Het leven zoals het niet is: porno

Hanne Kelchtermans
Onderzoek naar de impact van internetpornografie op instrumentele attitudes en bereidheid tot casual seks bij Vlaamse adolescenten.

Porno: laat je niks wijsmaken

De tijd dat tieners erotische magazines stiekem onder hun matras verstopten lijkt voorbij. Dat besefte ook Cory Jones, de topredacteur van de Amerikaanse Playboy, die eind 2015 besloot om niet langer foto’s van volledig naakte vrouwen te publiceren. Volgens Jones werd het blad “voorbijgestoken” door een ander medium, het internet (R. R., 13.10.2015). Dat is niet zo verbazingwekkend. Volgens Cooper (2004) biedt het internet drie belangrijke voordelen in de wereld van de pornografie. Het internet maakt pornografie namelijk voor veel meer mensen (ook jongeren onder 18 jaar) toegankelijk, betaalbaar en bovendien biedt het een gevoel van anonimiteit. Onze huidige generatie van adolescenten is bijna letterlijk grootgebracht met het internet. Het internet is zo invloedrijk dat het uitgegroeid is tot een onmisbaar element van het sociale leven van jonge mensen (Parker, 2014). Dit brengt ons bij de vraag hoe adolescenten relaties en seksualiteit in het digitale tijdperk beleven, en vooral welke rol de toegang tot internetpornografie hierin speelt. Uit een Britse bevraging bij 500 achttienjarigen bleek dat de meerderheid opmerkte dat jongeren lang voor de toegelaten leeftijd in aanraking komen met pornografie. Volgens de Britse jeugd is het gebruik van pornografie ‘normaal’. Toch geven de jongeren (vooral meisjes) aan dat zij beseffen dat pornografie een onrealistisch beeld over seks creëert. Ze verkiezen een wereld waarin porno minder toegankelijk is (Parker, 2014).

Bovendien zien we de laatste jaren dat het taboe rond ‘casual seks’ niet alleen in de media verdwijnt. Jongeren willen veel op seksueel gebied steeds meer experimenteren, en dat doen ze ook buiten relaties. De vraag of porno hier iets mee te maken heeft werd door eerder onderzoek niet weerlegd. Toch zijn er onvoorkomelijk gevaren verbonden aan casual seks, die gewoonlijk niet vertoond worden in pornografische beelden. Personen die casual (onbeschermde) seks hebben met verschillende partners hebben meer kans op seksueel overdraagbare aandoeningen op te lopen. In haar onderzoek stelt ook studente Hanne Kelchtermans (1994) zich de vraag of porno en casual seks inderdaad samenhangen. Zij doet er bovendien nog een schepje bovenop door te achterhalen of er ook een techniek bestaat die dit verband kan doen afnemen, met andere woorden: als jongeren begrijpen dat de media onrealistische en soms zelfs gevaarlijke boodschappen overdragen, zullen zij zelf dan minder bereid zijn om deze gedragingen over te nemen?. Concreet werd er door vzw Jong en Van Zin een mediawijsheidsinterventie ontworpen, waaraan 85 leerlingen uit het vijfde middelbaar deelnamenin het tweede semester van het schooljaar 2015-2016. Zij kregen tijdens de lesuren toelichting over de impact van onrealistische mediabeelden, over relaties, seks en intimiteit.

Jongeren die vaker naar porno keken benaderden seks als een fysieke activiteit die gericht was op fysiek genot in plaats van op intimiteit. Zij zagen het ook meer zitten om zelf eens zo’n avontuurtje te beleven. Jongeren die nog nooit naar internetporno keken hielden er duidelijk een andere mening op na. Iemand die nog nooit naar internetporno keek zal seks eerder beschouwen als een manier om romantiek en intimiteit te beleven binnen een relatie. Wat vooral opvalt aan dit onderzoek is dat wanneer deze jongeren deelnamen aan aan een mediawijsheidsinterventie in de klas, waarin zij seks en media behandelen, hun mening herzien wordt. Na de mediawijsheidsinterventie bleek de fysieke benadering van seks niet meer zo uitgesproken.

De relevantie van deze studie ligt voor de hand. Zeker in tijden van smartphones en tablets, waarin het bijna onmogelijk is om de informatiestroom waaraan jongeren worden blootgesteld te controleren, is het heel belangrijk om stil te staan bij de impact die bepaalde beelden op jongeren hebben. Veel jongeren die zelf nog geen seksuele ervaring hebben gaan bovendien op zoek naar informatie om hun nieuwsgierigheid te voeden. Vaak wordt hiervoor het internet geraadpleegd als bron omwille van haar uitgebreide en vooral anonieme karakter. Vaak beseffen deze jongeren niet dat deze eerste beeldvorming vertekend is. Uit het bovenstaande onderzoek blijkt dat een mediawijsheidsinterventie een succesvol middel is om jongeren zicht bewust te maken van de vertekende voorstelling van seks in de media en hen erop te wijzen dat seks niet alleen fysiek genot maar ook emoties en verantwoordelijkheden met zich meebrengt.

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Universiteit of Hogeschool
Bedrijfscommunicatie
Publicatiejaar
2016
Promotor(en)
L. Vandenbosch
Kernwoorden
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