Technology adoption in smallholder cassava production: insights from a choice experiment in Tanzania

Audrey Vanderghinste
Hoe kunnen we advies over nieuwe technologieën in kleinschalige cassava productie in Tanzania zo personaliseren, dat de boeren het advies ook gaan opvolgen?

Hoe kunnen we de Afrikaanse maniok boer het best helpen?

Al jaren breken wetenschappers, politiekers, en ondernemers hun hoofd over hoe we Afrikaanse boeren kunnen helpen meer te produceren. Dit zou namelijk ten goede komen voor het hele continent, en zelfs voor de hele wereld. Eén van de methodes die ingezet werden, zijn zogenaamde "extension services", of voorlichtingsdiensten. Hierbij worden boeren op de hoogte gesteld van nieuwe technologieën die hun oogst doen stijgen. Men dacht dus dat het grootste probleem gewoon een tekort aan informatie was. We verwachtten grote successen, maar helaas bleven die uit. Tijdens het onderzoek naar de oorzaak van de uitgebleven positieve resultaten, besefte men dat de meeste boeren de overgebrachte informatie gewoon negeerde. Het begon te dagen dat een "one-size-fits-all" methode gedoemd was om te mislukken. Je kan namelijk niet hetzelfde advies geven aan alle boeren die zo veel verschillen in hun financiële, geografische, of sociale situatie. Men begreep dat het advies aangepast moest worden aan elke boer zijn/haar persoonlijke situatie.

De African Cassava Agronomy Initiative, of kortweg ACAI, heeft onderzocht welke nieuwe technieken en technologieën de oogst van maniok (in het Engels: cassava) kan verhogen. Aangezien maniok één van de belangrijkste gewassen is in Afrika, kunnen hun bevindingen de Afrikaanse boeren enorm helpen. Maar ACAI besefte dus dat ze hun advies telkens een beetje moesten aanpassen aan elke boer voor optimale toepassing van hun bevindingen. Deze scriptie probeert een methode te vinden voor gemakkelijkere personalisatie van advies, met behulp van keuze-experimenten. Keuze-experimenten helpen de voorkeuren van boeren omtrent de karakteristieken van de te verspreiden technologieën in te schatten. In het geval van ACAI beseften we dat de voorkeur van de boer omtrent zes karakteristieken een invloed kon hebben op hun implementatie. In totaal hebben we 333 boeren geïnterviewd in Tanzania. Dan hebben we onderzocht of er een relatie te vinden was tussen de boeren hun voorkeur en hun socio-economische situatie. Het doel is dus om te weten of en hoe advies aangepast moet worden aan boeren met een verschillende socio-economische achtergrond om de implementatie te verhogen.

De resultaten van de analyse tonen dat advies om verspreid te planten en te oogsten geen personalisatie hoeft, maar een grotere implementatie wordt wel bij de welvarendere boeren verwacht. Voor kunstmestgebruik ligt de grootste aversie bij de boeren met het kleinste maniok veld en de minste ervaring met kunstmestgebruik voor maniok. De minst welvarende boeren tonen aan open te staan voor kunstmestgebruik. Er wordt echter voorspeld dat de implementatie bij hun ook laag zal zijn, tenzij ze toegang hebben tot krediet. Gezien dat ook een gegarandeerde afzetmarkt het meest in smaak valt bij deze minst welvarende klasse, worden beleidsvormers en grote cassave kopers aangeraden om de mogelijkheid van contracten gecombineerd met krediettoegang te analyseren. Zo'n contracten tussen boeren en kopers zou de minst welvarende families een veel betere financiële situatie geven.

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Universiteit of Hogeschool
Agro- and Ecosystems Engineering (Economics)
Publicatiejaar
2019
Promotor(en)
Miet Maertens & Roel Merckx
Kernwoorden
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