

Ivanova, M., Zhong, A. Y., Turken, A. U., Baldo, J. V., & Dronkers, N. F. (2021). Functional Contributions of the Arcuate Fasciculus to Language Processing. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 15. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2021.672665

Jeong, J., Kumar, A., Sundaram, S., Chugani, H. T., & Chugani, D. C. (2011). Sharp curvature of frontal lobe white matter pathways in children with autism Spectrum Disorders: Tract-Based Morphometry Analysis. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 32(9), 1600–1606. https://doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.a2557

Joseph, R. M., Fricker, Z. P., Fenoglio, A., Lindgren, K. P., Knaus, T. A., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2014). Structural asymmetries of language-related gray and white matter and their relationship to language function in young children with ASD. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 8(1), 60–72. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11682-013-9245-0

Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous Child, 2, 217–250.

Kasari, C., Brady, N. C., Lord, C., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2013). Assessing the Minimally Verbal School-Aged Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Autism Research, 6(6), 479–493. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.1334

Kjelgaard, M. M., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2001). An investigation of language impairment in autism: Implications for genetic subgroups. Language and Cognitive Processes, 16(2–3), 287–308. https://doi.org/10.1080/01690960042000058

Kleinhans, N. M., Müller, R., Cohen, D., & Courchesne, E. (2008). Atypical functional lateralization of language in autism spectrum disorders. Brain Research, 1221, 115–125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2008.04.080

Knaus, T. A., Silver, A., Kennedy, M. A., Lindgren, K. P., Dominick, K. C., Siegel, J., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2010). Language laterality in autism spectrum disorder and typical controls: A functional, volumetric, and diffusion tensor MRI study. Brain and Language, 112(2), 113–120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2009.11.005

Knecht, S., Deppe, M., Dräger, B., Bobe, L., Lohmann, H., Ringelstein, E. B., & Henningsen, H. (2000). Language lateralization in healthy right-handers. Brain, 123(1), 74–81. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/123.1.74

Koegel, L. K., Bryan, K. M., Su, P. L., Vaidya, M., & Camarata, S. (2020). Definitions of Nonverbal and Minimally Verbal in Research for Autism: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 50(8), 2957–2972. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-020-04402-w

Kover, S. T., McDuffie, A., Hagerman, R. J., & Abbeduto, L. J. (2013). Receptive vocabulary in boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Cross-Sectional Developmental Trajectories. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(11), 2696–2709. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-013-1823-x

Kwok, E. Y., Brown, H. M., Smyth, R. E., & Oram Cardy, J. (2015). Meta-analysis of receptive and expressive language skills in autism spectrum disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 9, 202–222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2014.10.008

Kyvelidou, A., Koss, K., Wickstrom, J., Needelman, H., Fisher, W. W., & DeVeney, S. L. (2021). Postural control may drive the development of other domains in infancy. Clinical Biomechanics, 82, 105273. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2021.105273

Law, J., Rush, R., Schoon, I., & Parsons, S. (2009). Modeling Developmental Language Difficulties From School Entry Into Adulthood: Literacy, Mental Health, and Employment Outcomes. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 52(6), 1401–1416. https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2009/08-0142)

Lebel, C., & Beaulieu, C. (2009). Lateralization of the arcuate fasciculus from childhood to adulthood and its relation to cognitive abilities in children. Human Brain Mapping, 30(11), 3563–3573. https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.20779

Limperopoulos, C. (2009). Autism Spectrum Disorders in Survivors of Extreme Prematurity. Clinics in Perinatology, 36(4), 791–805. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clp.2009.07.010

Loomes, R., Hull, L., & Mandy, W. P. L. (2017). What Is the Male-to-Female Ratio in Autism Spectrum Disorder? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 56(6), 466–474. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2017.03.013

Lord, C., DiLavore, P. C., Rutter, M., & Risi, S. (2012). Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition (ADOS-2). WPS.

