De ontwikkeling van verklaringsmodellen voor veelplegers

Mariska Vaes
 Een nieuwe kijk op het profiel van de veelpleger Krantenartikelen en nieuwsberichten over veelplegers verschijnen om de haverklap, maar wie zijn deze veelplegers eigenlijk? Mariska Vaes heeft het voorbije jaar in functie van haar masterscriptie criminologische wetenschappen gezocht naar een antwoord op de vraag wie de veelplegers zijn. De veelpleger wordt omschreven als iemand die één zwaar delict heeft gepleegd (bestraft met een gevangenisstraf van minstens 3 jaar) en daarenboven minstens 4 bijkomende veroordelingen heeft.

De ontwikkeling van verklaringsmodellen voor veelplegers

 

Een nieuwe kijk op het profiel van de veelpleger

Krantenartikelen en nieuwsberichten over veelplegers verschijnen om de haverklap, maar wie zijn deze veelplegers eigenlijk?

Mariska Vaes heeft het voorbije jaar in functie van haar masterscriptie criminologische wetenschappen gezocht naar een antwoord op de vraag wie de veelplegers zijn. De veelpleger wordt omschreven als iemand die één zwaar delict heeft gepleegd (bestraft met een gevangenisstraf van minstens 3 jaar) en daarenboven minstens 4 bijkomende veroordelingen heeft. Op basis van deze definitie werden 141 meerderjarige mannelijke veelplegers uit Vlaamse of Brusselse penitentiaire inrichtingen onder de loep genomen.

Profiel

Het aantal veroordelingen van de onderzochte groep varieert tussen 5 en 41. Gemiddeld worden zij 14 keer veroordeeld en 6 keer in de gevangenis opgesloten met een minimum van 1 en maximum 20 detenties. Per opsluiting brengen zij gemiddeld 1 jaar en 10 maand door in de gevangenis. Negenenzestig procent van de veelplegers heeft reeds kunnen genieten van een voorwaardelijke invrijheidstelling. Echter, 98 procent van deze voorwaardelijke invrijheidsstellingen werden op een later tijdstip weer ingetrokken. Deze bevinding maakte ineens ook het meest zorgwekkende resultaat uit van het onderzoek. Er wordt een groot aantal verschillende oorzaken opgesomd die variëren van persoonskenmerken, omgevingskenmerken tot en met het falen van het justitiële systeem. Cyrille Fijnaut durft nog een stap verder te gaan. Hij stelt dat het fenomeen veelplegers: "meer iets zegt over het falen van de rechtspleging en de hulpverlening dan over de mensen die de delicten plegen".

Zij vangen hun criminele carrière gemiddeld aan op 21 jarige leeftijd. De jongste starter was 5 jaar en de oudste 50 jaar. De meeste onder hen worden een jaar na het plegen van hun eerste feit voor het eerst veroordeeld. Het is opvallend dat veelplegers voornamelijk vermogensmisdrijven plegen (46 procent). Het gaat dan voornamelijk over diefstallen en inbraken met of zonder geweld. Ook andere misdrijven komen voor, maar in mindere mate (22 procent verkeersmisdrijven, 12 procent geweldsmisdrijven, 11 procent drugsmisdrijven, 3 procent misdrijven tegen de openbare orde en gezag, 2 procent (vuur)wapenmisdrijven en 1 procent seksuele misdrijven).

Typologie

De veelplegers kunnen verder worden ingedeeld in drie groepen. De eerste en ineens ook de grootste groep (104) bestaat uit veelplegers die hun criminele carrière aanvangen tussen de leeftijd van 11 en 30 jaar. De meesten plegen hun eerste feit tussen 16 en 20 jaar. Mits enkele uitzonderingen, kent deze groep een criminele carrière met een erg variërende geweldsgraad, namelijk 1 tot 75 procent van de delicten zijn gewelddadig. Veelplegers met grote gewelddadigheid zijn hier echter wel een uitzondering. De veelplegers van de tweede groep (20) hebben een late startleeftijd. Daar waar 7 veelplegers hun eerste feit plegen tussen 26 en 30 jaar, zijn er 13 die pas tussen 31 en 50 jaar

aanvangen met hun criminele carrière. Tijdens hun carrière plegen zij relatief weinig gewelddadige delicten. De laatste groep (12) omvat veelplegers die reeds op zeer jonge leeftijd van start gaan met het plegen van delicten. In deze groep hebben 3 veelplegers hun eerste feit gepleegd tussen de leeftijd van 5 en 10 jaar. Daarnaast zijn er 6 veelplegers die tussen 11 en 15 jaar aanvangen met hun carrière en 3 die van start gaan tussen 16 en 20 jaar. In tegenstelling tot de veelplegers van de tweede groep, plegen zij nog meer gewelddadige delicten. De groepen verschillen niet op het vlak van delictspecialisatie (in de drie groepen komen heel verschillende criminele feiten voor).

 

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