Determinants of fruit & vegetable and fat intake in university students: a cross-sectional explanatory study

Hannah Verhoeven
 De nefaste invloed van het studentenleven op de voedingsgewoontenOvergewicht en obesitas treffen in de hedendaagse samenleving wereldwijd meer dan 1,4 miljard volwassenen. Deze aandoening kan leiden tot verscheidene gezondheidsproblemen zoals diabetes type 2, hoge bloeddruk, beroertes en zelfs bepaalde kankers. Meer nog, obesitas is één van de belangrijkste oorzaken van vroegtijdig overlijden. De 2,8 miljoen doden per jaar tonen aan hoe ernstig deze hedendaagse aandoening is.De overgang van het secundair onderwijs naar het hoger onderwijs is een kritieke periode voor gewichtstoename.

Determinants of fruit & vegetable and fat intake in university students: a cross-sectional explanatory study

 

De nefaste invloed van het studentenleven op de voedingsgewoonten

Overgewicht en obesitas treffen in de hedendaagse samenleving wereldwijd meer dan 1,4 miljard volwassenen. Deze aandoening kan leiden tot verscheidene gezondheidsproblemen zoals diabetes type 2, hoge bloeddruk, beroertes en zelfs bepaalde kankers. Meer nog, obesitas is één van de belangrijkste oorzaken van vroegtijdig overlijden. De 2,8 miljoen doden per jaar tonen aan hoe ernstig deze hedendaagse aandoening is.

De overgang van het secundair onderwijs naar het hoger onderwijs is een kritieke periode voor gewichtstoename. Deze gewichtstoename is deels te wijten aan de ongezonde voedingsgewoonten die gepaard gaan met het studentenleven. De meeste studenten overschrijden in deze periode de aanbevolen hoeveelheid vet in de vorm van hamburgers, pizza’s, frieten, chips, koeken,... Daarnaast nuttigen ze onvoldoende groenten en fruit.

Tijdens hun, meer zelfstandige, jaren aan een hogeschool of universiteit worden de voedingsgewoonten van studenten beïnvloed door verschillende factoren. Slechts enkele voorgaande studies onderzochten reeds de factoren die de voedingsgewoonten bij deze doelgroep beïnvloeden. Bovendien waren dit Amerikaanse studies. Aangezien er grote socio-culturele verschillen bestaan tussen het leven op en naast de campus van Amerikaanse en Europese universiteiten kunnen deze resultaten niet geëxtrapoleerd worden naar onze studenten. Het doel van deze studie was dan ook de factoren die de fruit- & groentenconsumptie en vetinname van Europese (Vlaamse) universiteitsstudenten beïnvloeden, te onderzoeken.

Uit de studie blijkt dat vrouwelijke studenten beduidend gezondere voedingsgewoonten vertonen. Ook studenten die op het moment van de ondervraging een dieet volgden, gaven aan meer fruit & groenten en minder vet te consumeren. Daarnaast blijken vegetarische eetgewoonten een zeer positieve invloed te hebben op de fruit- & groentenconsumptie van onze studenten.

Verscheidene onderzochte factoren beïnvloeden het voedingsgedrag van deze studenten zowel positief als negatief. De subjectieve norm, ook gekend als de persoonlijke motivatie van een student, is een factor met een zeer grote invloed op het voedingsgedrag. Studenten met een hoge subjectieve norm vertonen een beduidend hogere fruit- & groentenconsumptie en een lagere vetinname. Het kunnen weerstaan aan andere, ongezondere voedingswaren blijkt ook een zeer positieve invloed te hebben op fruit- & groentenconsumptie. Dit laatste wordt ook bepaald door de eigen-effectiviteit. Wanneer een student van zichzelf denkt dat hij in staat is voldoende fruit & groenten te eten, zal dit ook effectief resulteren in een hogere inname. Daarnaast blijken studenten die aangeven zich schuldig te voelen na het eten van vetrijke producten een lagere dagelijkse vetinname te vertonen. Dit schuldgevoel heeft eveneens een positieve invloed op de fruit & groentenconsumptie. De sociale omgeving, meer bepaald sociale normen, sociale steun en rolmodellen, heeft een positieve invloed op het voedingsgedrag van onze studenten. Bij studenten die gewichtsverlies, een verbeterde gezondheid en toegenomen tevredenheid over hun lichaam als voordelen van een gezond eetpatroon zien, resulteert dit ook in een hogere fruit- & groentenconsumptie en een lagere vetinname. Daarnaast zijn er ook verscheidene barrières die de fruit- & groentenconsumptie negatief beïnvloeden. Enkele daarvan zijn tijdsgebrek, gebrek aan discipline, verleiding van andere voedingsproducten en gebrek aan kennis en vaardigheden.

Goed doordachte interventies kunnen de, soms problematische, voedingsgewoonten van onze studenten verbeteren. Daarom is het belangrijk dat deze interventies inspelen op voorgaande factoren en op maat van de student ontwikkeld worden. Alleen zo kan de broodnodige gedragsverandering bij onze toekomstige wereldleiders tot stand komen!

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Universiteit of Hogeschool
Lichamelijk Opvoeding en Bewegingswetenschappen - Fitheid & Gezondheid
Publicatiejaar
2013
Kernwoorden
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