Luyster, R. J., Lopez, K., & Lord, C. (2007). Characterizing communicative development in children referred for Autism Spectrum Disorders using the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI). Journal of Child Language, 34(3), 623–654. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0305000907008094

Madden, D. J., Bennett, I. J., & Song, A. W. (2009). Cerebral white matter integrity and cognitive aging: Contributions from diffusion tensor imaging. Neuropsychology Review, 19(4), 415–435. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11065-009-9113-2

Maenner, M. J., Shaw, K. A., Baio, J., Washington, A., Patrick, M., DiRienzo, M., Christensen, D. L., Wiggins, L. D., Pettygrove, S., Andrews, J. G., Lopez, M., Hudson, A., Baroud, T., Schwenk, Y., White, T., Rosenberg, C. R., Lee, L., Harrington, R. A., Huston, M., . . . Dietz, P. M. (2020). Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years — Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2016. Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 69(4), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.ss6904a1

Maenner, M. J., Tsao, C., Huang, H., Yang, T., & Li, Y. (2021). Relationship Between Motor Skills and Language Abilities in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Physical Therapy, 101(5). https://doi.org/10.1093/ptj/pzab033

Magiati, I., Tay, X. W., & Howlin, P. (2014). Cognitive, language, social and behavioural outcomes in adults with autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review of longitudinal follow-up studies in adulthood. Clinical Psychology Review, 34(1), 73–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2013.11.002

Mazoyer, B., Zago, L., Jobard, G., Crivello, F., Joliot, M., Perchey, G., Mellet, E., Petit, L., & Tzourio-Mazoyer, N. (2014). Gaussian Mixture Modeling of Hemispheric Lateralization for Language in a Large Sample of Healthy Individuals Balanced for Handedness. PLOS One, 9(6), e101165. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101165

Miller, J. M., & Chapman, R. (1981). The Relation between Age and Mean Length of Utterance in Morphemes. Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research, 24(2), 154–161. https://doi.org/10.1044/jshr.2402.154

Miller, N. H., Oldham, G., & Pinker, S. (1994). The Language Instinct: How the Mind Creates Language. Antioch Review, 52(3), 534. https://doi.org/10.2307/4613021

Minteer, S. D., Wang, Y., Tachibana, M., Rahman, S., & Kagitani-Shimono, K. (2022). Atypical structural connectivity of language networks in autism spectrum disorder: A meta‐analysis of diffusion tensor imaging studies. Autism Research, 15(9), 1585–1602. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.2789

Moon, C., Lagercrantz, H., & Kuhl, P. K. (2013). Language experienced in uteroaffects vowel perception after birth: Aa two-country study. Acta Paediatrica, 102(2), 156–160. https://doi.org/10.1111/apa.12098

Mullen, E. M. (1995). Mullen Scales of Early Learning (AGS ed.). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service Inc.

Nagae, L., Zarnow, D. M., Blaskey, L., Dell, J., Khan, S., Qasmieh, S., Levy, S. E., & Roberts, T. P. (2012). Elevated Mean Diffusivity in the Left Hemisphere Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus in Autism Spectrum Disorders Increases with More Profound Language Impairment. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 33(9), 1720–1725. https://doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.a3037

Naigles, L. R., Johnson, R. F., Mastergeorge, A. M., Ozonoff, S. J., Rogers, S. J., Amaral, D. G., & Nordahl, C. W. (2017). Neural correlates of language variability in preschool-aged boys with autism spectrum disorder. Autism Research, 10(6), 1107–1119. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.1756

Nakada, T., Fujii, Y., Yoneoka, Y., & Kwee, I. L. (2001). Planum Temporale: Where Spoken and Written Language Meet. European Neurology, 46(3), 121–125. https://doi.org/10.1159/000050784

Nave, K., & Werner, H. (2014). Myelination of the nervous system: mechanisms and functions. Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology, 30(1), 503–533. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-cellbio-100913-013101

Nevill, R. E., Hedley, D., Uljarević, M., Sahin, E., Zadek, J., Butter, E., & Mulick, J. A. (2017). Language profiles in young children with autism spectrum disorder: A community sample using multiple assessment instruments. Autism, 23(1), 141–153. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361317726245

Okada, K., & Hickok, G. (2006). Identification of lexical–phonological networks in the superior temporal sulcus using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Neuroreport, 17(12), 1293–1296. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.wnr.0000233091.82536.b2

Olson, L., Kinnear, M., Chen, B., Reynolds, S. A., Ibarra, C., Wang, T., Linke, A. C., & Fishman, I. (2020). Socioeconomic Factors Account for Variability in Language Skills in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 42(2), 101–108. https://doi.org/10.1097/dbp.0000000000000870

Ozturk, C., Durmazlar, N., Ural, B., Karaagaoglu, E., Yalaz, K., & Anlar, B. (1999). Hand and Eye Preference in Normal Preschool Children. Clinical Pediatrics. https://doi.org/10.1177/000992289903801109

Paul, R. (2008). Communication development and assessment. In K. Chawarska, A. Klin, & F. R.Volkmar (Eds.), Autism spectrum disorders in infants and toddlers. New York, NY: Guilford.

