De gepercipieerde morele verkeerdheid van delinquent gedrag bij Vlaamse jongeren: secundaire analyse op de JOP-monitor

Sofie Mathieu
“Hoe verkeerd vind jij vandalisme/diefstal/inbraak?”Iedereen heeft zo zijn of haar opvatting over welk gedrag al dan niet aanvaardbaar is. Zelf zijn we er vaak van overtuigd dat ons oordeel over de verkeerdheid van bepaalde vormen van criminaliteit de enige juiste is. Uit onderzoek blijkt echter dat mensen verschillen in hun mening over wat ‘goed’ of ‘slecht’ gedrag is (Herzog & Einat, 2012; Kwan, Chiu, Ip & Kwan, 2002; Warr, 1989).

De gepercipieerde morele verkeerdheid van delinquent gedrag bij Vlaamse jongeren: secundaire analyse op de JOP-monitor

“Hoe verkeerd vind jij vandalisme/diefstal/inbraak?”

Iedereen heeft zo zijn of haar opvatting over welk gedrag al dan niet aanvaardbaar is. Zelf zijn we er vaak van overtuigd dat ons oordeel over de verkeerdheid van bepaalde vormen van criminaliteit de enige juiste is. Uit onderzoek blijkt echter dat mensen verschillen in hun mening over wat ‘goed’ of ‘slecht’ gedrag is (Herzog & Einat, 2012; Kwan, Chiu, Ip & Kwan, 2002; Warr, 1989). Dit houdt in dat wat voor de ene persoon als vanzelfsprekend onaanvaardbaar gedrag wordt aanzien, niet steeds door anderen op dezelfde manier wordt geïnterpreteerd.

In deze masterproef werd nagegaan in welke mate jongeren verschillen in hun opvattingen over de verkeerdheid van vandalisme, diefstal (met geweld) en inbraak. Bovendien werd geprobeerd te achterhalen op welke manier bepaalde factoren, zoals de band met ouders, delinquente vrienden, religiositeit en daderschap, ertoe kunnen bijdragen dat ze dit gedrag goed- of afkeuren.

Er werd in dit onderzoek gebruik gemaakt van de gegevens van jongeren uit de tweede en derde graad secundair onderwijs die naar school gaan in Antwerpen, Brussel of Gent. Deze gegevens zijn afkomstig van de JOP-schoolmonitor 2013, een onderzoek dat peilt naar de leefwereld van Vlaamse jongeren.

Uit de resultaten van dit onderzoek bleek dat er grote verschillen bestaan tussen de opvattingen die jongeren hebben over bepaalde vormen van criminaliteit. Terwijl het grootste deel van de jongeren sterk negatief staat tegenover vandalisme, diefstal en inbraak, waren er ook jongeren die hier (veel) minder negatief tegenover stonden. Dit kon voor een deel verklaard worden door de invloed die belangrijke anderen hebben op de opvattingen van de jongeren. Onderzoekers beweren namelijk dat onze overtuigingen over de verkeerdheid van gedragingen, worden beïnvloed door de mensen met wie we het vaakst in contact komen (Akers, 2009; Sutherland, 1947). Afhankelijk van de personen met wie we in contact komen, zullen bepaalde normen, waarden en morele overtuigingen aangeleerd worden. Zo bleek het aantal delinquente vrienden van de jongeren in verband te staan met hun houding tegenover eigendomsdelicten. Hoe meer delinquente vrienden een jongere heeft, hoe minder negatief hun houding was. Bovendien bleken meisjes en jongens evenveel beïnvloed te worden door delinquente vrienden. De band die jongeren met hun ouders hebben, bleek daarentegen een positieve invloed uit te oefenen op de overtuigingen van de jongeren. Jongens en meisjes die een goede band hebben met hun moeder, keurden de verschillende criminaliteitsvormen vaker af.

De belangrijkste voorspeller voor de morele overtuigingen van jongeren bleek echter ‘daderschap’ te zijn. Jongeren die het afgelopen jaar een of meerdere delicten hadden gepleegd, keurden eigendomscriminaliteit minder vaak af. De overtuigingen blijken dus niet alleen door anderen beïnvloed te worden, maar ook door het eigen gedrag. Het stellen van bepaald gedrag kan ertoe leiden dat overtuigingen over wat wel of niet verkeerd is, aangepast worden. Op die manier wordt ervoor gezorgd dat ons eigen gedrag niet meer in strijd zal zijn met onze overtuigingen.

Wat onze opvattingen ook zijn over de verkeerdheid van bepaalde vormen van criminaliteit; ze blijken toch niet zo vanzelfsprekend te zijn als we zouden verwachten en ze zullen niet altijd overeenkomen met die van anderen. Er zijn dan ook verschillende factoren te noemen die een invloed uitoefenen op deze verschillen.

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Universiteit of Hogeschool
Criminologische wetenschappen
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2015
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