De cross-culturele verschillen in de relaties van resources en demands met bevlogenheid en burn-out

Annelies Costers
Het job demands-resources model, toepasbaar in alle culturen?Modellen op basis van werkkenmerken, zoals onder andere het job demands-resources model (Bakker, Demerouti, & Verbeke, 2004), worden vaak toegepast in verschillende culturen. Maar zijn deze modellen wel correct toepasbaar voor verschillende culturen? Zou het niet kunnen dat cultuurverschillen de relaties in het job demands-resources model zodanig beïnvloeden dat het niet op correcte wijze kan worden toegepast? Is het mogelijk dat het overnemen van dit model in verschillende culturen tot vertekende resultaten kan leiden?

De cross-culturele verschillen in de relaties van resources en demands met bevlogenheid en burn-out

Het job demands-resources model, toepasbaar in alle culturen?

Modellen op basis van werkkenmerken, zoals onder andere het job demands-resources model (Bakker, Demerouti, & Verbeke, 2004), worden vaak toegepast in verschillende culturen. Maar zijn deze modellen wel correct toepasbaar voor verschillende culturen? Zou het niet kunnen dat cultuurverschillen de relaties in het job demands-resources model zodanig beïnvloeden dat het niet op correcte wijze kan worden toegepast? Is het mogelijk dat het overnemen van dit model in verschillende culturen tot vertekende resultaten kan leiden? Met ander woorden, spelen cultuurverschillen een modererende rol in de relatie tussen werkkenmerken en werkuitkomsten?

Met deze meta-analyse, bestaande uit 56 studies, proberen we te achterhalen in welke mate cross culturele verschillen een impact hebben op de relaties van hulpbronnen (resources) en werkeisen (demands) met bevlogenheid en burn-out. Hierbij wordt gebruik gemaakt van het job demands-resources model en de culturele waardendimensies van Hofstede. In het job demands-resources model worden de relaties tussen werkkenmerken en welzijn bestudeerd. Werkkenmerken omvatten de werkeisen en hulpbronnen. Welzijn wordt vooral bestudeerd onder de vorm van burn-out en bevlogenheid. Bij het bestuderen van cultuur werden de culturele waardendimensies van Hofstede gebruikt. Hofstede ontwikkelde vier initiële dimensies van nationale cultuurverschillen namelijk machtsafstand, individualisme versus collectivisme, masculiniteit en onzekerheidsvermijding. Later werden daar nog twee dimensies aan toegevoegd, namelijk lange versus korte termijn oriëntatie en uitbundigheid versus terughoudendheid.

Met dit onderzoek is aangetoond dat cultuurverschillen een impact hebben op de relatie van werkeisen en hulpbronnen met burn-out en bevlogenheid. De resultaten van dit onderzoek geven aan dat masculiniteit voor een minder sterk positief effect zorgt in de relatie van werkeisen met burn-out en een sterker positief effect heeft op de relatie tussen hulpbronnen en bevlogenheid. Er is ook evidentie gevonden voor een minder sterk positief effect van de waardendimensie machtsafstand op de relatie tussen hulpbronnen en bevlogenheid. Verder is er ook evidentie gevonden voor een minder sterk positief effect van individualisme op de relatie tussen werkeisen met burn-out en een sterker positief effect voor de relatie tussen hulpbronnen en bevlogenheid. Tot slot geven de resultaten van dit onderzoek aan dat onzekerheidsvermijding een sterker positief effect heeft op de relatie tussen werkeisen en burn-out en een minder sterk positief effect heeft op de relatie tussen hulpbronnen en bevlogenheid. Er werd ook een overzicht van de meestvooraanstaande theorieën over cultuurdimensies weergegeven in deze meta-analyse. Een theoretische implicatie van dit onderzoek is dat het model niet meer ongenuanceerd kan gebruikt worden en dat er eventueel aanpassingen moeten gedaan worden om cultuur in het jobdemands-resources model te integreren.

Naar de praktijk toe kan het belang van dit onderzoek zeker aangetoond worden. Managers kunnen zich op dit onderzoek baseren om hun managementstrategieën, praktijken en beslissingen te nemen. Wanneer een bedrijf bijvoorbeeld twee vestigingen heeft, één in Nederland en één in China, en het heeft slechts budget om in één land te investeren in ontwikkeling, dan zal deze investering in dit geval naar Nederland gaan. Het is namelijk aangewezen om de investering te verwezenlijken in het land waar hulpbronnen door bepaalde culturele dimensies sterker positief gerelateerd zijn aan bevlogenheid.

 

Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Verbeke, W. (2004). Using the job demands‐resources model topredict burnout and performance. Human Resource Management, 43(1), 83-104.

Bibliografie

Referenties

Opmerking: indien niet duidelijk leesbaar kan achteraan in de scriptie ook de bibliografie teruggevonden worden.

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