Pickles, A., Anderson, D. J., & Lord, C. (2014). Heterogeneity and plasticity in the development of language: a 17-year follow-up of children referred early for possible autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55(12), 1354–1362. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12269

Powell, H. W. R., Parker, G., Alexander, D. C., Symms, M. R., Boulby, P. A., Wheeler-Kingshott, C. A. M., Barker, G. J., Noppeney, U., Koepp, M. J., & Duncan, J. S. (2006). Hemispheric asymmetries in language-related pathways: A combined functional MRI and tractography study. NeuroImage, 32(1), 388–399. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2006.03.011

Rapin, I., Dunn, M., Allen, D. A., Stevens, M. C., & Fein, D. (2009). Subtypes of Language Disorders in School-Age Children With Autism. Developmental Neuropsychology, 34(1), 66–84. https://doi.org/10.1080/87565640802564648

Redcay, E., & Courchesne, E. (2005). When Is the Brain Enlarged in Autism? A Meta-Analysis of All Brain Size Reports. Biological Psychiatry, 58(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.03.026

Redcay, E., & Courchesne, E. (2008). Deviant Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Patterns of Brain Activity to Speech in 2–3-Year-Old Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 64(7), 589–598. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.05.020

Reynolds, J. E., Long, X., Grohs, M. N., Dewey, D., & Lebel, C. (2019). Structural and functional asymmetry of the language network emerge in early childhood. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 39, 100682. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2019.100682

Rice, C., Rosanoff, M., Dawson, G., Durkin, M. S., Croen, L. A., Singer, A. B., & Yeargin-Allsopp, M. (2012). Evaluating Changes in the Prevalence of the Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Public health reviews, 34(2). https://doi.org/10.1007/bf03391685

Rice, M. L., Smolík, F., Perpich, D., Thompson, T., Rytting, N., & Blossom, M. (2010). Mean length of utterance levels in 6-Month intervals for children 3 to 9 years with and without language impairments. Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research, 53(2), 333–349. https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2009/08-0183

Rojas, D. C., Camou, S. L., Reite, M. L., & Rogers, S. J. (2005). Planum Temporale Volume in Children and Adolescents with Autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35(4), 479–486. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-005-5038-7

Rose, V., Trembath, D., Keen, D. A., & Paynter, J. (2016). The proportion of minimally verbal children with autism spectrum disorder in a community-based early intervention programme. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 60(5), 464–477. https://doi.org/10.1111/jir.12284

Russell, G., Stapley, S., Newlove-Delgado, T., Salmon, A., White, R., Warren, F. C., Pearson, A., & Ford, T. (2021). Time trends in autism diagnosis over 20 years: a UK population‐based cohort study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 63(6), 674–682. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.13505

Rynkiewicz, A., Schuller, B., Marchi, E., Piana, S., Camurri, A., Lassalle, A., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2016). An investigation of the ‘female camouflage effect’ in autism using a computerized ADOS-2 and a test of sex/gender differences. Molecular Autism, 7(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13229-016-0073-0

Sandin, S., Lichtenstein, P., Kuja-Halkola, R., Larsson, H., Hultman, C. M., & Reichenberg, A. (2014). The Familial Risk of Autism. JAMA, 311(17), 1770. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2014.4144

Scarborough, H. S., Rescorla, L., Tager-Flusberg, H., Fowler, A. E., & Sudhalter, V. (1991). The relation of utterance length to grammatical complexity in normal and language-disordered groups. Applied Psycholinguistics, 12(1), 23–46. https://doi.org/10.1017/s014271640000936x

Schmithorst, V. J., Wilke, M., Dardzinski, B. J., & Holland, S. K. (2005). Cognitive functions correlate with white matter architecture in a normal pediatric population: a diffusion tensor MRI study. Human Brain Mapping, 26(2), 139–147. https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.20149

Simms, M. D. (2007). Language Disorders in Children: Classification and Clinical Syndromes. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 54(3), 437–467. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcl.2007.02.014

Smith, V., Mirenda, P., & Zaidman-Zait, A. (2007). Predictors of Expressive Vocabulary Growth in Children With Autism. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50(1), 149–160. https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2007/013)

Song, X., & So, W. C. (2021). The influence of child-based factors and parental inputs on expressive language abilities in children with autism spectrum disorder. Autism, 26(6), 1477–1490. https://doi.org/10.1177/13623613211054597

Sturrock, A., Chilton, H., Foy, K., Freed, J., & Adams, C. (2022). In their own words: The impact of subtle language and communication difficulties as described by autistic girls and boys without intellectual disability. Autism, 26(2), 332–345. https://doi.org/10.1177/13623613211002047

Tabery, J. (2014). Beyond Versus: The Struggle to Understand the Interaction of Nature and Nurture (Life and Mind: Philosophical Issues in Biology and Psychology). The MIT Press.

Tager-Flusberg, H. (2016). Risk Factors Associated With Language in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Clues to Underlying Mechanisms. Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research, 59(1), 143–154. https://doi.org/10.1044/2015_jslhr-l-15-0146

Tager-Flusberg, H., & Kasari, C. (2013). Minimally Verbal School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Neglected End of the Spectrum. Autism Research, 6(6), 468–478. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.1329

Thompson, A., Shahidiani, A., Fritz, A., O’Muircheartaigh, J., Walker, L., D’Almeida, V., Murphy, C. M., Daly, E., Murphy, D. G., Williams, S., Deoni, S. C., & Ecker, C. (2020). Age-related differences in white matter diffusion measures in autism spectrum condition. Molecular Autism, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13229-020-00325-6

Turesky, T. K., Vanderauwera, J., & Gaab, N. (2021). Imaging the rapidly developing brain: Current challenges for MRI studies in the first five years of life. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 47, 100893. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2020.100893

Van Rooij, D., Anagnostou, E., Arango, C., Auzias, G., Behrmann, M., Busatto, G. F., Calderoni, S., Daly, E., Deruelle, C., Di Martino, A., Dinstein, I., Duran, F. L., Durston, S., Ecker, C., Fair, D. A., Fedor, J., Fitzgerald, J., Freitag, C. M., Gallagher, L., . . . Buitelaar, J. K. (2017). Cortical and Subcortical Brain Morphometry Differences Between Patients With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Healthy Individuals Across the Lifespan: Results From the ENIGMA ASD Working Group. American Journal of Psychiatry, 175(4), 359–369. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2017.17010100

Vandermosten, M., Boets, B., Poelmans, H., Sunaert, S., Wouters, J., & Ghesquière, P. (2012). A tractography study in dyslexia: Nneuroanatomic correlates of orthographic, phonological and speech processing. Brain, 135(3), 935–948. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awr363

Volden, J., & Lord, C. (1991). Neologisms and idiosyncratic language in autistic speakers. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 21(2), 109–130. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02284755

Wan, C. Y., Marchina, S., Norton, A., & Schlaug, G. (2012). Atypical hemispheric asymmetry in the arcuate fasciculus of completely nonverbal children with autism. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1252(1), 332–337. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06446.x

Wiggins, L. D., Robins, D. L., Adamson, L. B., Bakeman, R., & Henrich, C. C. (2011). Support for a Dimensional View of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Toddlers. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(2), 191–200. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-011-1230-0

Winklewski, P. J., Sabisz, A., Naumczyk, P., Jodzio, K., Szurowska, E., & Szarmach, A. (2018). Understanding the Physiopathology Behind Axial and Radial Diffusivity Changes—What do we know? Frontiers in Neurology, 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2018.00092

Wittke, K., Mastergeorge, A. M., Ozonoff, S. J., Rogers, S. J., & Naigles, L. R. (2017). Grammatical Language Impairment in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Exploring Language Phenotypes Beyond Standardized Testing. Frontiers in Psychology, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00532

Yeh, F., Panesar, S. S., Fernandes, D., Meola, A., Yoshino, M., Fernandez-Miranda, J. C., Vettel, J. M., & Verstynen, T. (2018). Population-averaged atlas of the macroscale human structural connectome and its network topology. NeuroImage, 178, 57–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.05.027

Zerbo, O., Iosif, A., Walker, C. L., Ozonoff, S. J., Hansen, R. L., & Hertz-Picciotto, I. (2013). Is Maternal Influenza or Fever During Pregnancy Associated with Autism or Developmental Delays? Results from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment) Study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(1), 25–33. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-012-1540-x

Zhang, L., Li, K., Zhang, C., Qi, X., Zheng, N., & Wang, G. (2018). Arcuate Fasciculus in Autism Spectrum Disorder Toddlers with Language Regression. Open Medicine, 13(1), 90–95. https://doi.org/10.1515/med-2018-0014

Universiteit of Hogeschool
Theoretische en Experimentele Psychologie
Publicatiejaar
2023
Promotor(en)
Dr. Ellen Demurie, Marjolein Mues
Kernwoorden
Share this on: